Dimensions of Personality

Dimensions of Personality - Hans Eysenck Introversion ▪ The introvert’s brain is more excitable, making them more vulnerable to moods and having intense inner lives. ▪ As a result of this inner sensory overload, as a form of self-protection they naturally avoid too much social interaction, which they find mentally taxing. Or, because they have such a rich inner life, they simply do not need a lot of social interaction. ▪ Because they seem to experience things more intensely, introverts have a deeper and more anguished response to life. ▪ They are generally more reserved and serious, pessimistic, and can have issues with self-esteem and guilt.

Page 1 of 37


eMails Hi Hemerson, All your sources don't have to be "academic". It's fine to use other things, but I think you are taking the best approach by trying a variety of techniques. I'm glad the NLP is going well, I'm looking forward to reading about it! When you write up your report you need to make sure that you deal with charisma and persuasion as separate goals. Also, there is literature on techniques for persuading / influencing people, so it may be useful for you to refer to this (see Cheryl's notes on Learn if you weren't at the lecture).

How to get a Good (Superb) Grade!!!!! The actual report (3000 words bit) Aside from the appendices and references and the most important DIARY, (which together don't count in the word length), the 3000 report needs to be sufficient to stand alone - i.e. though you will refer to and cite from your appendices and diary, don't over rely on them such that your report lacks substance and content. This is rather a balancing act on your behalf....you need to use and illustrate from your diary in such a way that it is clear, but you don't want to find yourself quoting large chunks out of it which eat away at your word limit. Be selective in your use of diary quotes and keep them short in the report and maybe highlight longer ones in the actual diary and refer to them if necessary. Make sure you number your appendices and have dates or page numbers in your diary for ease of reference when citing them in your report. And make sure everything is named. The report is really in 3 parts: 1) The introduction and the part which shows how you have obtained awareness of self.....this is where you refer to what kind of person you are and how you know this from a whole host of experiences/techniques/measures/tools etc. Some of these will be theory based (e.g. MBTI/Twenty Statements/Johari Window/Social Mirror /self assessment questionnaires/pictorial activity etc)...others will be more anecdotal in nature e.g. work placements feedback/social feedback from family and friends/school reports etc. Again, you need to strike the right balance here. You need to cite names

Page 2 of 37


and dates etc where appropriate and illustrate where you can. Tell us a story but written with academic flair! You need to show that you have a good understanding of the concepts and tools we have used but without having to write all the theory out again for us here. You may wish to do some of this `working out' in the diary or appendix, but hopefully your depth of understanding should be evident in your application. We are suggesting you try to limit yourself to approx a 1000 of these words here so that you dont neglect the other two essential parts of the report. 2) The goal setting section.....this section is where you outline which three areas you have chosen to work on and why...ideally this should be evident from what you have written in section 1. Here you need to present three goals at the centre of which is a clear goal statement/group of sentances each that shows evidence and understanding of goal setting theory. I know that many of you may have used SMART (which we think is limited in its application by the way as it doesnt use visualisation etc!) to think about these goals, but to ensure a better mark we want to see that you have used the classic goal setting and self regulation stuff of Locke and Latham for example. Again, you won't want to spends lots of your word `account' on outlining this in too much detail in the actual report, but it should be evident from the quality of your goals, that you have used it..and you may want to include your `workings out' in the diary or appendix. Each goal should outline the broad goal area that you are working in, the more specifically, what the goal is aiming to do and the thing that you are trying to work on, which situations you are going to try it, what you are exactly going to try and how you are going to measure it (for example, what happened, how did you react/feel, what were the outcomes that may be different from what usually happens in these situations, and how did other people react.) Then, in this section, you need to show which theories/tools/techniques etc tc you have used per area - i.e. if it is the area of stress - which, if any, theory of stress/coping etc do you feel explains your issues with stress, and which ideas/approaches etc are you going to try out to cope better? Though we expect a clear goal statement at the start, these may well change over the course of the module as you have tried different things out and have developed. This is normal. This also happens when it becomes clear from your diary reflection/learning that the initial issue you chose to work on wasn't actually the real issue at all, and that maybe you were only dealing with the symptom not the cause. I suppose what we are saying is that, this whole process is by its nature developmental/evolutionary and somewhat unpredictable in many ways. That's part of it's charm!!! You should try to work on yoru goals for as long as you can - up to the end...but it might be that some goals are more specifically geared to someone/something e.g.

Page 3 of 37

what was useful and less useful..ok. which is in effect this section. Again.some may have been too hard in the time set.and this is ok too.eMails a member of yur family over the Easter break . i. Diary Ideally what we want to see is. This overview. reactions of others maybe. what happened and why do you think it did. put these into practice.. set appropriate goals. But it may also be a download too! It doesn't matter whether the diary is type written or hand written as long as it can be read. we suggest spending 1000 of your words on this section. Please remember that aside from a selection that will go confidentially to the external examiner to check the marking levels (who you will never meet and is to be trusted).. put photos in etc and drawings and doodles. critique theories/techniques where appropriate. how you adapted or adjusted your behaviour and goals etc. reflect on this experience in an ongoing way (via the diary).final 1000 ish words. daily or at least a couple of times a week diary entries which are not just descriptive (though they may well have started off this way at the beginning!). Some people use pictures.. I have had allsorts over the years. Overall we will want to see developments in the way you use your diary for reflection and learning. That these explore your attempts at goals.. Page 4 of 37 . no one else will see these apart from me and maybe Ruth. needs to explore each goal in turn. drawing upon the diary to illustrate. But we ARE assessing your ability to (using theory etc) embark on enhanced self awareness. we have already said that we are not assessing whether or not you were successful in your goals . what you learnt. and your reflections on how those went.what will you take away from this? You can reflect on mood diary change too here and also any other questionnaires/measures we are going to give you at the end of the goal setting period. and also to make some suggestions of how this may work into the future .e. regular. your feelings and emotions towards it. so this is the part where you reflect on the whole experience and using your diaries and links back to theory and techniques you used. others' success may not be evident in reality til some time later in the future.these are great and often it is really nice to be able to see some of the people you talk about. If you are not sure about this please refer to the handout/chapter on reflection you were given earlier in the course which gives other insights.... so that you dont neglect the third part. then provide an overview of this. set out to show what happened. Remember... 3) The reflection section.

