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Representasi Dunia Nyata

Sistem Informasi Geografis
Alur Translasi

Physical reality Real World Data Model Database Maps/Reports

Actual Phenomenon Entity Object Object symbol line text
-Properties -type -type -Type
-connections -Attributes -Attributes -Attributes
-relationships -Relationships -Relationships
-Geometry -Geometry
-quality -quality

(Cederholm, Petterson, 1989 in Benhardsen, 1992 : 32)

• In many ways GIS presents a simplified view of the
real world
• Perception of the real world depends on the
• Moreover, the real world may be described in terms
of countless phenomena
• The systematic structuring of the data determines
• The real world can be described only in terms of
• The process of interpreting reality by using a real
world model and data model is called data modeling
Bagaimanakah menjelaskan
fenomena ini?
Bagaimanakah menjelaskan
fenomena ini?
Bagaimanakah menjelaskan
fenomena ini?
Bagaimanakah menjelaskan
fenomena ini?
• NOMINAL - Names or labels, if numbers are used the values have no
mathematical relationship.
• ORDINAL - Attributes are ordered in sequence, there is no mathematical
relationaship but we can say that 2 is greater (or better) than 1.
• INTERVAL - On interval scales, the difference (interval) between numbers
is meaningful mathematically, but the numbering scale does not start at 0.
Temperature scales (celcius and farenheight) are good examples.
• RATIO - On a ratio scale, measurement starts at zero and the difference
between numbers is significant. Using the same temperature scale
example, degrees kelvin starts at a 0 point (absolute 0).
Features on a landscape that are represented in a discrete manner are
usually represented with nominal or ordinal measurements (i.e. conifer,
house, road, etc.) When the landscape is represented in a continuous
fashion an interval or ratio scale is usually used (i.e. temperature,
elevation, etc.)
• The arrangement of the real world
model determines which data need to
be acquired
• The basic carrier of information is the
• Entity defined as a real world
phenomenon that is not divisible into
phenomena of the same kind
An entity consists of:
• type classifications
• attributes
• relationships
Entity types
• The concepts of entity types assumes
that uniform phenomena can be
• Each entity type must be uniquely
defined to preclude ambiguity
• Some organizations may need to
classify entity types into categories as
well as entities according to type
Entity attributes
• Each entity type may incorporate one
or more attributes that described the
fundamental characteristics of the
phenomena involved
• In principle an entity may have any
number of attributes
• Entity type may also describe
qualitative data and attributes
quantitative data (ordinal, interval and
Entity relations
• Relations often exist between entities
• Relation:
– Pertains/belongs (berhubungan dengan)
– Comprises (mencakup)
– Located in/on (berada di)
– Borders on (berbatasan dengan)