and we really appreciate how hard you are working. however time consuming it is. At this moment in time you should all be busy gathering evidence regarding who you are and what makes you tick so that you can set your goals.plus anything else you think is relevant .eMails Appendices Ideally we would like to see all of the tests that you have completed even though you may not have necessarilly referred to them all in your report. Its lovely to get to chat to you all on a one to one.you may look at old school reports.. We know that this is well worth your while and you will feel the benefits in the immediate months and also in years to come.it does happen and we want to make sure that you feel that you can come and talk about that if you need to. This evidence will come from many sources: the Twenty Statements Test. MBTI etc and other aspects of self-disclosure. Your MBTI profile Social Mirror Twenty statements test Johari window if you did one Health and stress questionnaires Mood scales completed every week Regulatory Index Emotional Intelligence Optimism etc and other online ones Listening skills Influencing styles Managing conflict Pictorial activity and others we may give you before the end of the course. Think that covers it . placement Page 5 of 37 .any of your own inventories etc you may have found! PLEASE DONT SPEND ANY MONEY ON GETTING OTHER THINGS DONE ONLINE ETC.***** Phew! Hope all of that makes sense. Just to remind to which ones WE think you have had. Please don't be alone though if this work brings up any tough topics for you .THIS WILL BE ENOUGH!!!! *****The most important thing with all of this is that it is clearly labelled and tied together in some way so that bits and pieces dont go missing.. also you may reflecting on what the social mirror has reflected back at you over your life to date .

For example. 1 ..I'm writing my diary in my computer.." or "To achieve this goal I planned to go to the gym. any other anecdotal material from family. Some of you may have been carrying out activities with the Johari Window and have asked others to feedback how they see you.Should I write what I planned to do when I set the goals or what I actually have done? For example. friends etc. I think this relates to the first question. Page 6 of 37 .”from reading the books *** I found a technique called **** and so I will be trying this out in order to manage my stress in these particular situations etc etc…. I have a few questions about the goal setting part of the coursework. Also when you are talking about what you have read in the second part yopu will maybe write it like this….You said that we need to show which theories/techniques we have used per area...eMails feedback. However.. but it would be impossible to explain all in 1000 words.and it's best to pick people you trust that you know will be honest but not blunt or hurtful.and very helpful. Is that ok? That sounds great. I do have organised notes about all of that (I think it helps to say that I'm a INTJ!) that I planned to include in the appendices. I was thinking about highlighting some parts that I talked about in the coursework. This is a brave thing to do.you can then make sure that you show all of the ones you used in the appendices. I planned to do all that."." ? In the second part of the piece where you are setting out your goals you are writing in the present tense…so I am going to……etc etc…when you do the final part which is reflection you are writing in the past tense mainly……my diary shows that I…… etc etc 2 . listened to two audio programs and I even recorded myself... Bless ya. All of your life experiences may shed some light on who you are and how others see you. It gets difficult doesnt it deciding what to include and what to just leave in the appendix.. should I write "I plan to go to the gym three days a week..ʼ can you see the use of the past and future tense there? 3 .. I used too many things.. but. but I don't know if it would make sense to write in the coursework "For this goal I will read X and Y and do Z. When I decided on my goals. Hello Cheryl. for one goal I read two books.such an INTJ!!! In the main coursework just keep it tight and focussed and mention that you tried lots of different methods but that you focussed on this and that etc etc….

eMails Page 7 of 37 .

plete a task is longer than needed. when deadlines are closer in time.duces performance. The theory further asserts that people’s commitment is important to maximize the relationship between goal and performance.g. 1996). Locke. However. Bluedorn & Denhardt. “do your best”).tion of the contingent effect of deadlines such that deadlines with insufficient time tend to lead to less effective performance (Bluedorn & Denhardt. after a certain point. 1996). commitment can be enhanced by two categories of factors that (1) make the goal attainment important and (2) enhance individuals’ belief that they can attain the goal (high self-efficacy).. Deadlines The basic idea of the theory is that deadlines serve as a tool of time control and increase the motivational effect of goals. in complex jobs. Locke. However. shortening deadlines re. Locke. increase productivity by 5 percent in the next year). Page 8 of 37 .g. which is especially true in complex jobs (e. rather than general (i.e. when the available time to com. 1998. but they should also be achievable. peo. 1988. The theory also states that goals should be specific (e. 1990. the work pace slows to fill the available time.ple work faster to complete the job. Thus. 1999. to maximize employees’ efforts and subsequent performance. In con. the theory asserts that consistent and timely feedback is needed for successful pursuit of goals (e. performance goals should be challenging rather than easy. Locke & Latham. “do your best” goals are likely to be more effective (Latham & Seijts.. 1996). Finally.g..Fried & Slowik Fried & Slowik Theorists argue that. 2002). Research has supported this no..trast. Moreover.

which are both assisted by the use of the auxiliary. They are likely to be found in professions that require ingenious solving of problems. As thinking is a process of judgment. Dominant and auxiliary processes Although we each favor certain ways of being. Extraverts use introversion as their auxiliary to take care of their inner lives. In both cases. Although possessed of both intuitive and thinking preferences. if the auxiliary is little used. computing. while introverts give themselves time to develop their insights before exposing them to the world. Extraverts tend to move quickly and try to influence situations directly. while introverts want to reflect before taking action. such as science. Neither preference necessarily makes better decisions than the other. Consider NT types. particularly of a technical nature. but this must be confirmed by objective thinking. and organizing facts and ideas. the final element in this person’s type is “Judgment. The aim of personality typing is to acquire greater powers of perception and judgment. a child who prefers the feeling mode is likely to become someone good at interpersonal relations.Isabel Briggs Myers Generally. using.” indicating their strong desire to understand better. but draw on their powers of rational analysis to achieve outcomes. while a child who prefers the thinking mode will become good at collating. Briggs Myers observes: “Perception without judgment is spineless. if they find thinking more attractive this becomes their dominant process. The need for a dominant process to bring cohesion to the self is perfectly understandable. or finance.Gifts Differing Gifts Differing . it simply represents the style that each is comfortable with. Other people’s final letter is P for “Perception. Extraverts are happy making decisions in the thick of events.” They are ENTJs. there is a greater penalty for introverts who do not develop their auxiliary than for extraverts who fail to take account of inner things. Briggs Myers noted that in our extravert-oriented society. judgment with Page 9 of 37 . one will dominate above the others. but Jung went further to suggest that each person also needs an “auxiliary” process. NT people are also focused on possibilities. Introverts have extraversion as their auxiliary so they can “put on a public face” when necessary. mathematics. the person lives in one extreme and their life suffers accordingly. They may intuit something as being right.

As three out of every four people are extraverted. we therefore live in an “extravert’s world. and for every intuitive there are three sensing types.” She noted that introverts often gain the most from doing the test. Introversion lacking any extraversion is impractical. and the MBTI allows them. to feel it is OK to be who they are. perhaps for the first time.” As a less common type. extraversion with no introversion is superficial. not surprisingly. feel some pressure to be something they are not. Page 10 of 37 .Gifts Differing no perception is blind. introverts may.

sentimental. individuals with this preference often seem scholarly or studious. Auxiliary for ENFJ. self-dramatizing Introverted Intuition is pulled toward the future and toward possibilities. or sustained disagreement INFJ crazy Not Crazy I'm ch 2 2/11/97 5:19 AM Page 45 Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Feeling Prejudices Preconceptions Hot buttons Fostering human growth begins with an inner vision Details get in the way of working with ideas I'm Not Crazy TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) INTJ 45 Loss of private space. evaluates motives evaluates motives wants inclusion sees sees to the heart to the heart of important problems outgoing. dreamy retiring. ENTJ) action-oriented values knowledge prefers cooperation for its own sake for its own sake introspective introspective sympathetic scholarly scholarly sociable and friendly likes ideas and theorieslikes ideas and theory warm affiliative. . This function is like an inner eye focused on what could be. fluent mentally versatile high aspirations 35 Under stress may become EXPRESSIONS OF THE ATTITUDES AND FUNCTIONS Introverted Intuition Extraverted Feeling (Dominant values knowledge for INFJ. reserved and aggressive. hardheaded. for example. ENFP. dreamy. INTJ Introverted Intuition values knowledge for its own sake introspective scholarly likes ideas and theories crazy ch 2 6/24/97 7:40 AM Page 35 evaluates motives sees to the heart of important problems appreciative. argument. formal values intellectual matters Extraverted Thinking action-oriented thinker resourceful proactive and systematic critical has a basic formula about the world energetic. As a consequence. . dreamy. rather than what is. hardheaded. Fully functioning but less aware of . . opportunistic withdrawn. individuals who prefer Introverted Intuition are seen by others as calm and capable of concentrated attention. Interpersonally. INTJ. This tendency may show up as. likes a rapid pace reasonable and analytical expressive. a knack for summarizing a long conversation in one sentence.virtue Hot buttons Debate. enthusiastic friendly. as if looking toward the center of a problem. reserved retiring. TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) condescending. EXTRAVERTED INTUITION (Dominant for ENTP. formal values values intellectual matters intellectual matters Under stress may become Under stress may become INFJ INTROVERTED INTUITION retiring. jolly Page 11 of 37 . hasty. impulsive. undervaluing intellecDOMINANT/LEAD tual development FUNCTION DESCRIPTORS FUNCTION DESCRIPTORS Most aware of . Auxiliary for INTP. reckless arrogant and hardheaded. incomplete issues in interactions Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Thinking Prejudices Preconceptions DESCRIPTORS FOR THE SIXTEEN TYPES INTROVERTED INTUITIVE TYPES Analytical decisions provide useful information for action Introspection promotes theory and encourages thorough TYPE analysis Hot buttons Loss of autonomy throughAUXILIARY/SUPPORTER structure. INFP) action-oriented innovator adaptable verbally fluent resourceful active. gregarious of important problems appreciative idealistic formal appreciative. reserved fussy. .

ask why. situation ations which this analysis in an energetic current Individuals with this preference are often seen as having a plan. resourceful proactive and systematic General style Usually so quiet and reserved it is difficult to know how inforhas personally affects about the logical. 133 TYPE PATTERNS IN CLARIFYING COMMUNICATIONS EXTRAVERTED THINKING ISTJ (Dominant for ESTJ. drive for independence and autonomy seems cool and detached I’M NOT CRAZY. they may express skeptical acceptance of the TABLE 16 world around them. to help adapt to Clarification Calmly go about doing what they think helpful. can react to most any situation competently. restless. Clarification Seekresourceful. a mental pattern of actively analyzing experience and information. determined. or model. enjoy generating options. people for its challenges. formal picture. mation a basic formula them. reflective. oriented to the future. attend training programs on giving and receiving feedback and promptly implement the training. This curiosity leads those who prefer it toward active but quiet analysis of nearly everything. larger issues than those in the present. Auxiliary for INTJ. and personal frameworks for decisions to understand motives hard-driving. they are frequently seen as independent minded (their model of how things work may be very different from mainstream thought. May need to ask about just about share critiques INTJ crazy ch 5 2/11/97 5:32 AM Page 90 Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Thinking Often collect theories and ideas. work with complex people problems. use principles for decision making Reframing May need to ask about verifiable facts and realistic choices For efficacy Commit regularly to a social help volunteer organization. establish enduring friendships. but INTPs have their reasons). rarely assert and manage the world around them. Resourceful with ideas and suggestions. and defensive I'm Not Crazy Introverted Thinking is a pattern often experienced by others as a detached curiosity. like planned changes. engage in group training programs with a physical component (such as rafting) to drive focus on the moment INFJ Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Feeling When developed Quiet problem solvers. often test ideas with facts Extraverted Thinkers are often fluent critics and have ideas on how to improve Reframing anything put before them. seek out others who share many of your qualities but have achieved success in very different ways from you. decisive. avoid conflict. shareworld factual perspecenergetic. opportunistic General style Empathetic with those around. idealistic. systematic in gathering information. see schollike new own sake and therefore seem somewhat the big arly—reserved. reckless and aggressive. find that interactions suggest the motives out values of conversants. and so ask tougher and more comprehensive questions May need toTABLE 12 (CONTINUED) share thoughtful personal reactions in seeking to be friendly and to test theories with facts INFJ General style 90 Clarification Reframing TYPE PATTERNS IN ADULT DEVELOPMENT Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Feeling Introverted Intuition With Extraverted Thinking INTJ General style Appreciative in comments. purposeful. warm and thoughtful about Extraverted Thinking iscareful and studied comments about people and situothers. value information about When developed Play andconversations in their heads. ENTJ. prefers a rapid pace tives in an unhurried and careful manner reasonable and analytical Clarification Attempt understanding by gathering facts and asking questions expressive. I’M JUST NOT YOU Want interactions to make sense in the big picture. and expressing are reliable statements of anyfashion. relentless about precision. ISTJ) action-oriented thinker Introverted Sensing With Extraverted Thinking critical. develop a regular time for selected activities For efficacy Page 12 of 37 In a sense. attentive to other people Identify physical and social activities which challenge your world view and require you to live explicitly in the moment. global perspective.rebellious and nonconforming. Reveling in the complexity required to deal with the world. Interpersonally. like many points of view. self-centered. fluent Reframing May need to identify themes and share personal reactions mentally versatile high ISFJ aspirations Under stress may become Introverted Sensing With Extraverted Feeling arrogant and condescending. independent. often seem critical and questioning. own needs. type development is the process of moving up a .

If they do not know how they are doing. Feedback / Measurement For goals to be effective. it is difficult or impossible for them to adjust the level or direction of their effort or to adjust their performance strategies to match what the goal requires.Locke & Latham Locke & Latham High goals lead to greater effort than low goals. Page 14 of 37 . people need summary feedback that reveals progress in relation to their goals.

where functional strengths are amplified and functional weakness are complimented For Jung. every person is three people: the person they think they are.Misc Misc To paraphrase La Fontaine. Indivituation most people never achieve what Jung called an individuation. the goal of life was the “individuation” of this self. Page 16 of 37 . a sort of uniting of a person’s conscious and unconscious minds so that their original unique promise might be fulfilled. Individuation simply means becoming what you always were in poten. It is a journey with unexpected twists and turns.tia. fulfilling your unique promise. a whole and indestructible self that can no longer be hijacked by splintered aspects or complexes. But this reintegration does not happen by thinking about it rationally. the 17th-century French poet. The result is an individual in the real sense of the word. Many myths show how we need to follow a path that transcends reason in order to fulfill ourselves in life. the person others think they are and the one they really are.

As each feeling we are ashamed of comes to the surface. to allow totally contradictory feelings (one client admit. They became a person.Carl Rogers There was in fact just one problem with all the people he saw: They were desperate to become their real selves. to be allowed to drop the false roles or masks with which they had approached life to date. They were usually very concerned with what others thought of them and what they ought to be doing in given situations.On Becoming a Person On Becoming a Person . we realize it will not kill us to allow it to exist. Rogers’ dictum was “the facts are always friendly” when it comes to sorting out one’s emotions and feelings. Therapy brought them back to their immediate experience of life and situations. the real danger is in denying what we feel.ted that she both loved and hated her parents). Page 17 of 37 . not just a reflection of society. One aspect of this transformation was that people began to “own” all aspects of their selves.

While men in their 20s feel they can do anything.Gail Sheehy Sheehy was influenced by psychologist Erik Erikson’s idea that at certain turning points we can either move in the direction of personal growth. discovering the ways of being or doing that give us a sense of aliveness and hope. His greatest love is his career. We are likely to go one of two ways: to do what we “should” in terms of family and peer expectations. Either way we experience change.Passages Passages . We have two selves: the one that wants to merge with others and things. At each point we have the chance either to define ourselves further. the choice is whether we have more control and awareness over the process. Page 18 of 37 .” We either seek security and com. Throughout our lives we may alternate between one and the other. or to succumb to the ideas of the group and its expectations. and the one that seeks creative independence and freedom. A man in his 20s feels that he has to do well in his work or be ridiculed. or allow it to happen to us. women often lose the confidence they had as adolescents. or we avoid commitment altogether. The twenties In our 20s we have to work out our path in life. or to pursue adventure and “find ourselves.mitments. or they compete within us at the same time. or stay with the security of what we know.

" The word 'phlegmatic' has come to mean disinterested. Their tacit assumption is that what is obvious to them is obvious to others. They will not waste words.Please Understand Me Please Understand Me . This conclusion is correct in the sense that when the Rationals are concentrating on some complex problem they do detach themselves from their social context and remain distant until they solve the problem." "intellectual. if not offended. and the redundant." "complex. or to repeat themselves on a point." for these people have their doubts about everything complicated. bland." "curious. With certitude so hard to come by.David Keirsey Gallen named the Rationals the "Phlegmatics." "exacting. and particularly their probing empiricism. Despite all their rigorous logic. Above all else Rationals want to be coherent in their arguments." and "systematic." "impersonal. their doubting nature." "inven. introducing nothing that doesn't logically belong." "research-oriented. and while they understand that some redundancy is necessary they still are reluctant to state the obvious." "theoretical." "ef. Because of this Rationals sometimes lose their audience and wonder why. Rationals think it best to speak only of the possible and the probable. but that does not mean they do not care about others. Myers contributed to the study of the Rational personality by naming them the "Intuitive Thinking" types-"NTs"-and saying of them that they are "abstract. their studied contemplation. At that moment they are not interested in others.tive.ficient. distant. NTs assume that if they did state the obvious their listeners or readers would surely be bored. and leaving out nothing that is logically required." In conversation Rationals try to avoid the irrelevant." "analytical. the trivial." "logical. this type maintains a hint of uncertainty. and the overly terse and compact style of speech that results is hard for others to follow." "independent." "scientific. seemingly detached from social environment." "competent. limiting their explanations and definitions because they assume that what is obvious to them is obvious to others. Adickes spoke of Plato's Rationals as "Agnostics. So it was Adickes who first touched upon one of the more puzzling features of the Rational character. and so they try to make certain that each phrase and clause advances the argument. This style produces carefully crafted Page 20 of 37 .

NTs are still studying their books.' 'usually. badge of office. prestige. Status. the largely clerical curriculum in most elementary and secondary schools is boring to NTs. authority. are abstract in word usage and do considerable introspection. The Strategic Intellect They're problem solvers. trying to minimize body-language. Indeed. The Rationals' desire to know how nature works never really ends for them. Rationals. What arouses their inherent curiosity is the work of science-logical investigation. which means that they consider the usefulness of their tools as more important than their social acceptability-whether they should be used. and other non-verbal qualifiers as much as possible.' Rationals prefer to appear unemotional when they communicate (and they can seem rather stiff). simply because the curriculum is wrong for them. but they will also disregard anyone who does not.Please Understand Me communications.' and 'in some degree.' 'occasionally. Utlitarians Rationals are utilitarian in going after what they want. degree. reputation. mathematical description-and it can engage and absorb them in lifelong study.' 'probably. licence. neither are Rationals at all snobbish in their utilitarianism. facial expression. They will heed the demons if their ideas are fruitful. NTs tending to qualify their statements with modifiers such as 'likely. still learning what there is to learn about Page 21 of 37 . are moral. like Idealists. still designing their experiments. if fortunate enough to reach them. Even when in their nineties. If not socially or politically correct. Today. are legitimate. they will listen to anybody who has something useful to offer regarding their choice of ways and means. manners-all of these marks of social approval mean nothing to the NTs when the issue is the utility of goaldirected action. critical experimentation. are legal. one and all. still observing the world's patterns. and ignore the saints if theirs are not. credential. so it is not difficult for them to identify with others and to talk in a diplomatic way.

and who had an invention registered in the U. They are efficiency-mongers at all times. but. or to devise if not. and NFs. one of the most important things to know about the Rationals is that they are pragmatic to the core. Then. the most efficient tools. Patent Office." and the other eye on what William James called "the practical consequences" of achieving one's ends. and thus for avoiding errors. and actions possible to make sure that the goal is reached. optics. everywhere they go. who constantly tinkered with mechanical objects. Famous Rationals Two widely different pioneers in electricity. which he occasionally wrecked in the process). seem relatively unclear about ends. were both Rationals. again. and he took special pleasure in trying out new weapons in the course of examining the latest technology of warfare. those that bring about maximum results for minimum effort. no matter what they do. botany. Now. Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison. Thus they go for what might be called "mini-max" solutions. S. Minimum effort. and so must look to the efficiency of their means and must anticipate the practical consequences of their intended actions before they act. Pragmatics The Rationals instead construe their immediate surroundings from a pragmatic perspective. as something useful for deciphering the lessons of history.Please Understand Me whatever sciences captured their attention and interest in youth. and all but incapable of coming up with effective means. the SPs. one of our eight Rational Presidents. Then there was Abraham Lincoln. materials. Thomas Jefferson. the other types. and more-keeping up with them to his dying day. (including his son's toys. (NTs heed the warning that "Those who Page 22 of 37 . zoology. no matter with whom they interact. SJs. although Tesla was more interested in prototyping and Edison in product development. was more preoccupied than most others of his time with the technological aspects of 18th century scienceastronomy. Efficiency is always the issue with Rationals. Pragmatism consists in having one eye on what John Dewey called "the relationship between means and ends. To NTs. not because they are lazy-this they could never be-but because wasted effort bothers them so much. so they feel it incumbent upon themselves to select if available. and both preoccupied with technology all their lives. when the Civil War erupted. Lincoln gathered information on how to conduct military campaigns. Another of our Rational Presidents. pragmatically. Rationals regard social custom neither respectfully nor sentimentally.

even their own. means and ends. All is subjective. Skeptics Rationals are strikingly different in their anticipations: they are skeptical. are just as caring as others. like truth and beauty. "Physical concepts. All is relative to our point-of-view. saw the real as subjective-"Reality. all is uncertain and vulnerable to mistakes--all evidence of the senses." Page 23 of 37 . on the earth as its sole inhabitant. observations and inferences-and thus all must be doubted. is in the eye of the beholder. and this first principle Descartes expressed in his famous formula: "I think. all procedures and products. marooned. and this can lead to interpersonal problems. And bear in mind that Einstein. events aren't of themselves good or bad. cannot really share our consciousness. Rationals. favorable or unfavorable. other types. nothing can be assumed to be correct. even those who care about us. and so are likely to believe that Rationals are uncaring. believe that everyone should observe-and respect-social conventions. both of which they brush aside. however it may seem. however." Einstein reminds us. The only thing that cannot be doubted is the act of rational doubt. "is a joint phenomenon of the observer and the observed. we make up our world and only then find it outside of us. therefore I am. cannot know our minds. Rationals find that the actions of others are based on mere prejudice or convention. Reality. an attitude of doubt about whether appearances or beliefs are to be trusted. and thus expect all human endeavors." Rationals believe that others. Of nothing else can I be certain." Relativistic To Rationals. "are free creations of the human mind anC!i are not. they say-all is relative to one's frame of reference. especially Guardian~ and Idealists. cannot feel our desires and emotions. unless some use can be found for them. Unfortunately.Please Understand Me are ignorant of the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them." and they have a horror of repeating an error. but are reluctant to communicate such feelings. It's all in the way one looks at things." he said. uniquely determined by the external world. on presenting his theory of relativity. That's what skepticism is. To an NT. Each of us is alone in an envelope of consciousness. to be shot through with error. as it were.) All too often. we live in our mind's eye and can only imagine the world about us. much as they might wish to. though seemingly indifferent to convention in their single-minded pursuit of pragmatic ways and means.

and so for the Rational the field of play is invariably a laboratory for increasing their proficiency. as ingenious. and re• nforcing. NTs allow no one else to criticize them without Page 24 of 37 . with no backsliding. nomy. Such self-recriminations are not mere critiques of their performance. And yet Rationals do not confine their ingenuity to business or professional matters. contributes little to their sense of well-being. rooting out and condemning their errors quite ruthlessly. and empathy. They can be quite unhappy with themselves when they fail to eliminate errors. with each term indicating the unforgivable crime of stupidity. For example. In other words. calling themselves "klutz. so important to the other character types. they apply it to almost anything they set out to master. so lack of it is their shame. pale into insignificance for them. then The Self-Image of Rabonals Rationals is tribases interdeby the figure if they are not till deserve inhat we can unResolute • • Autonomous ls are alike in A Self-Esteem in Ingenuity Rationals pride themselves on their ingenuity in accomplishing the many and varied tasks they set their minds to. Rationals play not so much to have fun but to exercise their ingenuity in acquiring game skills. must look upon en by others.tionals Artisans Guardians Idealists genious Artistic Dependable Empathic Please Understand Me utonomous Audacious Beneficent Benevolent solute Adaptable Respectable Authentic ls. to feel good about themselves. Fun for NTs means figuring out how to get better at some skill. dependable and beneficent. Indeed. say. and when they see themselves as slow or second-rate in any activity they are merciless in their self. there must be continuous improvement. Rationals aren't comfortable bragging on themselves." "idiot. but are also likely to be scathing self-denunciations. The degree of inventiveness which they bring to these tasks is the measure of their ingenuity and therefore the measure of their pride in themselves. for example. or even cards and board games. When an NT plays sports.condemnation." "numbskull. dependability. Rationals The Self-Image of attributes so s." and other pejoratives. Rationals are easily the most self-critical of all the temperaments regarding their abilities. and resolute. to build a computer or a business. not merely exercising the skills they already have. just as ingenuity is the NTs' pride. to develop a theory or a long-range plan. In tennis or golf." "turkey. autonomous. and for trying out new strokes that seem to fit the paradigm. aring. each game or round must be the occasion for pondering the physics of the most effective swing. But others beware. so important is ingenuity to the Rationals' self-esteem that artistry. It doesn't matter whether the task be to design a machine or an experiment.

Individualists all. so they require those who remark on their errors to be precise as well. they prefer to ignore any law. Rationals want to govern themselves. the United States Constitution. the critic is advised to be cautious and accurate." Self-respecting Rationals want to be self-directed and self-determined. after careful consideration. the fact that an "expert" proclaims something leaves the Rational indifferent. their will power might falter. Self-Confidence in Resolution Once Rationals resolve to do something they have in a sense made a contract with themselves. a contract they dare not go back on. Rationals are hard pressed. and the Bill of Rights were largely the work of Rationals such as Thomas Jefferson. though they are willing to obey those that do. and that they will fail in their resolve. Just as NTs hold themselves to be precise. Rationals regard dependence on others as the greatest vice. Title. reputation. NTs resist any effort to impose arbitrary rules on them. at times even regardless of the consequences. -J their worst fear is that their determination might weaken. perhaps better than others. Instinctively taking autonomy to be the greatest virtue. Ideas must stand on their own merits. Whether or not they agree entirely with Ayn Rand's political and economic theories. at the risk of learning the precise value they put upon such criticisms. From an early age Rationals will not accept anyone else's ideas without first scrutinizing them for error. Indeed. free of all coercion. however strong it has proved itself in the past. Little wonder that the Declaration of Independence. "All that which proceeds from man's dependence upon men is evil. and also to think for themselves. Why is this? Why are NTs so fearful of their will power weakening? It is because they can never take will power for granted. It doesn't matter whether the person is a widely accepted authority or not. Rationals desire to live according to their own laws. and James Madison. Indeed.Please Understand Me warrant-and even with warrant. and NTs simply do not trust anyone else to have done the necessary research and applied the rules of logic adequately. and they respect themselves in the degree that they act independently. Benjamin Franklin. that they are not in charge of their Page 25 of 37 . or convention that does not make sense to them. and their own occasional lapse into dependency is their only source of guilt." she wrote in The Fountainhead. Self-Respect in Autonomy As much as possible. not to join in her contempt for interpersonal dependency: "All that which proceeds from man's independent ego is good. and credentials do not matter. regulation. They know. to see the world by their own lights.

Please Understand Me will. digestion. and they completely distrust titular authority. as Galen suggested. NTs are often criticized for being unfeeling and cold. Einstein was fond of quoting Schopenhauer's words: "Man can do what he wants. nor tolerate error so long as reason is left free to combat it. he insisted that here education "will be based upon the illimitable freedom of the human mind." Rationals know. Thus Rationals take it for granted that "if men would but reason together." even the most difficult of problems might be solved. NTs say. When the Rational Thomas Jefferson wrote the charter for the University of Virginia. warding off infection. that they cannot will themselves to control involuntary functions. and so on. and only its laws beyond dispute. but must occur spontaneously. Indeed. because they are reluctant to express emotions or desires. But they have little or no patience for ideas that don't make sense. Of all these only reason. Thus they trust their intuition only now and then. their impulses even less often. NTs listen carefully to new ideas as long as they make sense-as long as they are logical. the involuntary is by definition not subject to the will. absorbed concentration of the contemplative investigator. Just as effective investigators carefully hold their feelings in check and gauge their actions so that they do not disturb their inquiry or contaminate their results. Page 26 of 37 . sexual desire. The Values of Rationals Being Calm The preferred mood of Rationals. but that their will is in charge of them. for here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead. Mter all. so Rationals are prone to examine and control themselves in the same deliberate manner. but the thoughtful. for instance. such as speech. is one of calm. but he cannot will what he wills. Trusting Reason The only thing Rationals trust unconditionally is reason-all else they trust only under certain conditions. and expectations into their observations. is universal and timeless. Yearning for Achievement Because their hunger for achievement presses them constantly. being careful to avoid reading their own desires. what is taken for indifference is not indifference at all. and they will not be swayed by any argument that fails to meet their criterion of logical coherence." More than the other temperaments. However. emotions.

For them. in all probability. failure is at hand. work is work and play is work. settmg the bar at the level of their greatest success so that anything less than their best is judged as mediocre. and so constant self-doubt and a niggling sense of impending failure are their lot. and if they don't have a problem to work on they will actually set one for themselves as a way of exercising their skills. at this point they can be unreasonably demanding of both themselves and others. and are frequently haunted by a sense of teetering on the edge of failure. This time. The hard-won 'triumph becomes the new standard of what is merely acceptable. to limit their commitment of time and energy. Unfortunately. The Social Roles Rationals Play The Mindmate Page 27 of 37 . And though they can concentrate fully on one thing at a time. once involved in a project. Rationals tend to ratchet up their standards of achIevement. since practice with such problems adds to their knowledge and naturally expands their repertoire of useful models. Seeking Knowledge Problem-solving for the Rationals is a twenty-four hour occupation. The Rationals have a good many should-knows itemized in massive lists inside their heads. Making matters worse. setting their standards too high and becoming quite tense under stress. Rationals demand so much achievement from themselves that they often have trouble measuring up to their own standards.Please Understand Me Rationals live through their work. that they might be thought of as the "Knowledge-Seeking Personality. and to work continually on solutions to the many problems that intrigue them. rarely deleting or forgetting any. This time their skill will not be great enough. Rationals work with a single-minded desire to achieve their objectives. they tend to be reluctant. if not unable. So intent are Rationals in their pursuit of knowledge. This time their achievement will not be adequate.demning an NT to idleness would be the worst sort of punishment. NTs never give themselves a brea~fro~this escalating level of achievement." Of all the traits of character that set the Rationals apart-and at the same time group them together-it is their life-long search for knowledge. NTs typically believe that what they do is not good enough. Con. indeed. and ordinary achIevements are now VIewed as falling short of the mark. They are especially drawn to problems that tax their knowledge base. they are inclined to accumulate more and more useful knowledge. No wonder that NTs frequently achieve notable success in their chosen field.

they say to themselves. INTJs are not at all eager to take command. however. who love responding to a problem that requires a creative solution. to honor the contract they made and do their best to minimize the underlying conflict of values. Further. Fruitful theories are quickly applied. Page 28 of 37 . owing to their rather stringent code of ethics.minded nature. they are thoroughgoing pragmatists. They base their self-image on being ingenious. there is no room for error in this choice since mating is for life. and especially logistics. they trust reason. The Mastermind [INTJ] Good Summary: Like all the Rationals. And because they are reserved around others they seem more comfortable in the role variant of Mastermind than Fieldmarshal. These traits of character lead them to occupations where theoretical models can be translated into actuality. are preoccupied with technology.plement their goals. Intellectually. are hungry for achievement. although they subject every idea to the test of usefulness. They choose to study science. Difficulties are highly stimulating to INTJs. Masterminds tend to be much more self-confident than other Rationals. having usually developed a very strong will. After all. Ideas seem to carry their own force for them. the Mastermind is completely open-minded and will entertain any idea holding promise of utility. they are abstract in their communication and utilitarian in how they im. tactics. When planning. Although they are highly capable leaders. focused on spatial intersections and intervals of time. if given the slightest opportunity. These seclusive Coordinators usually rise to positions of responsibility. and work well with systems.Please Understand Me Rationals usually approach mate selection as a difficult and even threatening problem. they are prone to practice strategy far more than diplomacy. one requiring careful empirical study and calm but rigorous introspection. They can be outstanding in scientific research and as executives in businesses. and resolute. Even in marriage NTs are pragmatic. They have a drive to completion. all else discarded. seek knowledge. relativistic. Those who do err in this are likely. always with an eye to long-term conse. with their schedule. They build data and human systems wherever they work. Their point of view is pragmatic.quences. skeptical. preferring to stay in the background until others demonstrate their inability to lead. they tend to choose the Coordinator's directive role over the probing Engineer's informative role. indeed. Decisions come easily to them. and aspire to be wizards of science and technology. prize deference. Once in charge. autonomous. They would i f possible be calm. they can hardly rest until they have things settled and decided. seeing reality as nothing more than a chess board for working out and refining their strategies.

indifference or criticism from their fellow workers does not particularly bother Masterminds. these NTs have little difficulty getting on with their jobs-unlike the NFs. for by focusing so tightly on their own pursuits they can ignore the points of view and wishes of others. ordinarily. On the contrary. All in all. the emotions of an INTJ are hard to read. able to stand up to the sometimes formidable strength of their personality. who have their loyalties involved more with persons than projects. Make no mistake. loyal employees whose loyalties are directed toward the system. at times. sparing neither their own time and effort nor that of their colleagues andemployees. they are more interested in moving an organization forward than dwelling on mistakes of the past. and neither a male nor female of this type is apt to be very outgoing or emotionally expressive. Colleagues may describe INTJs as unemotional and. However. they can become singleminded at times. when in truth they are merely taking the goals of an institution seriously. rather than toward individuals within the system. to verbalize the positive and to eschew comments of a negative nature. They tend. which can be a weakness in their careers. Page 29 of 37 . The most independent of all the types. As the people in an institution come and go. Fortunately. and they do not enjoy physical contact except with a chosen few. they have a strong need for privacy.Please Understand Me for they work long and hard and are steady in their pursuit of goals. cold and dispassionate. they make dedicated. INTJs want their mates to be independent as well. and continually striving to achieve those goals. if they believe that they are right.

as the name implies. Locke. a learning goal. Thus.age of market share to be attained. 2002. given goal commit. an experimenter frames the goal so that participants focus on performance. dif.jority of the goal setting studies that preceded it is the use of a highly complex task.fective strategies for increasing market share. Similarly. 2002). This finding would be contrary to over a quarter of a century of evidence in the motivation literature that has shown that people who work toward specific. associated with higher performance. In the present experiment. in the present experiment. not in terms of a percent. Ac.tions. with a learning goal. Latham. Latham and Tasa In their goal setting theory of motivation.ficult goals outperform those instructed to do their best (Locke & Latham. as the name implies. A task for which minimal prior learning or performance routines exist.ment. relocated the focus of the experiment from primarily motivation to ability.cording to Kanfer and Ackerman’s (1989) resource allocation model. a specific challenging goal leads to higher task performance than a vague goal. the participants who were assigned a performance goal were instructed to attain 21 percent or more of market share. instructions are framed so that participants focus on knowledge or skill acquisition. instead. The Value of Learning Goals (or scientists know nothing) That individuals in the performance goal condi. Setting a specific and difficult learning goal was. setting a specific high per.g. Locke & Latham. but rather. The primary distinction between a performance goal and a learning goal is the framing of instruc. Latham and Tasa Seijts. in a situation primarily requiring the acquisition of ability rather than an increase in motivation. Winters and Latham (1996). as a situational variable. This focus on process rather than outcome can also be seen in studies on goal orientation. in terms of the search for and implementation of ef. we framed the learning goal.tion did not outperform those in the do-your-best condition would have been astonishing were this a standard goal setting experiment. The instructions respectively associated with the two types of goal invoke two different do. where strategies that were effective suddenly cease to be so.mains—motivation and ability. With a performance goal. A search for information to attain the goal is neither mentioned nor implied because ability is treated as a constant when good performance on a task re. Locke and Latham (1990) stated that.Seijts.. It is consistent with the findings of Kanfer and Ackerman (1989). 2002). and Seijts and Latham (2001) that we found that.” This assertion has been supported in over 500 empirical studies (e.quires primarily effort or persistence. such as “do your best. The focus instead is on process. Page 30 of 37 . What differentiates this experiment from the ma. & Fassina. draws attention away from the end result.formance goal was not prudent.

Page 31 of 37 . Latham and Tasa which typically employ complex tasks.Seijts.

In other words. rather that the linear function between goal difficulty and performance will level off. Mento & Locke (1987). Three of the four relevant correlations indicated moderate but significant relationships between difficulty and performance. The tasks of the scientists and professionals who participated in this study are exceedingly more complex than those encountered in the single goal situations of controlled studies. it is likely that very difficult goals. with higher levels of perceived difficulty associated with lower levels of perceived performance.g. people may choose to work towards and achieve higher levels of performance on less difficult goals rather than work towards more difficult and complex goals knowing that their level of performance and perceived self-efficacy are likely to be lower on such goals. most studies have found that performance increases with the level of goal difficulty. However. In a meta-analysis by Wood. especially those which are at the limits of a person's ability. For example. 1990).tive affect (Carver & Scheier. 1990). predicting that given an adequate level of ability and com. Bandura. Thus the direction of this relationship was the reverse of that predicted by goal setting theory and found in many studies of goal setting and performance. Locke & Latham. will not produce higher levels of performance (e. providing the individual working to attain the goal is committed to achieving it and has the ability to do so. that faced with multiple and complex goals. It is possible.mental field studies found full or partial support for the predicted linear relationship.mary concern rather than the process by which the goal is to be attained. when faced with multiple and distal goals individuals may choose to invest effort in those from which they can expect to obtain more feedback (e.g. 175 of the 192 laboratory and experi. harder goals will lead to greater effort and performance than easier goals.mitment. the theory does not suggest that a negative relationship will be found. or that the findings were produced by a methodological artifact. According to goal setting theory. 1986) or those where they can expect a faster rate of progress and hence experience positive rather than nega. This rather surprising result is open to two main interpretations: either that goal difficulty was negatively associated with performance in this setting. This idea has also been suggested in a study of single versus multiple goals by Kernan & Lord (1990). In many jobs which have multiple and complex goals it is certainly not uncommon for people to direct their efforts towards Page 32 of 37 .Shawn & Yearta Shawn & Yearta Goal Difficulty and Performance Most of the research on goal content has focused on the relationship between goal difficulty and performance. who argue that in multiple goal environments the choice of goal is the pri.

61). there are good reasons to suppose that difficulty and performance will be inversely related in such contexts. 1986) or those where they can expect a faster rate of progress and hence experience positive rather than negative affect (Carver & Scheier. However. Here. However.able goals of their job. the results obtained may be explained by methodological artifacts. nearly all studies of goal setting have used single goals. Multiple Goals The theory of goal setting is a cognitive theory of motivation. When faced with multiple and distal goals individuals may choose to invest effort in those from which they can expect to obtain more feedback (e. they may choose to work on easier goals which have obvious sub-goals within them. 1990). or existing theories modified to explain the effects of complex. In short. may not generalize to many field settings'. Kernan & Lord (1990) have gone so far as to suggest that 'simpler models of control theory and goal setting processes. as already indi. 54). the theory does not make any predictions about the effects of proximal or distal goals on performance. One of its key assertions is that a positive linear relationship between goal difficulty and performance exists. In this study.cated. though adequate for the typical laboratory study. the vast majority of studies have used fairly proximal goals where the goal setting period is very short indeed compared to the yearly goal setting period of job holders in this study. In other words. a negative relationship between difficulty and performance was obtained. Certainly this single finding is not sufficient to challenge the basis of goal setting theory and. Whilst it is likely that having even multiple goals and distal goals will produce higher performance than having no goals at all. the theory itself does not lead to any predictions about relationships between difficulty and performance in multiple goal environments. however. Page 33 of 37 . and indeed a considerable amount of empirical evidence has been collected over the past 25 years which supports this prediction. too. Locke &Latham (1990) acknowledge that 'much more research needs to be done before firm conclusions can be drawn about the relative efficacy of proximal and distal goal setting' (p. distal and multiple goals on the performance of employees in work environments of the type studied here. Bandura. Likewise. It may be that new theories need to be developed. goal setting theory may simply not apply to multiple goal environments or where relatively distal goals are set.Shawn & Yearta the more achiev. and Locke & Latham (1990) acknowledge that performance with multiple goals is an area 'rich with research possibilities' (p. Indeed.g.

Break down achievement. Shelley Taylor: if we just imagine the outcome it is not as good as we imagine the steps that we need to take to achieve this outcome. Our mind doesn't like when there is inconsistency between what is inside and what is outside. we raise the challenge and vice-versa.. If it is too easy. "People can imagine themselves taking steps. Ellen Langer (1989): Divide and conquer. while great heights seem entirely forbidden. Claypool & Cangemi (1983): If we write our goals. we are much more likely to achieve because we make a commitment. we experience boredom." If we look only at the end result. "By X".Tal Ben-Sahar Tal Ben-Sahar Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi): Good parallel with other readings. The same is true for visualisation. Use the graph! He talked about identifying activities that have the right skill level compared to the task difficulty at a certain point where we experience flow. Page 37 of 37 . Ajzen & Fishbein (1982): Goals have to be specific. And with timelines. Use flow as a compass. If we are doing something that is too easy. if it is too hard we experience anxiety. Concretise goals: I want to X on Y.. Use short-term goals. Immediate feedback leads to flow. Ideally we want to find activities that stretch us a little bit beyond our comfort level. It needs to be measurable. it will seem out of reach.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful