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f f -t Cok erf

knr? ?
f It /t vrCerrF
r^t ,-,'fA ,,"k ^o eJ^ {-,r.,el h1 e/,

il Jhe ch

lntroduction .......10

-TheII-VIProgressionandltsVariations -......13
II-VI in major
II-VI in minor
Tii-Tone Substitution
BackDoor Progression
Coltrane Matrix
Extensionsof il-VI
Confirmation Sequence

II-VI inTiansientModulations - -. - -...33

Modulations downwardin half-steps

Modulations -' ' '41

Up a major third
Down a major third
Up a minor third
Down a minor third
Up a minor second
To the relativeminor

WBeginnings.. 45
on bVlT
on l"
on II7
on IV
with I-IV7
-Chssic Bridges ... . ... ..4g
MontgomeryWard bridge
Bridgesthat begin:
on III-
on VI-
a major third abovethe starting key
a minor third abovethe starting key
a major third below the starting key
Other Common Bridges

MChords In Symmetry
Tirnesthat usethe Cycle of Dominant Sevenths
More on TLi-ToneSubstitution
Tirnesthat usechromaricallydescendingdominant sevenths
Tirnesthat useparallel chord motion with other chord-rypes

WOtherProgressionCells. .......65
Ti-rnesthat use:
C- C-/Bh As cell

WMoreRecenttaits .....69
Sus.4 chords
Major seventhwith a +5
Repetitive two-chord, chromatic cells
Sus.4to +4 cell


The List (AppendixA) .80

E a r - T i a i n i n . g T (i pAsp p e n d i x B ) . .......g5

"RoadMaps"(AppendixC) .87

The Authors
PREFACE with a companion, etc. Yet the visual appearance of
the person was recorded, nonetheless, and now we are
frustrated at being unable to access that recording.
The answerlies in noticing, observing,even mentally
he leaming processis generally regardedas "tagging" of any sensorialexperience we might want
.r --'mscioasactivity, involving the study and to recall at a larer time. This might also involve an
:-rsimilation of information through books, increase rn the qumttity of what we notice at the time
trecrures,and various media (broadcastson of the initial experience.Classexperimentshave been
mr,:ru:=r.l telet'ision, videos, sound recordings, com- conducted in the area of eye-witnessing, in an effort to
Jftrrlrr:$.erc.l. coupled with memorization, experimen- establish the relative reliability of such observations in
:riffl rr-.:eperitious disciplines for the purpose of devel- a court of law. It was discovered that an unexpected
rntrr: i<rlls. and the application of what is being intrudert sudden, briei and perhaps violent appear-
e:ur:rej.\\hile all of this forms a valid, practical, and ance and action (a11of which are common compo-
iffite-i:lx'lrrredconcept of the learning process,it fails nents in an accident or crime) results in relatively
n: a:L:-.,-'.riedge the enormous potential o{ sublimhwl, incomplete, inaccurate observationsby potential eye-
mituwrs,:ious, even unconscious means of learning! witnesses.If, however, the event is utticipated (by some
--rrr :.:t:€s (r'isual, aural, olfactory tactile, and taste) foreknowledge), the level of completenessand accu-
,w* :E:perually active, sending countless pieces
of racy rises dramatically, since the eye-witness is now
mrri.r:t-ltiLrn to the brain and to the memory, eeerl ready to notice what goes into his/her memory!
nunn rnrue af e not coruciously Attempting to receiqteor
-renrernber such inform.ation. Then This is a book about jazzharmony (including other
when the senses
r{r: :i:xn erposed to something that has already been nearly-related styles as well). lts primmy purpose is nor
:,..a:-j rn our memory bank, a consciousrecognition to explain chord structures,scalesfor improvisation,
: rr- : -ke place. It might be the recognition of an old practice patterns,etc., all of which have been copious.
r$r,l-:rnrancein a photograph (visual), the potential- ly included in a number of jazz texts. Someaspectsof
'* :::,gerous buzzing of an unseen jazz theory are included here, to be sure, but only
homet's nest
irr.- ,. rhe fragrance of a particular flower (olfactory), enough to insure clarity of understanding for the read-
::-o :oet of cashmere (tactile), or the sensation of er. Instead thisbookuniquelyfocuses on solvingaproblem
: r:-::i r tresh strawberry(taste). In each case,it is very thathas pl"aped studentsof irwprovisation since thehistor-
: *s::le drat the original senseencounter was not a icalbeginningsof jazz, namely learningto recogniTechord
l r-;i.l--ruseffort to learn and remember the sensation. progressions instantly, through the ear alone!
','-,,-=rheless, improvisation ls a hlghly creative and spontaneous
it was given a place in our memory.
craft. For purposes of validity and effective musical
--rubnunately, if information from the senses rs expression,the improviser must acquire the ability to
-:.-;.-';€Jand recorded
at the subliminal level, unrlo. hear (or pre-hear) what is played and play what is
;;ed bv the conscious mind, we may not be able to heard, which goes beyond merely playing what is
- r-pletely and efficiently accessthat information. theoretically 'correct,' as the latter could lead to a
-1::..e, rve might nof consciouslyrecognizea repeat of mechanistic solo and/or poorly-chosen notes (though
i i;liorial encounter, though it may seemfamiliar. For 'correct').
The primary challenge in this process is
: '-.nple, we may see a familiar face on the street aurally understanding the sounds and functions of the
,i'-,-.e identity we are unable to place, often because chord progression upon whlch the improvisation is
-.-.her identity
was incidental within rhe previous based. To add to the challenge, the improviser, at all
::-:runter, such as a cashier in a supermarket. \7e stages of development, is often confronted with the
-..:rnr no offense,
but were simply distracted at the need to improvise upon a progression that, for the
:-:Le. unloading groceriesfrom the shopping carr, re- moment anyway, is not written out, is not memorized,
:-.-cking the grocery list, writing a check, converstng sometimes not even familiar to the improviser in terms
of a prior hearing of a specific tunel Forrunately, the mostly serving to cement chords and keys together in
soh'rion doesn't require that we be born with perfect
a logical fashion. However, the glue portions of a pro-
pitch. !7e simply need to increase our caoacirv
ro gression are easy to recognize by ear urrd .uri to
memorize.They are a good place to begin our study of
chord progressions,and at the very leastare a signal to
A11art forms have structural elements that remain
the improviser that the progression is momentarily
relatively consistent, for the most part, even though
"idling" somewherewithin the key and probably not
there may be dramatic, subsequent changes of .tyi..
requiring much in the way of harmonic interpretatron
The graphic arts continue to incorporate forms,
with regard to scalar/note adjustments.The ,,Hook,"
shapes, and color; ballet continues to use certain
on the otherhand, is represenredby those aspectsofa
traditional moves in new combinations; and music
progression that orc highly significant, perhaps even
composition (in any style) continues to utilize counr_
the sound that distinguishes one tune from another, or
Iesselements that have become traditional and famil-
enables an improviser to recognize a specific tune
iar. The creators of contemporary visual art, dance,
(perhaps the only tune) which utilizes that sound.
music, drama, and literature find new, innovatrve ways
"Hooks" offer contrast to the more ,vanilla' ,,Glue,"
to combinethe traditional elements,even invent new
and exist in much smaller quantity, perhapsonly 1-3
elements,so that their creations seem,new', exciting,
"Hooks" in the entire progression.They are generally
and revolutionary to us. But whenever a work ls creat-
unexpected surprises of a dramatic, inspiring sort.
ed which has no traditional or pre-existing elements
Some of the possibilitiesfor a,,Hook,'are unusualroot
(whlch in itself is next to impossibl. to
motion, unusual chord-types, an unexpected chord
it is generally doomed to failure, even "..omplirh),
if there is a resolution, or a suddenmodulation to a remote key. A
momentary burst of inrerest at the time of its initial
progressionmade entirely of "Glue" would probably be
exposureto the public. The reason is simple; we pre-
dull, placing a heavy burden on rhe quality of the
fer, over the long haul, new combinations of familiar
given or improvised melody. A progression having
elements over totally unfamiliar works of art. It has
nothing but "Hooks" would risk sounding illogical,
often been said that artists cannot create in a vacuum.
fragmented, wierd, harsh, aimless and, believe rt or
It is also true that rhe greatest artists study and absorb
not, dull becauseof the samenessof its unpredictabil-
the traditions of their craft, even if they hope to effect
ity. So the most successful/popularprogressionswill be
some innovations in their personal craft at some later
mostly "Glue" (60-90Yo),but with at leasr one well-
chosen "Hook." The wise improviser will use the
Hooks as emotional, dramatic peaks in his/her solo,
This being the case,there are many harmonic tra-
well worth expounding upon, being more relaxed and
ditions, though not an infinite number, which per-
conversational during the',Glue." It is comforting to
meate the tunes heard and used by jazz improvisers.
discover that even specific ,,Hooks,,'though lesscom-
The chord progressionsof approximately 500 tunes
monplace than "Glue," generallyexist in a substantial
were used in this study, in an effort to be certain that
number of tunes. For example, a modulation to a new
we weren't simply guessingat what is common among
key that is a major third above the first key (as in the
the tunes that are played by jazz performers, and also
to be surewe didn't omit an important, common trait. key of C to the key of E) is a dramatic-soundingmod-
ulation (a "Hook"). Yet songwriters,recognizing that
There are two kinds of commonality extant in the dramatic effect, have continued to write many songs
average tune's chord progression, and they could be which utilize that particular modulation (seethe tune
referredto as"Glue" and "Hooks."',G[ue" is represent- lists in Chapter 3).
ed by those aspectsofa chord progressionwhich are so The purpose of identif ing commonalities among
common as to occupy approximatelv 60-90% of its various chord progressionsis to provide the substance
entire length. This would include chord roots whlch that would most efficiently ffain the reader to know
move in the cycle (or circle) of fifths (especiallythe what might occur in a new, unfamiliar tune, and,to
II-7 -V7.1 progressionand its multifarious variarions recognize and confirm that knowledge through the ear
and extensions,shown in Chapter 1) and chord roots alone. This is done by using the technique of ,,asso.
which descend chromatically. In itself, ,,Glue,' does ciation." Reviewing what was stated earlier, with
little to attract interest or create excitement. It is so regard to observing, noticing, and tagging information
commonplace that it sounds virtually uneventful, received by the senses,so that that information mav
:e culled from the memory bank when needed later, The acquisition of the ability ro observe, tag, and
::ien consider the processof learning the progressrons make aural associationsmay take time, as do all skills,
:: rarious tunes. As each is studied,played, memoriz- but therein lies the key to leaming to cognize chord
=1. listened to, and improvised upon, the soundsof the progressionsthrough the ear alone. Most professional
;-arious chords, segments of the progression (progres-
musicianshave observeda pianist or guitarist who was
=r".ncells), even the entire progressiongoes into the presented with the challenge of accompanying a guest
:r.emory bank crirh the appropriateidentifyingrags.Now singer on a tune that was unknown to the keyboardist/
ie progression can be aurally recognized if it is heard guitarist. lUhy do rhey generally survive those
n{or played again later, even without the written situations so well? Because they usually know the
:rrm at hand. To carry the process a step further, if a progressions to many tunes, learning along the way
jift-erent, unfamiliar progression
is heard later which (consciouslyor unconsciously)how progressionscom-
-.rntains some of the samesounds/elementsasthe tune monly unfold, hence they are able to make better-edu-
*at was leamed earlier, the ear has the capacity ro cated guesseson tunes they've never played before.
.lrmpare one tune with the other and atnally recognize
frose parts which are the same, even if they appear in In addition to assistingimprovisers to hear chord
--rherplacementswithin the tune. So at least parts of progressionsby association,this book should alsobe of
-Se new tune's great tnterest to young composers and arrangers,who
progression may be recognized by asso-
-:.:ring its sounds with a tune already knownl Some- often experience difficulty constructing original pro-
r:rmesrhe recognition is triggered by hearing a porrlon gressionsthat sound logical, move gracefully, have an
-.f the learned tune's melody against the new tune. aurally-discernableform, contain the desiredbalance
Jther times it may be triggered by hearing a learned between "Glue" and "Hooks," and in general, sound
rattem or lick against a portion of the new progres- like the sorts of progressions that are successfully
sron. Still other times the improviser may simply be received. Composers and arrangers don't necessarily
aL,leto hear the sound of a segmentof one progression have the same urgent need to hear and cognlze un-
:r'ith the other and know they are identical. In u.ry known progressionsas do improvisers (but ii helpsl).
case,ifthe first progression was properly observed and At least they should welcome the opportunity to
raggedas it went into the memory bank, the technique efficiently study the progression rendencies of 500
--,fdentification by associarjonbecomes possible. Tiris tunes grouped together by commonalitvl
technique is frequently used by improvisers in the
playing of "quotes," when a familiar melodic fragment
rs played that comes from another tune altogether,
simply because the player is able hear that the
melodic fragment will flt a particular harmonic sirua-
tion. On a larger scale,somejazztunes are basedupon
entlre, pre-existingprogressions,asin Charles parker's
DouNe LeE, which borrows the entire chord progres-
sion to Bacr Horur Aceru IN INnnNa. These are
called "contrafacts," discussed in some detail in
Chapter 2.

]NTRODUCTlON "outsideplaying." All of theseapproachesare facilitat-
ed by tunes which have little or no harmonic motion.
Blues tunes are a traditional musical entity, having
their own unique formal structure ( 1Z bars), a melodic
hls book has been divided into eight chap- language that leans heavily upon the entire history of
ters which group prevalent harmonic traits the blues,and a unique harmonic tradition that belies
according ro their similariries.The chapters much of what we find in standard, bebop, pop, and
are sequenced in a logical order, beginning contemporary tunes. To be sure, some blues progres-
with the simplestand most common rrairs (Chapter 1) sions will borrow from many of the traits presented in
and ending with the more complex traits found in this book, especiallythe more modern blues progres-
contemporary jazz tunes (Chapter B). Within each sions, but the resiliency of the traditional blues pro-
chapter the traits are first presented in their most basic gressionis such that it never losesits harmonic iden-
and common form (the prorotype), followed by com- tity, discharging modern variations as quickly as they
monplace variations of the traits. Ideally, then, the appear. !7e could have reserved a chapter for the
reader should study the book in its presented blues alone, including both its basic,endunng pro-
sequenceofchapters and correspondingtopical devel- gression and its sundry variations, but several books
opments within the chapters. The more-advanced (especiallyby Baker and Coker) have alreadycovered
student, however, might wish to read the book out-of- that ground.
sequence,in order to isolate certain harmonic traits
that are of interest to him/her. The chord symbols used in various circles of jazz,
jazz education, books, and printed music can lead to
Nearly all rhe tunes selectedfor this study are of the considerable confusion, especially for the novice.
standard, bebop, pop, and contemporary variety. Very Despite numerous attempts of the past, it is safe to say
seldom are blues or modal tunes mentioned here. that the symbolswill never be standardizedor reduced
Their importance to the jazz idiom is unquesrionable, to a single system. After all, no one, regardlessof
but this book focuseson harmonic traits. Modal tunes his/her assumed authority, can dictate the exact
tend to use only one or two chords, and any change of nature of that single system, even if it could be proved
chord that might occur is primarily for the purpose of "right" (and it can't). The only sensibleapproach is to
contrast and/or formal structure, not for smooth chord use, whenever possible,those symbolswhich seem to
connection. Improvisers on modal tunes are focusing be in widest use.Even that will vary from time to time.
more on melodic development, use of space, group The figure on the opposite page could be of assrstance
communication, pentatonic scales,interval substance to the reader:
(especially fourth intervals), intensity-building, and
$ome alternates

C altered

le use of Roman Numerals in harmonic analysisis a that might differ in key only; (3) even modulation
:roven asset.They are used to number the notes of a sequencesare more easily compared, revealing for
najor scaleformed over a key center. For example,the
example rhat a rune which modulatesfrom the key of
jiatonic sevenrh chords
of C major (C, D-2, E_7, E C to the key of E in one rune is identical to a modula-
G7, A-7, Bg) can be shown asC: I, II-7, III_7, IV VZ,
tion from Eb to G in another rune, in that both tunes
VI-7, VIIO. The "C:" symbol that precedesthe listing
modulate up a major third interval; and (4) transposi-
..f Roman Numeral functions is used to indicate the tions of a tune from one key to another are much
rJentity of the key cenrer, which is then resardedas I.
easier,only needing to changethe modulation symbols
If the progressionshould modulate ,o u ,,r"* key, say (i.e.,C: or Ah:). Using Roman Numerals,even verbal-
.Lz, then the symbol Ab: is insertedjust preceding the izations of a tune's chord progression can be easily
tirst chord which functions in Ab (which may be a transmitted to other membersof a group, saybetween
chord that is nor an Ab chord, but which functions in a pianist (concert pitched), a trumpet player (Bb
Ab, such as Bb-7 and/or EbZ). Now an Ab chord be- pitched), and an alto saxophonist (Eb pitched). The
comes I until such time as a new modulation appears exact nature of the Roman Numerals, as they appear
(or a return to C). Using Roman Numerals
has four in this book, will be discussedmore thorouehlv h
important advantagesover lettered chord symbols:( 1) Chapter 1.
chord functions within a given key can better be
understood; (2) progressionsin different keys can be
comparedmore easily,uncovering numeroussegmenm

Formal analysis is more concerned with the overall Letters and numbers will sometimesappearin this book
organization of a tune into its attendant sections,rather to identify a particular measure within a rune whlch
than individual chord connections. The form of a tune exemplifies something under discussion.For example, if
is primarily determined by overall length (in terms of the reader'sattention needs to brought to the second
measures),the number and lengthsof individual sections measureof the bridge (B section) of a tune having an
within the overall length, and the use of repeated sec- AABA form, it might be referredto as "B2,', rather than
tions. The first section to appearis given the designation "the secondmeasureof the bridge," or worse,,,the eight-
of A. If that section is immediately repeated,it becomes eenth measureof the tune." \7hen it is necessaryto refer
AA. Each subsequentsection that is not like A is given to a particular location in a manner other than the
a successiveletter of the alphabet (8, C, etc.), and if method just described,the abbreviations,,m.',or ,,mm.,'
repeated,become BB or CC, also. If a previous section (plural) may appear in place of the entire word,
of the tune retums, but only after one o. ^or. unrelated

sections,it retains its identifiiing letter. For example, if

an A section is followed by a new section (B), but then The use of a keyboard to sound the various progressron
the next (third) section is identical to the first, the third cells studied is an indispensable aspect of practicing,
section is still called A, hence the form up to that point regardlessof your chosen instrument. In the event you,ve
would be ABA. If a section bearsa close resemblanceto never acquired the abllity to do this, seerhe foornote ar
a former section,but is not identical to it, the prime sym- the end of Chapter 2 {or a simple solution to your need.
bol (') can be used, as in AA' or ABAB,. There are
Don't be surprised if some of the chords shown for the
exceptions, of course,but most of the sectionsof a tune
tunes in this book are at variance with what you might
are eight measuresin length (Cole Porter often usedsix-
have seenin fakebooks,printed music, or arrangedparts
teen measure segments, Billy Strayhorn used four-
for an ensemble. The harmonies of many runes go
measure sections for much of LusH Lrrn, and Wayne
through transformations, such as "updating" the pro-
Shorter usednine-measuresectionsin INr,aNr Evrs, but
gressionsof older standards,common substitutions that
these do not representthe "norm"). The most common
players like to use, and reharmonizations by major jazz
song forms are AABA, ABAB', and ABAC. Formal ana-
artists that often become standardpractice over a peri-
lysisof this sort is somewhat subjective,in thar rwo peo-
od of time. As it is with chord symbols,it's very difficult
ple may come up with different answers,depending on
to dictate what everyone should use for the chord pro-
their point-of-view. One may see a sixteen-measure
gressionofa given tune, especiallyin the caseofstandard
phrase as one section (A) and another may regard it as
tunes. As David Baker has often stated, "Don'tfight some-
two eight-measurephrases (AB). Or they differ as to
thingthat differsfrom that to which Jou are accustomed.J ust,
whether a section is really repeatedor merely suggested.
add it to what you already know!"
For example, Dizzy Gillespie's Hor Housr has an
obvious harmonic form of AABA, but since rhe melody Be sure to investigate the Afterword and the Appendices
of the secondA section is completely different than the of this book. They will enhance your understandingand
melody of the first, one person might seeHor Housp as provide information not included in the eight chaprers
an ABCA form (melodic viewpoint) and another might that form the body of the text.
say it is an AABA form (harmonic viewpoint). Clifford
Brown's Jov SrnrNc is divided into four B-measuresec- We sincerely hope that this book will provide the
tions, with an apparent AABA form, but the second B. reader with a greater understanding of many of the ele-
measuresection, though otherwise identical to the first ments that make up the the harmonic vocabulary of jazz
(melodically and harmonically), is in a key that is one- and popular music. Hopefully, through this study, the
half step higher. So is the form AABA, AA'BA, or student will benefit in a practical way from its conrents,
ABCA? It depends entirely upon the opinion of the and will be able to apply the information it presenrsin
individual. Fortunately, most tunes don't present such everydaymusical situations.
challenges for the analyzer. Ironically, the aspects that
create discord among analyzers are precisely the ele-
ments that create pleasant surprisesfor everyonel
Th e 11-V-1Pro gression
on d jts VoJiotion s


Il-V-I rN MrNoR


Bacx Doon PnocnrssroN

CorrnaNp Mannrx

oe II-V-l


Breop TunNeRouND

' . . . , , . ' ' I


: . . . " l '
f all the progression cells taken up in this quently appearsas aminor chord, as in the "back door
book, none is even remotely as prevalent progression" that will be discussedlater in this chap-
as the II-VI progression.Although con- ter AlteredRomanNumerals(blll, *tV hU,fill, etc.) are
temporary jazz compositions have been even more freely,structured, depending upon the
moving away from it for quite some rime, the II-VI needed function of the moment. Finally there is the
remains the basic unit of tonal organization of the jazz, problem created by, say, a half-diminished seventh
popular, Broadway, standard, and bossa nova tunes chord, which is neither ma jor nor minor, hence a clas-
that comprise much o{ the jazz musician's repertoire. sical analyst'sii7 designation for a IIO, even with sup-
And those tune-types are still the common denomi- plementary markings could be confusing. For all the
natorfor jazzmusicians today, even in the many coun- foregoing reasons, only large case Roman Numerals
tries other than the U.S. in which jazz music rs per- will be used in this book, whether the chord is major,
formed. However complex the harmonic traits of minor, augmented, or diminished, and whether the
modern jazz may become, those tune-t1pes will still chord's root is within the scale of the key or an altered
form an essential part of the jazz repertoire, and they scale-tone.
are heavily-laden with II-VIs.
Nearly all tunes usedby jazzmusiciansare ,,tonal,'
Lest the reader surmisethat the II-VI progression (as opposedto "atonal")1 that is, there will be at least
was invented by the composers who wrote the tunes one "key center" in each tune. Often there will be
that compris e the jazz repertoire, understand that the several key centers within the overall length of a given
foundations were laid several centuries ago by Euro- tune. The first requirement of a key center is the exis-
pean Classical composers, who o,eryfrequently used tence of a chord which can function as | (tonic).
the progression cell and its variations, though in Though a wide variety of chord-typ es could serve as I,
slightly different ways rhan it appears in the jazz and such as the dominant seventh structure found in most
pop tunes of this century. It was at the core of what blues progressions(17), or the I-7 in Br-up Bossa, the
musical analysts refer to as "tonic-dominant har- most obvious and common forms of the I chord are the
mony," a harmonic system which stressesthe use of major seventh and major sixth chords (in a major key),
"key centers" (represented by tonic, or simply I and the minor-major seventh and minor sixth chords
chords) that were prepared/precededand supported by (in a minor key). \fhether in a major or minor key, the
"dominant seventh chords" (V?), and the latter were second requirement is a chord which functions as a V
often preceded by chords of the "subdominant func- (domirnnt) to the ronic. Though we will explore other
tion" (IV or II). The classicalanalyst generally labels possibilities later in the chapter, the most common
this progressioncell as ii6-V7-I (small case Roman choice is the V7 chord (dominant seventh strucrure).
Numeral on the II chord indicates a minor chord and The third likely chord function to be used in establish-
6 indicates first inversion of that chord, which was the ing a key center (though not always present) is the
usual form). The jarz analyst usually omits the use of Il-7 (subdominrmtfimction) or a common substirute,
small caseRoman Numerals, owing ro the rather high such as a IV major sevenrh chord (in a major key), or
frequency of chords which are altered from the struc- IIg or IV (in a minor key). Variations and substitu-
ture that is formed naturally within a diatonic sysrem. tions notwithstanding, the classic II-?-VZ-I (in
For example, a chord built on the second degreeof a major) and the IIS-Y7-I- (in minor) prevail for an
major scale (as in D F A of a C major scale)ls a minor astounding63-95Voof the time in tunes which outline
chord, yet in tunes used by jazz musicians that chord or establishkey centersl
often appears as a D7 (a dominant seventh srrucrure
on II), for a variety ofreasons that are unnecessaryro
discussat this point. An even more significant exam-
ple is the chord that is naturally formed on the sixth
(VI) degreeof a major scale,which is a minor chord
(or minor sevenrh chord), as in A C E (G) of the C
major scale. Yet the VI chord in jazz tunes appearsfar
more often as a dominant seventh chord (VI?) than
as a minor seventh chord (VI-7). The IV chord is
major, when formed naturally within a key, but it fre-

The II-V.I Progression in Major The II-V.I Progression in Minor

Th" II-?-V7-L progressionis formed by three nnroximately 25o/o of the tunes in the jazz
I chordsthat areall diatonic to the key center(that I \musician's repertoire are in a minor key. Add to
r-..they are naturally-formedin accordancewith the this the high incidence of runes that are chiefly in
i:er signatureof I), the three chord roots areconsecu- major, but which modulate to one or more minor keys
::re in the cycle, and move in a forward (clockwise) within their overall length (especially at the "bridge"
jrection within the cycle. or "B section"), it is easy to see why we cannot afford
to overlook aspectsfound in the minor mode. Though
Figure r-A the II-VI progression in a minor key is used in much
the same way as it is in a major key, especially with
regardto establishingthe key center(s), the structures
of the individual chords are quite different and more
complex. We could relate those differences by discuss-
ing the nature of the tonic minor scale (or scaleswould
be more accurate) from which all three chords are
derived, aswas done with the major version of the cell.
However, it is less confusing to simply discuss the
chord structures themselves.

First of all, since many songs will include both

major and minor key segments, there is the need to
prepare the listener/player for the change of mode, so
that the hearer can sensethe impending change even
before the tonic (I) chord arrives. We can surmise, in
Gb the case of II-VI in majoq that the fact that all three
of the chords derive their notes from the major scale
of the I chord, that the ear is prepared to hear the
Cyclic motion of this sort is very common in most approaching I major chord even before ir arrives,
tbrms of tonal music, including classical music, where during the closely-related II and V chords. To prepare
its use can be traced back for at least three centurres. the sound of a minor key center, we need chord-types
Identifying this 3.chord segment of the cycle, when for the II and V that will already be hinting ar the
viewing part of a lettered chord progression of a tune, minor I chord that is to follow. And so we generally
is one of the two "tests" needed to determine the exis- find that the II chord will be a half-diminished
tence of a II-VI cell. The other aspectto be examined seventh chord (g), insteadof the II-7 that was usedin
are the chord-types of each of the three chords. So if major. The half-diminished sevenrh chord only differs
we seethree consecutive chord roots that agreewith a from the minor seventh sffucture by one note, that
3-letter segmentof the cycle (in a forward direction), being a fifth that is lowered one half-step. In fact, as
and the chord-types are minor seventh, dominant pointed out in the Introduction of this book, an alter-
seventh, and major seventh respectively, then we can nate symbol for the half-diminished chord is rhe minor
be certain that we are viewing a II-VI progressionin seventh with a lowered fifth (b5). If we relate that b5
a major key. of the IIo chord to the key center, we find it to be the
lowered sixth (b6) of the key, a note that is found in
It was stated earlier that the II-VI progression two of the tonic minor scales (harmonic and natural
satisfiesthe requirements for establishing a key center. minors). Hence the half-diminished form of the II
In jazzand pop music, this statement can be extended chord prepares the ear to anticipate an approaching
to include nearly every modulation to a new key center minor key center. Furthermore, the most common sub-
within a given tune's length. In orher words, the II-V stitute for a II@is a IV- (or IV-6) chord, which has the
I is frequently used as the modulating apparatus itself! same note for its third of the chord as the IIo has for
its fifth. In fact, the IV-6 is spelled with exactly the Despite the fact the chord structures for the II and V
samenotes asthe II@of the sameminor key (example: in major and minor keys, are primarily used to prepare
an F-6, which is IV of C minoq is spelledf; Ab, C, and the listener for the expected form of I (major or
D, and a Do, which is II of C minoq is spelledD, F,Ab, minor), songwriterssometimeslike to surpriseus, by
and C). The V chordcould preparea I minor chord by using a I chord we didn't expect. In nearly all of such
simply adding a lowered ninth (h9), which is also the cases,the composerwill set us up to hear a minor form
b6 of the key cenrer, aswas rhe casein the lowered fifth of I (by preceding it with IIO and V7alt.), but surprise
of the II chord and the lowered third of the IV chord us with al major instead. Examples of this dehghtful aii
(though different notes.of-chord, b5, b3, and b9, sort of deception are in EvrnyrHruc HappBNs To M/
because they are figured from three differenr roots, (measureB5), PrNsauve (m.13), Wner's Nrw (m.7
they are nevertheless the very same note of the key and B7), and Fon HBavpN's SarB (m.1). This almost
center, the b6). The more complete, common, and never happens in reverse, where a composer precedes
r effective structure for the V chord. however. is a domi- a minor tonic with the major forms of II and V (-7 and
nant seventh with a raised fifth ( +5 ) and a raised ninth 7, respectively).
(+9), sometimesreferredto asthe "altered dominant."
A b9 in place of the +9 is equally effective (they can The prototypicalforms of the II-VI progression,in
even co-exist in the samechord), still including the +5 major and minoE are so commonplace in the tunes
aswell, but the +9 is the most commonly.used form of played by jazz musicians that it is very difficult to
the ninth in an altered dominant. We already know locate tunes which don'r contain at least one II-VI
progression, even among contemporary tunes, and
that the b9 helps ro prepare a minor I chord, and the
+5 causesthe sounding of the same note that will be most tunes havem,illJ occurrences of that cell. For this
the lowered rhird of the I chord, which is a grearprep- reason it would be pointless, and perhaps impossible,
aration for a minor key. But what about the seemingly- to list all the tunes which have ar least one II-VI oro-
preferred +9? Why should that note foretell the sound
of an impending minor I chord? After all, if the V
chord was a G chord (V of C), the +9 would be an Af,
which is an enharmonic spelling for Bb. l7ouldn't the
presence of an equivalent for Bb reduce the powerful
effect of the "leading tone" (B natural) that is already
in the V chord as its third, and which propels the
chord toward a logical resolution to I? There are sever-
al answers to this, all worth presenting at this time. Yrf,- I *t+uBg6fr,b
First of all (staying in C minor for the moment), Bb ( r: /nyr)
doesexist in the "natural minor scale" on C. Second-
ly, the "leading tone" (B natural) is still present,asthe
third of the G7 chord. Thlrdly, the inclusion of Bb (Af )
gives the V chord the illusion of being minor, offerrng
a sort of poetic support to the minor I chord. Finally,
the "altered dominant" chord is, by nature of its sound,
a very dramatic, almost "bluesy" chord, enhancing the
troR ft'')
usually-desired intent of composers to employ minor
keys for dramatic effect. So the common form of the
II-VI progressionin minor is:

Ila -Y7ak .I-^

\-aniation r o II-Z - illl"Z - Ill-Z (or I) The likely historical sourcefor the II-7-#II.-III_Z (or
I) progressionis the solo piano style of the 2Osand 30s,
Jhrs peculiar, yet popular,progression cell substi- in which self,accompanying pianists frequently used
r :utes a f lloT for the VZ, and somerimesa III_Z the progression in the left hand, usually voiced in
-i-r.:-rnic tenth intervals. The cell generally happened at rtmes
major chord (I). The latter is easierto under-
'--:rl. a-.a III-7 has at leasttwo notes in common with when the given chord was a relatively long duration
,:,=" chord, hence it has alwaysbeen regardedasa logi- (4 beats or more) of a tonic major chord. Since the
-:- .ubstirution. The #IIoZ,on the other hand, has lit- music of that time was pretty lively, a sustained chord
--: -r norhing in the left hand would inhibit the needed pulse-like
in common with the V7. In fact, the
-:-:l effect, hence pianists would expand, say a one-meas-
of the {ll chord is the major seq.)enth of the V
:i-;1. rvhich is a virtual anachronism to a domrnant ure duration of a tonic chord, into quarter-note dura-
--:,;rion. tions by playing I II-7-#II"-III-? (or I in first inversion)
It only works becausethe ilII functions as a
' with the left hand. This practice was particularly
..=Jrng rone chord" of III (or VIIoT of III, as a classi-
-.- freorist would put it). Since VII" has long been noticeable in performances by Art Thtum and by the
: r*orCered as a substitutefor VZ, when going to I, the counrless admirers/imitators who followed him. An
: .,-i is open to precedeany object chord with a dimin- even more expanded version of the progressionwas
,i:-;J chord whose root is a half-step below the root of usedby George Gershwin inLtze,where the first three
:,--=",L,jectchord (in rhis case, the obiect chord is and one-half measuresuse a five-chord progression, in
----;1. V/hen the I chord is used instead of III, it is half-note durations (in a fast qll/lbrec)etempo), that is
-.,::lly in first inversion, so that its bassnore (not its l-dl.-ll-i-fllo-l (in first inversio.,). Thrt ,rme pro-
: ,::l is the same as the root of the III chord, causing gression also forms the first three and one-half meas-
-,:.. !ll ures of Eubie Blake'sMnuonrr.s .," You. Unamplified * p J
to become a leading tone chord (or VII) of the
--.:-i.rf the object chord. The reader mieht find it hard rhythm guitarists, like the legendary Freddy Green in
: :elieve that this variation would resemblethe oro- the Count Basie Orchesrra of the 30s and 40s, also
: raical II-VI discussedearlier. But consider that it needed to transform long durations of a given chord
:-r. t'een used so often in tune progressions and in into quarter-note durations to support the pulse, and
:--:]ngements that even improvisers will consciously so they also were given to using the progression under
;-j unconsciously play the variation against a sounded discussion (and others as well). In all of the foregoing
---\ -l progressionlThe two phrasesshown in Figure 1- examples, whetherIl-fill-lll,I-ll-fill-lll,or I-#l-ll-#il-
I have appeared in numerous jazz recordings, each III, the progressionsresult in a bass-notemotion that
:-ne againsfthe conventional II-VI. The first one has rises by step and/or half-step, crearing a srrong feeling
..en played by many players over the years,whereas of climbing and a growing intensity.
,.. rhe secondexample was invented byJohn Coltrane
.rl then adopted by his many followers/imirators.

Figure rB

D-7 D#' E-7 ( or IA)


cA D-7 E-7 ( or IA)


(sometimesNo. 2 is usedwith aZ-barduration of IA)

The excerpt shown in Figure 1-C is a classic tune that
exemplifies the use of the harmonic device we are
studying. It occurs in the fifth measure, tonicizing the
III- chord in the key of F (A-7). It is interesting to
note that, before we encounter the device of mm.5-7,
a regular II-VI has already occurred in mm.1-3. If we
listen closely to the tune, or if we play the progression
on piano, the two cells can be heard to function in the
sameway, though they don't sound identical. As is the
casewith all the harmonic traits studied in this book,
it is essential to leam the appearance and sound of
each, and to be able to distinguish between the basic
form of a trait and its common variations.

Fipre vC


G-7 C7 FA Ffo

G-7 A-7

No Ain't Misbehavin'(m.3)
tro lGotRhythm(m.2)
IIIwind (81 andBS)
[VAo 1 a..?.
x4 \vofi* I .*,
O t, TheWeeSmallHours(m.5)

$o LikeSomeoneIn Love(m.3)
\\Q Liza(m.2)

Ssg MemoriuofYou(m.2)
OncelLoved(m.5) -
RainChech(m.1) !r,,
'hl ? .\

i; B TinYC-aPers

\hriationz o IV.ilIV"-I

\YF"" compared,theoretically and aurally, it

YV becomesclearthat Variation2 is only slightly
litterent from Variation1. Lookingat Figure1-D, we
-e that the first chord of eachis a subdominantfunc-
:ron, either II-7 or IV major,and the two chordshave
.cngbeenconsidered to besubstitutesfor oneanother.
Similarly,rhe #llo and {lV" chordsare closelyrelated,
part of the samediminishedscalerhar forms
hoth. The I chord that completesthe cell differsonly
n'ith respectto the bassnote, Variation 1 beingin first
rnversion(3rd in the bass)and Variation 2 in second
:nversion(5th in the bass).Each has an alternare
;hord form for the rhird chord that hasrhe samebass
:lote asits counterpart.

Figure rD Variation 1: II-7 fuo I (3rdin bass) or III-7

Example: D-7 DfiO C/E or E-7
Variation 2: IV #tvo I (5th in bass) orVT
Example: F FfiO C/G or G7

Sometimes the IV chord of Variation 2 has a domrnant

:eventh structure, rather than major, as in Duke
Ellington's IN A Mer-r-ow ToNr (m.25), Clifford
Brown's TiNy Capens (Bi), and in many blues pro-
sressions (m.6). Also, many of the arrangements for
the Count Basie Orchestra (and others of a similar
sryle), as well as many of Basie's improvised piano
rntroductions, use Variation 2 with a dominant struc-
ture on the IV chord.

Tunes which use Variarion 2 would include:


)( Doxy
(m.25)A Bfo C,
(St. Ihomasfr.tQ)
{ A-r*,^.rat
Y ScrappleFromTheApple (m S)frt

{someday My PrinceWil!C.ome
Winy Capers(81)
YouGo ToMy Head(m.9)
Figure tE
Variation 3' Tii'Tone Substitution

T) v definition, "tri-tone substitution"is the practice (+5, +9) Db7unak.(+4\

Dof".ing a V7 with a dominant seventh chord
whose root is a tri-tone interval away (bll7), a harmo-
nic trait which has been common in jazzcircles since
the early 40s (the incubation period for the bebop
stvle). On the surface it would seem that two chords
with roots that are a tri'tone apart would have little in
common and therefore difficult to justify, theoretical'
ly. Aftet all, the roots in question are on exact oppo'
site sidesof the cycle of fifths, 180" removed from one
another, and seven key signatures apart! However,
there are several very compelling reasons for the
successof tri-tone substitution: (1) the second most
common root motlon to cyclic motion is descending (rememberthat it is necessaryto apply enharmonic
chromaticism, in this casebll to I; (2) the third and spellings)
seventh of a dominant seventh are considered to be,
* The same as the notes of Ab ascending melodic minor, Db
functionally anyway, the two most important notes of
Lydian dominant, G diminished-whole tone, and F Locrian
the chord, and dominant seventh chords that are a tri- to the
ilZ, in the event that one of these is more familiat
tone apart share thesune thwdsmd seuenrhs,though the
,-r"-., ur" reversed (for example, F is the seventh of a
G? and is the third of aDb7, and B is the third of the
G chord and, asan enharmonic equivalent of Cb, is the r etter sing the Ptocess.,.
seventh of the Db chord; (3) the remaining notes of
the G chord, G and D' are equivalent to the +4 and h9
of the Db chord, and the remaining notes of the Db
chord, Db and Ab, likewise function as the +4 and b9
of the G chord, therefore the two chords could even
be played simultaneously without loss of function; and
(4i if ott" of the two chords is altered (using a +5 and
ab9 mdlor +9) and the other left unaltered (but with
a +4, which is not really considered to be an altera'
tion), the composer/improviser would use the same
scalefor both chords(see Figure 1-E) !
-:i-tone substitutions might appear in different normally given to the regular change(s) is usually split
..:pectsof jazz petformance.That is, it is sometimesa into smaller fragments to accommodate the presence
: in of the given progressionto the tune (put there by of the tri-tone change(s). For example, a four beat
::re composer),as in the last measureof the 1st ending duration of a G7 (ln the key of C) would become 2
, Wayne Shorter's Vrnco. Other times it is part of a beats,followed bv 2 beatsof Db7. A}-beatduration of
: -anned reharmonization of a tune, especiallya stan- D-7, followed bv a Z-beat duration of G7 would
j:rJ tune (where the substitution is chosen by the become 1-beat durations of D-7 G7 Ab*7 and Db7,
i-:rangeror the performer). And still other times, tri- respectively.Also, it is not necessaryto use the same
. ne substitution is incorporated spontaneously,at the form for both the regular and tri-tone "keys." Some-
i:.cretion of an improviser, a "comping" keyboardist, times we seea regular II, followed by the tr-toneII and
: a bassist. V, omitting the regular V before the tri-tone substitu-
tion. It's interesting to note that when both the
It is generally known that a II-7 can be placed
regular and tri-tone versions are used, the regular
:rtore a V7 (sharing its duration), even when the
alway precedesthe tri-tone.
:i\-en progressiononly suppliesthe V chord. For exam-
:ie. the bridge of I Gor RHytrr',r (ln the key of Bb) Despite the profusion of verbiage and examples
:eEins with a Z-bar duration of D7, but most perform- used here to define, explain, and illustrate tri-tone
::s rvill transform those two measuresinto one bar of substitution, remember that the most important aspect
-,-7 and one of D7. In this case,the D chord isn't even of all this is that you be able to unally cognizeits pres-
.. \- function (in Bb), but it neverthelessworks, hence ence in a progression,and in that regard, it is much
-he principle can be applied to any dominant sevenrh. easier to hear it than to explain it.It sotmdslogical,
Thls being the case, a composer or performer will smooth, even familiar to most musicians,and review-
: -''nretimesapply the principle to tri-tone substirution, ing the point made in Figure 1-E, that both the regu-
: that a Db7 that is substituting for a G7 could lar V7alt. and the tri-tone YTwtalt. use exactly the
:-come Ab-7 Db7. This is a relatively mild variarion, same scale,it should be clearly understood that hear-
:h.rugh it does impact the use of tri-tone substitution ing tri-tone substitution is no more difficult to hear
.--mewhat. For example, if the tri-tone II-V occurs than an altered V7, and most students learn to hear
'.-er(or instead of) the regular II-V the chord and the altered dominant rather quickly.
.cale spellings for the II chords will be in uery sharp
There are "irregular" usesof tri-tone substitution,
:.rntrast with each other, not having the sort of ame-
also. In Roberto Menescal's \!"_J+ttpj"Ar (O ezr(
.roration and duality found on the V chords (as in
iirure 1-E). Also, when the given melody to the tune Banpuruno), we find the progression,G C#-7 Fil7 F
-. being sounded, it is necessaryto see if the melody B-7 E7 Eb A-7 D7 (to B-7, which is III-7 of G). Whar
we have is a tune that modulatesdown in whole-steps
lctes that happen over the regular II-V will alsowork
(keysof G, F,and Eb), approachingFbyway of tri-tone
r-er the tri-tone II-V. Sometimes they will, but it
substitution, insteadof a C7, then approachingthe key
.hould be considered.Il on the other hand, a ffi-tone
-l-VIs used in place of the regular V chord's durarion of Eb by the same means. Retaining the symmetry Eb
is followed by A-7, which conveniently brings us back
nlr (asopposedto the total duration ofboth the regu-
to the starting key of G (since the A and D chords are
x II and V chords), the trait usually works very well.
II and V of G, respectively),though Menescal choos-
The tri-tone II doeshave one scalenote (the seventh
es to then substitute B-7 for the more obvious choice
rf the chord/scale) that conflicts with the regular V
of G major. When we hear the tune for the first time,
:hord, functioning as an unwanted major seventh of
unaware that it will modulate down in whole stepsin
:he regular V chord. Nevertheless,the tri-tone II has
'reen a 3-key sequence,it is difficult to anticipate where the
used against the regular V7 frequently, and for
quite some time, by major lazz artists, Charlie Parker first tri-tone substitution will take us, perhaps to B
major, since the second and third chords of the pro-
and John Coltrane, for example.
gressioncouldbeII and V of that key, so the resolution
Tii-tone substitutions,in either the tri-tone II-V or to F major comes as a surprise.Michele Legrand'sA
.imply the tri-tone V use, canreplncethe regular II-V MaN Arvn A WonaN has exactly the same"irregular,"
-',rfollow it, so that both the ffi-tone and regular V or secuential use of tri-tone substitution.
II-V are used. In the case of the latter, the duration

Four more examples of irregular uses of tri-tone sub- Tunes which use Variation 3 (tri-tone substitution)
t-l)q,ISE stitution occur in Clare Fischer's PrNsanrve. The include:
piece beginswith five measuresof Gb major chords
(the key center),alternatingwith G7 chords,with the A ManAndAWoman(mm.3U 7)
Gbchordsplacedin mm.1,3,and5, andthe G7 chords Angela(B3u 87)
appearingin mm.2 and 4. This hasthe effectof strong- I'tGet Started(m.4)
ly establishingGb asthe key. The G7 chordsare rri- _ Bolivia(84 u 814)
ronesubstirutionsfor Db7N).m
g,t^Lg Little Dancer(m.8U 82)
Eb7isused,presrrmably (to,h::lruy listener)func-
W '6>-',, Bonnie's
BIue(mm.4U 6)
tioning asa VI7 in the key of Gb, which would have
been a logical, time-honored move at that point, Mr. Broadway(m19)
usually going on to a II chord. However, the so-called TheChase(88)
VI7 chord resolvesdown a half-step to D major! In
v0 Nutville(m.11)
other words the Eh7 chord is being used as bIIT of D
major, which makes it a tri.tone substitution for A7 (V
of D). The significance of Fischer's use of the Eb7 (in O Barquinho
(mm.j andT)
the key of Gb) going to D major is that he has taken a Deloru (mm.6U 24)
principle that normally involves a substitute for a V7
)(Pensativa(mm.2,4, 6, 8, U B'15)
and has expanded the principle to a dominant seventh
EarlyAutumn(mm.2U 4)
chord other than V which opens doors to still other
possibilities. Going on, he follows the D major chord SailAway (mm.10U 47)
with a G chord (simulating the common progression Ecaroh(m.4)
cell of I to IV), but G is alsobll of Gb, providing an easy SatinDoll (m.6)
path back to the original key, which, in a sense,is what
1 Fischer does, except that the Gb chord becomes a I Saudade
(mm.j U 11)
- But what is pertinent to our discussion
here is that the G chord providesyet anothertwist to Fantasyln D (mm.6U 12)
tti-tone substitution,sinceit is deceptive\-placedto SmoheGetsIn YourEyes(m.3)
initially soundlike IV of D, but becomesbll of Gb.The FourOn Six(m.8)
fourth exampleoccursut th,._S*{@E&e, whereg( tgSomeOf TheThingsI Am (mm.3,4, 6, 77,12,14, 18,
a D-7 G7 cell leadsus back to Gb major for the final
22,27,29,u 34)
- A section.-ffheinnovative twist here,howeveqis that
f----"--1"- Gibraltar(82)
) the bridge modulates first to the key of C major, then
to A major, so that when the D-7 and G7 chords TheGirl Fromlpanema(mm.6U 8)
appear at the end of the segment in A major, we're not Virgo(mm.8U 16)
at all sure whether those chords are functioning as a
, WestCoastBlues(m.4)
I "hack door progression"in A (lV-7 bVII7, a trait to be
discusseda little later in this chapter), or signaling a
retum to C major (as a II V), or as a tri-tone substitu-
tion leading back to Gb (which is the case).

Anyone wishing to seriously study, heaq and prac-

tice tri-tone substitution should investigate the play-

along, Sor'm Or Tnr THmcs I Arr,r,found in Volume rntl
16 (TunNanouNDS AND Cvcr-rs) of Aebersold's A
Nrw Appnoacn To Jrzz IupRovrsanroN. The pro-
gression is a contrafact of Arr- THe THrNcs You Ann,
to which Aebersold has addedelevenrri-rone substitu-
tions, making it the most thoroughgoing study of tri-
tone substitution in existence! The fact that it is a
play-along provides the student with the best possible
opportunity to hear and practice the trait.
Variation 4 . The Back Door Progression When the back door is usedas a substiturefor the V
chord only, the II chord usually precedesthe back
"back door progression,"in the present,is a cell door,creatinga harmonicformulaof II -7 .IV-7 -bVlll.
I made up of IV-7 and bVIIT chords, leading to I. l.

Historically, rt began as a bVIIZ only, most often

appearing as a brief wmorowd" (more on that later in By far the most common use of the back door pro-
gression is its use after a IV major chord. A very hlgh
the chapter) at the end of a tune's section, usually as I
percentage of tunes contain at least one modulation to
2VlI7 -1. The approach to I by way of a dominant
a key a perfect fourth above the original key center, or
seventh whose root is a whole-step below the tonic is
probably the source of the name, back door. At least simply to IV. That modulation is so common that it is
almost pointless to use a modulation symbol (i.e.,
as early as the bebop era, the IV-Z was added to the
showing a modulation from C to F by using the sym-
zVII chord, providing a quasi II function before the
bol F:). In the great majority of tunes that modulate to
Jominant seventh chord, in the same manner as was
IV, the tenure of the key of IV is extremely brief,
encountered earlier in this chapter. The back door
retuming to the orginal key center within one or two
progression generally functions in one of three ways:
(1) as a substitute for the II V progression(or just the measures.The brevity of the stay in IV and its prob-
\/); (2) asa meansof returning to the original key cen- able retum to I points to a need for an efficient means
to weaken the IV chord shortly after its arrival. and
rer after a brief modulation to lY major; and (3) as a
render quick, safe passageback to I. Both needs are
tree-standingcell, usually sandwiched between two I
accommodated by rhe back door progression. The
IV-7 instantly weakens the previous IV major chord
When pondering the question as ro why a back and the bVII7, through establishedtraditional prac-
door progressionshould work as a substirutefor the II- tice, provides an acceptable precedent for the I chord.
V (or simply the V chord), remember the well-estab- IJnconsciously, the ear of even the casual listener is
lished precedent of hearing the bVII as a turnaround drawn to anticipate the retum to I as soon as the IV
chord in songsofan earlier period, as it trained our ears minor chord is sounded.
to accept the sound of bVII leading to L There are
A much-less common use of the back door pro-
melndicjustifications, also. One of the most common
gressionis its use as a free-standingcell, in which it is
phrase-endings for a melody is the formula otbT b6 5
(numbers related to the key center, not the individual not following IV major, not really being usedas a sub-
stitute for II-V, and seemingly disconnected from the
chords), as shown in Figure 1-F.Note that thrs com-
chords that exist before and after its use.Nevertheless,
mon melodic phrase-endingcan be harmonizedsever-
some trace of the logic behind the more common uses
al different ways with equal effectiveness,one of which
ofthe back door is usually present,though obscure.
is the back door. In other words, the harmonization of
a common melodic phrase-endingalso helps in estab-
Iishing the tradition of hearing a back door progression
lead to I.

Figure *F

F-7 ebz C (Aor-)

F-7 G7ah. C (Aor-)
G7ak.(orobz) C(Aor-)
orbtE G7ah. C(Aor-)

Examples of free'standing back doors exist in the
following tunes: OverTheRainbow(m'6)
\ ' 4 od,x.g/<q
.f"---.- Stollin'(m.28)
\ Iardbirdsuite(m.2) v|D L1
"X SomebodY Stardust(m.4)
Loves Me (mm'2U 4)
1 Buttet'lY(m.1)
when SunnyGetsBlue(m'2)
FoolsRushln (m'26)
I NeverKnew(m.2)
lt couldHappenToYou(m'10)
lqspeah (m'e) \ o
Low IiT ^ of
userhebackdoorasa means
! ' ' 7x5-1 runes
J o y S p r i n g ( m m . 4 u 1 2{)" Q f,\ot- ll>/ leavinglVmajorrorerurntol:
The songtsYou(m.13)
LongAgo AndFarAway (m'28)
I GetA Kichout of You(m'9)
My ldeal(m'26)
My Shining Hour(m'21)
t'm old'Fashioned
TimeAfter Time(m'24)
In TheRain(m'5)
willYoustill BeMine(83)
MeanToMe (m'4)
My Romance (m.28)
I Hadn't AnyoneTilYou(m'26)
the 3 lists of FreightTrain(m'6)
[be aduised,that some of the tunes on
progressions contaut rnore than one type of back ftMightAsWellBeSpring(m.36)
daorl Meditation(m.11u 83)

Tunes which use the back door progression as a sub- MoonRiver(m'12)

stitute for V or ll-V r lt (m'9)
My Romance

(m'7) Do n't Get AroundMuchAnymore(82)

/ oaysof wine And Roses /bO* ,' ,,
f )\ *;t lAb lEVll 'rhoughtAboutYou(m'10)
frGroovin' '
lt CouldHappenToYou(m'6)
Ol Your Smite(m.26)
Tenderty fu;,outof
JustTheWayYouAre (m'10)
On My Mind(m'4)
rhechristmassong(m.5) \*l'" lf-t1urr]p )Z16'l
\ -cherohee(m'7)
By Starlight(m'8)
on GreenDotphinstreet(m.28) )(sl."tto
How LongHasThisBeenGoingon (m'4)
l GaveYouViolets ForYour Furs(m,3)
(m'4) BtuesFor Alice(m'6)
My Otd Ftame
(m.6) Moonglow(m'2)
Variation 5 . The Coltrane Matrix
I GotIt Bad(83)
Do Nothin' Til YouHearFromMe (m.4) eldom are we able to credit a single individual with
JustFriends(m.3) \.Jthe invention of an innovative formula for a chord
I RememberYou
(m.6) progression. Ordinarily such things evolve slowly
through the compositions of many composersover an
extended period of time. The Coltrane Matrix, how-
ever,came about very suddenlyand involved the crea-
GoodBait (m.6) tive genius of a single musician-John Coltrane. Even
StreetDreams(m10) when an individual does invent a new organizational
But Not ForMe (m.10) method for some aspectof music, lt almost never sur-
vives to become a new, widely-acceptedtradition. But
BetweenTheDevilAndThe Deep BIueSea(m.6)
the Coltrane Matrix is being studied, practiced, per-
In A MellowTone(m10) formed, and incorporated into new compositions by
Little Girl BIue(m.6) musiciansall over the world. Furthermore,having sur-
Mkty @.a) vived for nearly forty years, it is safe to say that it has
withstood the test of time! Its origin is an interesting
My FoolishHeart (m.12)
story. Coltrane was a musician whose life definitely
My SecretLove(88)
evolved in clearly discernable periods, each with its
OneNoteSamba(m.12) own thrust. In the late bebop era, one oftane's debuts
PolhaDotsAnd Moonbeams(m.5) was as a featured soloist onDizzy Gillespie,srecording
(m.26) of Tnr CHar',rp(by Gillespie), where he was a bluesv,
honking, emotionally-charged player. A few years
later (about 1956), Trane made a seriesof recordings
Wave(m.6) with the Miles Davis quintet and sextet, in which his
Unforgettable(m.10) solos were marked by considerabledouble-time play-
If I HadYou(m.4) ing, thorough realizations of all harmonic substance
available within the framework of the tunes selected
A FoggyDay (m12)
by Davis, and in general,a very high degreeof techni-
AIITheThingsYouAre (m.30)
cal virtuosity. This period is often referred to as his
HowAboutYou'(m.10) "change-running period," and it culminated (with his
I GaveYouVioletsForYourFurs(m.26) own group) in tunes like GraNr Srrrs, CounroowN,
andz6-2, all of which were basedupon the progression
we now know as the Coltrane Matrix. Having taken
change-running and exploratory chord substitutions
as far as he (or anlone) could, he suddenly abandoned
those activities and turned his focus to the harmonic
opposite of change-running, namely modal vehicles,
which becamehis next developmental period, culmi-
nating in recordings like Areeeua, Mv FavonrrE
THlNcs, and the masterful and inspired album, A Love
Supnnun. His subsequeng,and last, period found hm
experimenting with a whole host of new musicaldirec-
tions, to include free form, ethnic and international
buut@ musics,new instruments,new group instrumentatlon,
duets with drummer Rashied Ali, spiritually-inspired
music, etc., all the while stretching the techniquesand
nuances of his instrument. Tiane,s contributrons to
music go far beyond those listed here. A more
thorough list appears in David Baker,s book, John
Coluane, from his "Giants of Tazz,, series.

The Coltrane Matrix was actually a product of his ear' Coltrane used his matrix in a variety of ways' On an
lier "change-running" period, and some have put forth informal, spontaneous level, he could play the seven-
the theory that it was originally inspired by the bridge chord matrix, giving the first six chords two'beat dura-
of Havr You Mrr Mrss JoNrs (a standard tune)' The tions and a four'beat duration to the last one' using it
Matrix is a symmetrical arrangement of key centers over any II-VI progressionthat lasted four measuresin
that descend (by modulations) in major third inter' all (and there are mury of those!). Bear in mind that
when the matrix is used over a II-VI progressionthe
vals. as in the keys of C, Ab' E, and C. Note that the
keys symmetrically divide the octave into three equal first chord of the matrix is changed to become the
parts, so that it comes out even at the octave (C down same lI chord as the regular changes' The remaining
to C). When V7s precede each of the three keys, it six chords remain the same as the ones originally pre'
becomes a seven-chord progression: sented earlier. Sometimes the matrix was built into a
reharmonization of, say a standard tune like Bolv
ANo Soul or BurNor FoRMr, which meant that the
pianist and bassistwere also using those changes in the
C^ Eb7AhA B7 EA G7 CA
a.compuniment. At other times, though, Tiane would
C: IA Ab:V7 IA E: V7 lA C: V7 IA superimposethe matrix over the regular changes ouith-
out reinforcement from the rhythm section' This re'
quires a certain degree of courage, tenacity, presence
At this point in our study, the reader should under- of -1.,d, and the ability to hear the matrix indepen-
dently of what is being played in the accompaniment'
stand that the above progression has other options' (over a
One of the challenges is that il-VI changes
such as using ll functions in place of each of the V
four-measure duration) causes the I chord to arrive at
chords, or using both the lI anl the V (i/ chord-dura-
the third measure and be retained for the fourth meas-
tion time permits!) \X/ith this in mind, let's compare
the Matrix with the bridge of Mrss JoNes' Note that ure aswell. W"hen one plays the matrix over a four'bar
even the melody of GraNr Srrps fits the bridge of the II-VI progression,the I chord of the matrix doesn't
standard. arrive until the fourth measure, causing the matrix
player a reasonable amount of discomfort when he/she
h.urs th" accompaniment arrive at I in the third meas'
ure, perhaps resulting in the player imagining that
heishe has erred somewhere, since there are still three
more matrix chords to be PlaYed'
Figure rQ

GnNr Srsps: ebl obz chl

Mrss JoNns: ebl nb-t obt cbl

DA nb-t obt chl

DA nb-t obt cbl

When Tiane used the matrix in his compositions, we In the event that the reader is wondering why an
see other variations. For example, GIRNI Srnps uses improvising soloist would use the matrix at times when
dre matrix twice in the first eight measures,but each the accompaniment is nor, consider that it creates a
is shortened to fiue chords. In other words, he stops the format for "outside playing" (adding tension and chro-
matrix two chords before it returns to the starting key maticism to the solo) that is logically-structured and
lseeFigure 1-H). begins and ends in a consonant manner.

Figwre rH

interruption of matrix modulation t o G lntefrupt ion of matrix modulation to Eb

GraNr Srpps:
/ \ /
BA D7 GA ebt A_7 D7 GA sbt rbr rilt BA F-7 sb ll
Coitrane Matrix:

iBA D7 GA ebt rbr r*t BA GA ebz Ebr rilt BA D7 G^ ll

inB -- inG

In CouNroowN, which is a contrafactual Tiane tune In time it is likely that the Coltrane Matrix will also
that is based on Miles Davis'TuNu-(Jr, the entire begin to be used in minor, by using minor-major
seven-chord matrix, starting on a II chord is used for seventh chords in place of the major sevenths, and
each of the first three 4-measuresof the 16-bar tune, altereddominants in place of the unaltered dominants.
whlch modulates downward in whole-steps (the The seven-chord matrix would then become, for
"downstep progression,"to be taken up in Chapter 2) example, C-A EbTalt.Ab- B7alt. E- G7alt. C-A.
everv four measures.Coltrane also wrote a contrafac-
tual tune that is basedupon CoNnRuArroN, ca\ledz6. In minor, the progression is even more dramatic,
z. This time Tiane ignores the exact nature of the A mysterious,harmonically-intriguing, and symmetrical
section progression of CoNnnlrArroN, which uses a than it is in major. The chord-types are stronger, the
significantly common chord sequence called the key contrasts more stunning, and the scalar applicati-
"Confirmation Sequence" (takenup later in this chap- ons (for the improviser) more uniform. With respect
ter). But Tiane doesstructure z6-2, despite the matri- to the latter, the entire progression couldbe accomo-
ces, so that it starts from the same chord as CoNnn- dated by a single triad (a B, Eb,or G augmentedtriad)
MATIoN and matches up with each "goal" of the or by a single scale (a B, Eb, or G augmented scale).
CoNrrnrratroN progression,such asthe modulation to The major version of the matrix doesn't have these
IV in the fourth and fifth bars, the II dominant unities. For the improviseq the minor version is more
seventh chord in the seventh bar, and the I chord in challenging (if the single triad or single scale shortcuts
the last bar before the bridge. At the bridge, CoNrrn- are not taken) and ultirnately creates a more melodic,
MArroN modulates to IV, by way of its II-V, which con- lyrical result. In major, most players, even Tiane, have
sumesthe first four bars,so z6.z makes the samemodu. been forced to use a higher percentage of mechanistic
lation to IV but via a shortened version of the matrix. content in their solos, owing to the short chord dura-
The second half of both bridges are the same,provid- tions, the quick and incessant modulations to remote
ing a resting place for z6-2, since the matrix is not used keys, and the tempos. The minor version also has the
there. problems of short duration chords, the modulations,
ar'dperhapsthe tempos (the more-interesting sound in Variation 6 o Extensions of the II-V.I
minor will likely result in using slower rempos), but
Progression(in major)
there are no easysolutions, like the digital patterns and
change-running when played in major. For example,
can be but a single tonic (l) chord in a glven
the major seventh of a minor chord is more crucial to fhere
I key center. However, what precede.sthe I chord
its sound than the major seventh is to a major seventh
(the II and V chords) has a number of interesting
chord, to say nothing of the ninths and elevenths that
variations. For example, we know that tri-tone substi-
are also more effective on minor chords. Also, an alte-
tution makes possible a cell of II-7.bIl7 I. We also
red dominant is so much more colorful (+4, +5,b9, and
+9) than the unaltered dominant, that realizations know that sometimesrhe minor form of II (o) is used
in a major key. Though it has not yet been discussed,
such as the l-2-3-5 digltal patrern are neirher possible
sometimesthe II chord appearsas a daminanfseventh
nor aesthetically pleasing. The potential for the
chord. Using various combinations of the foregoing,
Coltrane Matrix in minor is currently being explored
we already have six mathematically possible verslons
by several composers/improvisers,at both faculty and
of the II-VI progressionlIf we substitutea III-7 for the
student levels, at the University of Tennessee,already
I chord, we increasethe possibilitiesto twelue.By sub.
producing fruitful results.
stituting #llo or bYlIT for the V chord, or IV-7 or
The following tunes use the Coltrane Matrix (or show bVI-7 for the II chord (borrowing from the "back door"
its influence): and "tri-tone substitution"), the possibilities increase
again. And then there is the Coltrane Matrix and
Giant Steps pmtial matrices (such as II-7 -|III7 -!VI-V? -l ).
The use of III-7 as a substitute for I, opens a very
large door ro yet more possibilities,mosdy relating to
DearJohn the extensionof the II-VI progression. Figure 1-l
Do YouHearTheVoices shows tcro cycles of fifths, one of which is the more
EI Toro familiar (in letters, with 12 entries), and the other
being a diatonic cycle (one-key approach, instead of
chromatic) in Roman Numerals, with seven entries.
[and don'tforgetto investigate \7ith regard ro the latter, note that the intervals
HaveYouMet MissJonesl between the numerals are not all the same, the
distance from IV to VII being a tri-tone interval, as it
is between the fourth and seventh degreesof a major

Figure r'I Lettered Cycle


D Bb

A Eb

E Ab
F# Db

Roman Numeral Cycle (diatonic) A shghtly different, not as common a progression as
the III-VI-II.VI progression of the foregoirrg para-
graph, is the progressionVI-7-ll -7.V7.I. Though this
cell uses the last four numerals as they were given in
the first progression (so that it begins on VI instead of
III), it also differswith respectto the chord-type of VI,
being a minor seventh, rather than a dominant
seventh (which makes it cornpletelydiatonic, asthe key
signature provides a minor seventh on VI). Another
distinction between the two progressionsis their usual
placement within a progression.The first progression
could occur anywhere, as an introduction, as the
II VII beginning of the tune, as a tumaround, as a tag, etc.,
whereas the VI-ll-VI progression is nearly always
placed at the beginning of a tune's progression. When
a I is added to the beginning of the cell (just before the
VI III VI, omitting the I chord at the end) it becomesa more
common progression that is also used for introduc-
tions, turnarounds, and tags.

Tunes which use Variation 6 (VI-7 -Il-7 -V7.I)

Looking at the cycle of Roman Numerals, .'.-:':,,hu,
II-V and I are adjacent and progressin a foward direc-
tion, as described at the beginning of this chapter. HowMyHeartSings(m.2)
However, III and II are not adjacent, separatedby the FIyMe ToTheMoon/n Other Words(m.1)
VI chord. This explains, in part, why a III-? is so often I HearA Rhapsody
followed by a dominanr sevenrh or minor seventh
chord on VI, causing the progression to flow smooth-
ly on to the II chord. So if a III-7 is used as a subsri-
tute for I, it is very likely that the next chord will be a Tirnes which use Variarion 6, but begin on I:
VI chord, leading to II. This helps to explain why sra-
tistical studies have shown that the III-7 and VI7 Emily(m.1)
chords are the fourth and flfth most populous chord I Can'tGetStarted(m.1)
functions in the jazz-poprepertoire,just behind the II, (and manvothers)
V and I chords. Actually, there are more VIZs than
III-7s, owing to the number of times that I moves to
VI7, then to II. The sixth most-frequently occurring Another mild variation on the III-VI-II-VI sequence
chord function is the YI minor seventh chord. In any substitutes a bIII" for the VI7 chord, so that the pro-
event, the expanded cell of Roman Numerals, III-VI- gression becomes III-7-blII.-ll-7 -V7-1. That cell is
II-VI, remains faithful to the cycle, and as a group, is used in:
the most common five-chord cell in the repertoire,
used in ongoing progressions,as tumarounds, ending AIITheThingsYouAre(m'j1)
tags, and as introductory progressions, (especially for BodyAnd Soul(m.4,but doesn'tquitereachI)
standards).The number of runes which use rhis pro- out of Nowhere
gressionis so grear asto nullify any attempt to provide
Night And Day(m.11)
the readerwith a list, being only slightly lesscommon
than the basic II-VI progression.However, if the read-
er wishes to hear the progressionin a continuous, repe-
titive manner, so that it is thoroughly assimilated, play
and/or listen to Clare Fischer's MonNlNc.

Retuming to the Roman Numeral cycle in Figure 1-I, the same interval from adjacent members. So now the
some tunes will extend the cycle even further by using extension has become:
VII-lll-VI-ll-VL Usually the VII is an altered domi-
nant seventh and preceded by a I chord, as in I VIITalt. frv-z(org) vut ilI-7 vr7 rr-7 v7 IA
III-7(or @)VI7-Il-7-V7-L Though the VII chord is
or in lettered symbols (in the key of C):
the only one shown here to be an altered dominant, it
should be understood that any of the dominant ril-t (or g) 87 E-7 A7 D-7 c7 cA
sevenths in the progression could be altered, at the
discretion of composers, arrangers, keyboardists, and
even improvising soloists. The dominant seventh on The foregoingprogressionis found in the following
VI, for example is nearly always altered, in common tunes:
practice. lt is interesting to note, in this regard, that
certain dominant seventh chords within a key's seven
potential chord roots are frequently altered, and others LittleDancer(m.1)
are almost never altered. Dominant seventh chords on l'll KeepLovingYou(m.1)
V VI, and VII are very often altered, whereas IV is Her Face(m.5)
l've GrownAccustomedTo
almost never altered. Ill is generally only altered if the
chord is heading toward a VI minor chord (relative
minor of I), and II is seldom altered unlessthe tune is Ceora(m.13)
in a minor key or the tune has a bluesy flavor. I, of Mayreh/All God'sChillun(m.9)
course, is only an altered dominant seventh if the tune MomentsNotice(m.8)
is very blues-like (at that point, anyway) or being used
In TheWeeSmallHours(m.7)
asV of IV. The altered Roman Numerals (bll, blll, bV
Moon River(m.14)
bVI. and bVII) are seldom altered dominants. The
latter point helps to explain why, in chromatically (m.8)
descending dominant sevenths, the chord-types usu- StellaBy Starlight
ally alternate between unaltered and altered, as in C7 (m.25,using o on ilv il\, and It)
B7alt. Bb?ATah ,\b7 G7aLt.,etc. In such progressions Strollin'(m.8)
the first chord, if it is I, is often a major chord, then
ThisI Dig Of You(m.26)
becoming dominant sevenths (altered and unaltered)
for the remainder of the pattern. In Dan Haerle's SmoheGetsln YourEyes(m.4)
Macrc MonNtNG,forexample (play-alongavailablein SoulEyes(m.26)
Voruun 4 of Aebersoldt series),the first four chords Our Lovels HereToSuy (m.8)
are E (major seventh), Eb7alt.,D7, and Db7alt.
My Romance
Extending the Roman Numeral cycle even further, YesAnd No (81)
a number of well-known tunes begin a phrase with a
harmonic sequence whose first chord root is bV (or
#IV), proceeding around the cycle to VII-III-VI-II-V
I. Looking at the Roman Numeral cycle in Figure 1-1, It was pointed out earlier that even the II-VI has
we don't seean altered numeral on IV or V only their many variables, if we include tri-tone substitution,
diatonic form. However, as pointed out earlier, the back door, illlo substitutes, Coltrane Matrix, half-
interval between IV and VII is a tri-tone interval, diminished or dominant seventh structures on II, and
which is not consistent with the distances between all so on. The more the progression is expanded backward
other numerals, hence the root of IV must be raised to through the cycle to include more chords, like ilIV VII,
become a flIV chord, so that it will lead gracefully to III, and VI, the more possibilities there are for slight
VII. If the reader finds this confusing, look at the let- permutations here and there. A progressionthat begins
tered cycle, and presume (for purposes of illustration) on {lV has a long way to go to reach I, the variables
C to be I; then move backward (counter-clockwise) could come into play at any point in that long "road
until you reach Fil/Gh.Now move forward (clockwise) back," and some progressions don't even make it all
from Fil/Gb until you reach C, and you will see that it the way back to Me have reached the point in our
forms a perfect chain, with each member separatedby expansions and permutations where it would be better

tor the reader to recognize, analyze, categorize, and Variation 7 . The Confirmation Sequence
assimilate the next list of tunes, rather than having the
authors continue subdividing whatt left into even
Th" "Confirmation Sequence"derivesits name
.maller pigeon-holes. Each of the following has a seg.
I from the Charlie Parkercompositionof the same
rnent that begrnson ftv b"t the subsequent chords of
name (deletingthe word "sequence,"of course).It
the cell will vary slightly from the presented models,
wasn'tthe first occuffenceof the progression,having
as well as the other tunes on the list.
existedin severalstandardtunesbeforeit wasusedin
CoNrrnrtranroN,but the latter seemedto be the tune
most responsiblefor the popularity of the sequence.
DaysOf WineAnd Roses
The progressions that formedVariation ? (expansion
of the II-VI) all beganfurther backin the cycle,work-
Del Sasser ing their way back to I. The Confirmation sequence
I'm GettingSentimentalOverYou generallybegrnson I and works its way to the object
SpeahNo Evil chord (or key) of IV. It alsousesdescendingII-Vs asa
path, like rhosein Variarion6, but this time endinqon
IV7 (or major).The progression is:
That's AII
I MIs IIIT Vl-7 II7 v -7 17 TV7
(or major)
A GhostOf A ChanceWith you
I Don't Stand. Or in lettered symbols (in C):
NightAnd Day
StrangerIn Paradise Ba E7 A-7 D7 G-7 C7 F7
(or major)
I ThoughtAboutYou
Sometimes the VII chord is a minor seventh chord,
I Should.
instead of half-diminished, but the latter seemsro be
YoungAnd Foolish the preferred form. After reaching the IV chord, the
Georgia progression usually works it way on down to I, but that
segment is not the topic of our discussion.The pro-
gression shown above usually consumesfive measures,
but sometimes the durations are twice as long, so that
it consumesnine measures(the IV either beginsa new
four-measure phrase or a new eight-measure phrase,
hence the odd numbers). Tirnes which use rhe Con-
firmation Sequence sound as though they're modulat-
ing to the relative minor, and indeed they do (by way
of the nature of the second, third, and fourth chords of
the cell), but then the progressioncontinues unabat-
edly until the IV chord is reached.

Tirnes which use the Confirmation Sequence are:

(note the preponderance ofblues tunes)

fil,-rrrtr'r L
Variation 8 , The Bebop Turnaround The following tunes use the bebop tumaround:

[ "tumaround" (an alternate term is "turnback") is
./-L" brief progression cell, usually rwo measuresin Ladybird(m.1s)
length, containing four chords, thar ffanspires at rhe WestCoastBlues(m.11)
end of a section, and is headed for a repeat of that I'll TakeRomance(m.5)
section or a repeat of the entire tune (as in another
(and many other tunes of the bebop era, too obscure
chorus). Its purposesare to avoid a harmonic lull that
to mention)
might be created by an extended duration of a tonic
chord, and to prepare the listener for a repeat. It gener-
ally perpetuatesthe harmonic motion, sometimesin
interesting ways, and keeps the listener from feeling PRACTICE SUGGESTIONS
that the tune, or the performance of it, is over. Tirrn-
arounds have been around for a long time. The follow- r Play the progressionillustrations at the piano (or on
ing are examples of early turnarounds: guitar) until they become familiar to rhe ear.

o Play the illustrations in all keys.

I v7
r Locate as many of the tunes on the lists as possible
I v7 I and locate the traits within them.
I bvuz r
o Learn to see the context in which the trait occurs.
bvlIT VIIT I What comes before and after the occurrence of the
l vl7 It-7 V7 trait? In what part of the tunes does it occur?

I VI7 II7 V7 r Learn as many of the listed tunes aspossible.Locare

blurt play-alongs for them; play them at the keyboard;
I VI7 v7
play them at jam sessions;locate recordingsofthem
III_7 vr7 lI-7 V7
to hear; etc.

The "bebop turnaround" came into being in the 40s,

and was a sort of precursor of the Coltrane Matrix of
about fifteen years later, as you will see. The Roman
Numeral sequenceof the bebop rurnaround is I (or III)
blll bVI bll. Had the last chord (bll) been a V, it would
have been the same as the trwxcaredColtrane Matrix,
used by Trane on a number of occasions. The chord-
types of the bebop turnaround are somewhat variable.
If the first chord is I, it will be a major seventh chord,
or if it is III, it will be a minor sevenrh chord. The blll
chord is usually a dominant seventh chord, but some-
times it is a major seventh type. The bVI is nearly
always a major seventh, but it can be a dominant
seventh. The bII is most often a dominant seventh
(with a +{), but sometimesit is a major seventh chord
(also with a +{). The classicformula would be I (or
tII-7) -brII7,bY
ln Tronsienl
t ,':,',

MonuLATroNs DowNwARD

Though this book is primarily concerned with the
n Chapter 1 the II-VI progression was shown as
auralrecognition of harmonic traits commonly found
the primary means of establishing a single key
in the tunes we play, visual and mental cognizance of
center. Even the various extensions and varia-
tions of the II-VI cell (i.e.,lil-7-VI7-II-7-V7'I' those traits is also important, assisting the develop-
ment of the ear by methodically introducing the ear to
tri-tone substitution, etc.), if not further strengthening
the challenges to be met. In Chapter 1, it was not
and supporting a key center (I), were certainly not
necessaryto recognize modulations visually' since we
suggesting a new or different key center. Yet most
were only concerned with showing how a single key
songs,when viewed in their entirety, willindBedmodu'
center is established, along with the manner in which
late to at least one other key' even ifthe tenure ofthat
extensions and substitutions are formed within a single
new key is brief. Furthermore' many tunes will modu-
key. So, with the inevitable likelihood of modulations
late to several temporary or transient key centers,
in most of the tunes we leam and play, how can we
sometimes in well-organized "sequences" of keys, and
know (when uiewingptogtessionsin lettered symbols)
that is the purpose of Chapter 2.
that a modulation is taking place? It wouldn't be a
A modulation to a new key is accomplished by the problem if the progressions were rendered in Roman
samemeans aswas presented in Chapter 1 for creating Numerals, as we could simply look for "modulation
a single or "home" key of a way of a II-VI symbols" (i.e., C:, Ab:, Ffi:,etc.), indicating the adop-
progression (or one of its variants), but in a new key. I...but that's not the common practice of
tion of a neq.u
\Uhen a seriesof short-duration key centers occurs in people who prepare the chord symbols for a tune's pro'
which all the keys (is) are separatedby the same inter' gression. Instead, the translation of lettered symbols
val (i.e., the successivekeys of C, Bb, and Ab, each into Roman Numerals is generally a mentaLprocess'
"new" key being a whole'step lower than the previous helping us to understand harmonic function and to
key), we can refer to that as "transient modulations in memorize and/or transpose progressions more accu'
a symmetrical sequence."Other common modulations ratety and efficiently. Chapter 1 pointed out that the
which are not so transient and are nof organized in chord-root sequence of the II'VI progression (in any
symmetrical sequences of keys will be taken up in key, major or minor) will always be a 3'note segment
Chapter 3. But having just taken up the foundational of the cycle of fifths, such as D, G, C, or Bb, Eb, Ab.
aspectsof the II-VI progression in Chapter f it would Therefore the existence of a II'VI progression, used
be easierto recognize that substance,both in print and extensively in virtually all tunes, evenwhennwdulat'
by ear, if the first modulations taken up are in rela' ing to a new key or keys, may be easily confirmed if:
tively transparent, symmetrical sequences.
r three consecutive chord roots match a 3'note seg
Though there are a few examples of tunes which
ment of the cycle of fifths; utd.,
contain symmetrical modulations that move in an
ascendingpattern (such asThad Jones'CpNrnal PeRx r if the three chord.t)pes used are appropriate for the
NoRru, or the bridge of Benny Carter's \UHeN Lrcnrs functions of II, V and I, respectively.
Ane Low, where the key centers are moving upward
in minor third intervals), far more examples exist in
which the keys are in a descenAingorder' Similarly, For the benefit of readers who have received at leas
there is a small handful of tunes whlch contain sym- part of their training in Classical music theory, tht
metrical modulations that move downward by, say, term "modulation," as it is usedhere, could create somr
intervals of a major third between keys, such as John confu sion. Classical composers generally approachec
Coltrane's GnNr Srnps (B down to G' then to Eb) or modulations to new keys in a very deliberate, lengthy
the standard Havr You Mrr Mrss JoNns (at the and sometimes complicated manner, incorporatinl
bridge, Bb down to Gb, then to D), but the majority of "pivot chords," "augmented sixth chords," "secondar
symmetrical modulations move by minor second and dominants," and other traditional devices. The aver
major second intervals. Hence Chapter 2 will exam- age tune from the genres of standard, pop, and jazz i
ine tunes which contain symmetrical, transient likely to have a length of approximately 32 measure
modulations that move "downward by half-steps and hence a lengthy, carefully'prepared modulation of th'
by whole-steps." sort found in Classicalmusic is neitherappropriateno

reasonable. Instead, we generally find no more
than The number of successivedownstep modulations in
rhe II and V of the new key, as modulating chords, a
given tune will vary from one (involving rqrlo
-iometimes only the ! and in a few casesneither kevs) to
of the more common number of two (in-volvint'*wee
rhose chords, moving directly to the new I I Classical
keys, as shown in Fig. 2-A).
dreorists might term such quick changes of key *tem-
Florarytonicization," but in this book they will be con- Successivedownstep modulations create an inter-
sidered"modulations." esting drama of changing moods. Becauseit has been
a part of our social and cultural ingraining, we tend to
The accelerated,fleeting sort of modulations found
regard a major chord or a major key ashappy, uplifting,
in jazz and pop tunes create an efficiency that allows
and a minor chord or key as sad, depressing.\Uith this
time for severalmodulations, perhaps as many as
4-6 in mind, look at Figure 2-A, noting the intersection
modulations. Jazz improvisers have always been of
the modulations, where a major chord (I) is immedi-
attracted to tunes that contain multiple modulations
ately followed by a minor chord oujrhthesrnneroot(i.e.,
(especially in the bebop era), selecting
standard tunes C to C-7). The minor sevenrh chords are really func-
like Cnrnor<ru, How HlcH Thp MooN, and Sran
tioning as II-7 of the nexr key, but momentnily they
Eyrs, and composing tunes like ArrrRNooN IN penrs.
sound like I- of the previous key, simulating a succes-
^{rnecrN, and REconna-Mr.
sion of rises(l) and falls (l-), emotionally. The musi-
cal effect imitates the ups and downs of human exis-
tence...we solve a problem, only to encounter another
Downstep Modulation one; we move to a great, new location, only to be
forced to move again; we find love, but lose it, and
on. Fortunately, songwriters generally choose to end
the sequenceon a positive notel The important thing
L-/be a seriesof key changes, usually in a descending
and symmetericalorder,and generally accomplished to note here, is that we eventually le amtorecogniTethi
by sounil of downstnpmodulatioru by noticinghow it makes
utilizing the II-VI progression once in each key. To
refer to such modulations as transient is an under- usfeel, even at those times when the progression is nor
provided in a written form! This isbutoneof rhe ways
statement, as the average durations of each kev rs
two we can learn to aurally recognize a segment of a tune's
measures,four at most. The most frequently-used
progression... by association (with our emotional
interval between key centers (ls) is descendingwhole-
steps, sometimes referred to as ,,downstep modula-

Figure z.A

D-7 G7 c-7 eb-t ebz

II_7 Bbzll-7 v7 Ab:II-7

f %
Another way to aurally recognize a progression we're The point of all this is that if you already know the
hearing, but not seeing, is to match the sound with the tune from which a contrafact has sprung, your aural
sound of a progression we do know. Again, we're using memory can make the association, making it unnec-
the associative principal, but this time from the per- essaryto seethe written form of the progression.Often
spective of "aural memory". For example, if we the method of confirming the correctness of an asso-
already know, hear, and play How Hrcn THr MooN, ciative guessis to hear, play, sing, or whistle the melo-
then when we hear, for the first time, AnruRNooN IN dy of the original tune with its new contrafact. There-
Panrs, our aural memory can enable us to make the fore, if you successfullyperform or hear the melody of
associationbetween two tunes, both o{ which use the GraNr Srrrs (which you alreadyknow) againsta per-
downstep progression. The fact that the two tunes are formance of Dsan JouN, then you can confirm that
in different keys (G and C, respectively), or that their the latter is indeed a contrafact, and so you already
harmonic rhythms are different (MooN taking nrne know the progression to that contrafact. Or, if you
measuresto accomplish its 3-key sequence,Pams con- already know How Hrcn THp MooN, then you can
suming only five measures to complete the same not only relate the progression's downstep modula-
modulatory series) is immaterial. What the ear and tions to those of ArrERNooN IN Panrs, but also relate
aural memory are matching is the downstep progres- the entire progression of MooN to Charles Parker's
sion of both tunes. ORNrrHoloGy, since the latter is contrafactual to
How HtcH Tsn MooN. In other words, hearing the
\7hen the entire progressions of two tunes are
melodies and/or progressions of already-digested
found to be identical (or very nearly so), one is usually
tunes against "new" tunes should be a regular part of
based upon the other, knowingly. The "copy-cat" (or
the disciplines leading to aural recognition of chord
plagaristic) version is referred to as a "contrafact." The
progressionsor segmentsof chord progressions.
contrafact will, of course,have a different and original
melody, but the progression is the same as a tune of The following tunes use downstep modulation:
prior existence. Such events have sometimes taken
place rznknowingly, unconsciously, by habit, erc. For
example, it is very unlikely that Frank Sinatra was Sfternoon ln Paris(m.2)
aware, when he composed NaNcy $7rrH Thp LaucH- Tune-Up(m.5)
rNc Facr, that the entire A section (8 measureslong,
fi1ow HighTheMoon(m.3)
played three times in an AABA, 32-measurelength)
Joy Spring(82)
is identical to the chord progression used earlier by
John Green in Bopy ANo Soul, whlch has the same WatchWhat Happens(83)
form and length asNaNcv. Sinatra undoubtedly knew, Recorda-Me
performed, and probably loved Green's tune, but any \4ornithology (m.j)
allusion to the latter's tune was most likely &il uncoo.
scious event. Many folk and country tunes share simi-
lar or identical progressions,partly becausemany of NewYorhStateOf Mind (m.18)
the composersare primarilysingers and lyricists, rather Bluesette
than trained, sophisticated instrumentalists, but also Laura(m.5)
because the nature of those styles is not what one
would term "harmonically advenlurous."
Starting in the Bebop Era (ca.1945) and continu- StarEyes(mm.4,7,U 83)
ing to the present, very deliberate and conscious
contrafacts have and do abound. The writing of
April Mist
contrafacts is considered to be a part of the learning
process for young jazz musicians/composers, and the Joshua(82)
more-seasonedplayers/composersconsider it a tribute OnceI Loved(mm.9U 33)
to the composersfrom whom they borrow progressions
(as was the case in Freddie Hubbard's contrafact of
John Coltrane's Graur Srur, which Hubbard lovingly
titled DBan IoHN).

The tune, INvrranroN, was omitted from the above
lLst, though the bridge of rhat rune very closely
resemblesdownstep modulation. The problem with
rncluding it in the list owes to the nature of the reso-
iution to I, which is not major, nor is it a minor-major
seyenth or a minor sixth. It is insteada minor seventh
chord that is used both as a I-7, then as II-Z of the
next key. Yet the chord durations, chord sequence,and
rhe altered dominants certainly cause it to feel like
l o w n s t e pm o d u l a t i o n s :

Figure z.B

rfr7+s\eB-7 B-7 tt+5bg

V7alt. a: II-7 V7ah.

A-7 A-7 of5bg c-7

t-/ g. II-7 V7ah.

Modulations Downward In Half-Steps whereas if the first two keys are a half-step apart (as in
C: to B:), they are at least five key signaturesapart
downstepmodulations can be described as being (seven if you count in the opposite direction in the
I"dramatic," rhen modulations downward in half- cvcle) I
stepswould need to be describedas uerJdramatic. On
the surface, the two types of symmetrical modulation Figure z.C
seem quite similar, both having key centers that are
drifting downward in small intervals, and both gener-
ally not continuing beyond about three successrve
keys. But the similarities end there. The two sound
very differently, we don't have the same chord root
sounded between keys with the first functioning as I
major and the next as II-7 (as we dld in downstep
modulation), hence removing the positive-negative :
syndrome, and more importantly, the adjacent key
centers ofthe sequenceare not nearly as close as they
were in downstep modulation. For example, if the first
two keysare a whole-step apart (i.e., C: to Bb:), asthey
are in a downstep sequence, they are only two keys
apart (check their locations on rhe cycle of fifths),
This means that modulations downward in half-steps It's important to remember that symmetrical harmonic
supply more key contrast, they will constitute more of sequencesvery often incorporate, in the given melo-
a surprise to the ears (also harder to aurally cognize at dy to the tune, symmetrical melodicseqrlencesas well!
first), and the effect will be even more dramatic, Hence our efforts to spontaneously cognize the chord
When hearing modulations downward in half-steps, progression by ear (and memorize i[ also) are aided by
words like "thrilling" and "inspiring" come to mind. In tell-tale repetitions in the melody.
the Preface, the words "glue" and "hooks" were used to
describe logical substance, hke the II-VI cell, which This would be an appropriate time to review and
"glues" together the chords and keys ofa progression, reinforce the goal ofthis study, and to consider ourpre-
and the more stunning events, which represent the sumed progress.Our goal is to learn to cognize chord
progressionsby ear. If the reader was successfulin
"hooks." Both of the symmetrical modulations pre-
sented in this chapter are "hooks." Consciously or assimilating the materials of Chapter 1, then heishe
unconsciously, songwriters know this, hence the tune can now aurally recognize the II-VI progression cell,
lists might seemsurprisingly long to the reader,consid- which generally occupies 2-4 measuresat each occur-
ering the nature of the topic. Symmetry doesn't usu- rence, and there are usually several such incidents (in
ally equate to "thrilling" or "inspiring." the same key) within the tune's progression. If the
various "extensions" covered in Chapter 1 were also

Figure z.D

D-7 G7 cA cil-z rilt BA c-7 F7 ebl

C:II-7 B: II-7 Bbz II-7

The following tunes use modulations downward in assimilated, the extended cell might be even longer,
half-steps: perhaps 6-8 measuresfor each occurrence. The topic
of Chapter 2 was symmetrical modulations, which
generally consume anywhere from 5 to 14 measuresfor
O Wherels My Bess(m18) each occurrencel With the average length of a tune
FiveBrothers(82) being 32 measures,it is easyto see that reoccurrences
Masquerade of these cells and modulation sequenceswithin the
same B-measurephrase or within repeatedphrases/sec-
tions (as would occur in an AABA or ABAB form, for
ftverything HappensToMe (85) example), might account for most, if not all, of the
*eace(mm.3 U 5) total number of measuresin the tunel If you can aural-
yThe SummerKnows(m.14) ly recognize the II-VI and its extensions (in major and
minor), and that same cell in downstep modulations,
$lochwise (m.2)
then you are prepared to cognize all of the chords in
How Hrcs Tsp MooN, Soran, PrNr-up Houss, and
SoulEyes(m.10) Ir's You On No ONE, plus many, many others! You
will also be able to hear 75-95Voof the progressionsto
Thp Suuvrnn KNows repeats the II-VIs in each key, TuNe-up. Launa, AuruuN Lraves. Pnacs. Evpny-
before going on to the next key. Crocrwrse omits the THrNG HapprNs To MB, and GoNp WlrH THB \VrNr,
II-7s, resulting in a seriesof V7s to Is (but still modu. to mention just a few. Also consider how easyit would
lating down in half-steps). be to memorizethose progressions,becauseyou are no

longertrying to memorizeindividual chords.Instead,
you are remembering3-6 chord progressioncells in a
singlethought, plussubsequent modulationsequences
of thosecellslThe remainingchaprersof this book will
addressother progressiontraits and tendenciesthat
will, hopefully,fill any and all gapsthat might remain.


r Go to the piano (regardlessof your chosen insrru-

ment) and play the excerpts shown in this chapter
slowly being sure that you're absorbing the sounds
of both types of modularions.l

r (also at the piano) Play through all 12 keys of both

types of modulations. The one that modulates down
in half-steps can be conrinuous, through the 12
keys, but downstep modulation will need rwo srart-
ing points, each covering six keys.

r Improvise with the downstep progression of II-VIs

on Jamey Aebersold's A New Approach To Jazz
Irnprovisation, V ol.3 .

r Play as many of the tunes on the lists provided for

this chapter as you know (many are available on
play-alongs from Aebersold's series, presently
numbering about 77 volumes).

o Leam as many as you can of the ones that you don't

yet know.

I If the reader needshelp with establishing a simple, but

effective way to voice II-VI progressions,refer to Jalx
Keyboard For PianistsAnd. N on-Pianisrs(Coker,
Columbia Pictures Publications. 1983).
'$t oI l'otj
..) l .' ,,.. ,'








't ::...) ' :,...

. ' . 1 . . . . ' . , . ' . ' . .

' . . ." . , . _ , . r .

lJpper ManhattanMedicalGroup(81)
n Chapter 2, modulations were addressedthat are
symmetrical and transient, generally achieved by YouGo ToMy Head(m.13)
using the II-VI progression and its variations. YouDon't KnowWhat Lovels (85)
Often, those sorts of modulations are used as a
basic structural element, establishing the character of
relatively long segmentsof the tunes in which they are More examples of modulations up a major third will be
found. For example, of the thirty-two measures that given in Chapter 5 ("Classic Bridges"), where the I
comprise the length of TuNr-Up, twenty-four of chord of the new key occurs at the beginning of the
those measures are consumed by downstep modula- bridge.
tions. In this chapter, modulations will be discussed
As a footnote to the nature of all modulations,
which are neither symmetrical, nor, in many cases,as
regardlessof their characteristics(preparedor sudden,
transient as the ones covered in Chapter 2.
transient or not, symmetrical or non-symmetrical, and
any interval aboveor below the original key), they too
can be be aurally recognized (quickly) by the reason-
ModulationsUp A Major Third (as in the ably trained, experiencedjazz musician. As it is with
key of C to the key of E) all the harmonic traits covered in this book, the
methods for achieving aural recognition center around
\ /odulations to a key that is a major third higher practicing them at the keyboard, knowingly listening
lVlthu" the "home key" (or starting key) provide to recordings of tunes whlch contain the traits; leam-
intense surprise, contrast; and drama, which partially ing at least one tune (very well) from each of the lists
explains their frequent use among composersof musi- provided in the book (including the learning of the
cal shows and popular standards. The manner in melody and improvising on the chord chord progres.
which the modulation is handled, as well as its place- sion); composing original tunes which incorporate the
ment within tunes, is also worth mentioning here. In traits; and by cultivating the technique of making
many casesthe modulation is entirely abrupt; that is, aural associationsbetween traits heard on tunes you do
the new tonic is not preceded by its II and V chords, know and those heard on tunes you don't, for the
heightening the aspect of surprise, and the placement moment, know
is most often toward the end of an A section, just pre-
ceding the bridge, or close to the end of the bridge, as
is the case in all of the tunes in the following list:

AIITheThingsYouAre (mm.6u 14)

and Beads(mm.9U 17)
GoneWith TheWind(tt.5)
I'm Old-Fashioned
Il t WereA Bell(m.13)
I Hadn'tAnyoneTil You(m13)
I LoveYou(m.13)
Moonlight In Vermont (m.17)
StarsFellOn Alabama(87)
Of YourLips(m13)

Modulations Down A Major Third Modulations Up A Minor Third
(as in C down to Ab) (as in C to Eb)

down a major third have unique

\ /odulations 7\ ll of rhe runes in the list for this caregory occur
IY lcharacteristics. They most often follow a minor f'Lin bridges, either at the beginning or ends of the
tonic; that is, the starting key for the phrase is in bridges,mostofthematthebeginning.Assuch,many
minor, then modulates to a maior key that is a major of them could. have been included in the list that
thirdlower,asshowninFigure3-A.Unlikethesudde- appearsfor that modulation in Chapter 5 ("Classic
nessof themodulations upamaiorthird,thenewkey Bridges"), were it not for the fact that the ones in
is nearly always preceded by its II and V chords, and Chapter 5 are limited ro tunes which begin the bridge
the duration of the new key is generally very short. on the tonic of the new kev, whereas the ones for this
Finally, the placement is most often very near rhe chapter begin the modulntionat the bridge (the II and
beginning of the tune or very near the end of the tune, V chords of the new key, the tonic chorJ not arriving
as is evidenced by the measure numbers given for the until about the rhird measure of the bridge). The rea-
list of tunes which follow Figure 3-A. son for making rhis disrincrion is rhat leaining tohear
the modulation is a little different if, on one hand
Figute 3'A we're listening for the contrast between the "old" tonic
and the "new" tonic, and on the other hand we're try-
c- Bv-7 E?7 ing to cognizerhe approach(II-V) of the new key. Five
of the tunes on this list (marked with an asterisk) don't
begin the modulation until about half-way through
the urrusc'
c-: I- A,"tbvl-l bllz bvll
*Autumnln NewYorh
The following runes modulate down in major thirds , ;l*u" ^oo,
and follow the supplementary characteristics given
earlier: ChelseaBrid,ge

Autumnln NewYorh(m.26) Douiie

AutumnLeaves (m.28,thoughthe,,new,,tonicis often Flamingo

a dominantseventhchord) Gregoryls Here
Daahoud(m.2) Hand ln Glove
Haf Nelson(m.8,comingfrom a majorhey) I'll RememberApril
Here'sThat RainyDay(m 2) lt's YouOr No One
Ladybird(m.l comingfrom a majorhey) "JoySpring
LazyBird (m.3,comingfrom a majorhey) Little Dancer
My FunnyValentine(m.32) LoveForSale
Nica'sDream(m.9) *MomentsNotice

OjosDe Rojo(m.3) My LittleBrownBooh

Pensativa(m.10,comingfrom a minorhey,andm.6 One NoteSamba
from major) *on GreenDolphin Street
Sunny(m.2) The Night HasAThousandEyes
What's New(m.2,comingfroma majorhey) Wave
We'Il BeTogetherAgain(m.5)

More examples of modulations down a major third will

be given in Chapter 5 ("Classic Bridges"), all coming
from major keys, with the modulation placed ar rhe
beginning of their bridges.
Modulations Down A Minor Third Tunes That Modulate To The Relative
(as in C to A) Minor (as in C major to A minor)

of tunes which modulate to a relative minor could be thought of asVI minor

f n the following list Th.
Imajor key that is a minor third below the original I and, at least in the classicaltradition, it sharesthe
key center, all of them have their modulation in the samekey signatureas I. As illustrated in Chapter 1 on
secondhalf of the bridge, except WHBu SuNuv Gprs the "Confirmation Sequence,"VIIO of the major key
BluE, which begns the bridge with the new key. can function as II@ of VI-, and the III chord of the
major key (normally a minor seventh chord) needsto
YouAre have a raised third in order to function as a dominant
ATime ForLove seventh to VI- (V7 of VI). Modulations to the rela-
Barbara tive minor are very common, secondonly to modula-
tions to IV. The fact that the relative minor sharesthe
Del Sasser
same key signature as the major key of a minor third
I Remember
higher, making for a smooth, logical modulation, is
Serenata only part of the reason why modulations to VI- are so
TheParty'sOver common. Another part of the logic has to do with a
n,er1lprevalent tendency to use a II7 (rather than a
*Vhen SunnyGetsBIue
lI-7) at the cadencepoint (last 2-4 barc) that occurs
just before the halfway mark of an ABAB (or ABAC)
form, or between the first and second A section of an
Modulations Up A Minor Second AABA form (usuallynear the end of the first ending).
Referring again to the cycle of fifths, a VI-7 prepares
(as in C to Db)
the sound of the approachlng II7, together simulating
the sound of a II-V cell. Finally, the relative minor
I ll of the tunesin this group have modulationsup functions as a sort of alter-egoto the major key, giving
f\.one-half stepar thebeginningofthe bridge, except a tune a nearly-related place to "visit" that changesthe
for BluB Bosse, which has no bridge. mood of the tune.

BlueBossa The following list is merely a sampling of the many

BodyAndSoul tunes which modulate to the relative minor, generally
JoySpring(whichalsohasonefor thesecond
A section) in the last half of an A section, the last half of a B sec-
tion (of an AABA form), or at the beginning of the B
or C section of an ABAB or ABAC form. Many more
StrangerIn Paradise
will be listed in Chapter 5's "Classic Bridges," where
Tricotism the modulation to VI- is the primary feature of one
genre ofbridges.

I'm OId-Fashioned
I ShouldCare(m.13)
Moon River(mm.7U 23)
On GreenDolphinStreet(m.26)

thought that has often gained expression Tirneswhich beginon bVIT(or bIII-7) are:
among those who produce, direct, and
perform is, "lf we have a good beginning
and a good ending, few people will notice Y8,lueLou
what happened in between. Applied to a jazz impro- yFee-Fi-Fo-Fum
viser's attempt to solo on a relatively unknown tune, Yl'll NeverBeTheSame
it means that getting off to a good start could be cru-
cial to the overall impact, with regard to the listener's Wtablemates
reaction as well as the level of confidence felt by the Jordu
improviser. \7e should be interested, then, in how a
tune's chord progression gets under way. Coltrane usedan interesting variation on this concept
in MoueNrs Norrce, where he begins a semi-tone
A high percentageof songsbegin with either the
below the II-7 and slides rzpto the II chord, so the pro-
tonic chord (l) or the II-7, which should present no
problem to an improviser who is needing to aurally gression becomes blI-7 -bV7 -Il-7 -V7 -I (the progressi-
on reoccurs in the fifth measure, in a new key).
identifi' the starting place of the progression.But since
composers are also interested in getting off to good Though not beginning on a bVI chord (or blll), the
start, they frequently like to stretch the imaginations manner of the resolution to V (or II) bears an
of composerand listener alike, by beginning a progres- unmistakable resemblance.
sion with something that might be more unique, star-
tling, dramatic, and mood-setting,asopposedto open-
ing with utter simplicity. Most tunes do begin simply,
TunesThat Begin On Io
but when they don't, it would help to become aware
of some of the frequently-usedmodels and varieties.
begin a progressionwith a diminished sevenrh
I chord is unusual in itself, let alone having the
tonic asa root. The diminished seventh chord is a rela-
TunesWhich Begin With bVIT tively rare chord-type (especiallyin recent decades).
(or bIII-7.bVl7\ It has a somewhat nebulous function within a key (any
note of the chord could be the root, since the chord is
the reader finds the bVIT to be a strange way to symmetrically constructed of minor third intervals),
Ibegin a tune, since it is not even derived from the and it is most often usedas a "floating sonority" with-
approaching key center, remember that Beethoven out a "home" (or asa "passingchord"). It generallyhas
was booed by his audience when he opened a sym- a very short duration (one or two beats), and when
phony with a first chord of 17 (a dominant seventh placed in the tonic position (on I) it becomesa veri-
chord on I, functioning asV7 of IV). They were upset mble anachronism to function within a keyl Never.
becausehe hadn't even establishedthe home key cen- theless, two of the more prominent tunes in the jazz
ter before assaulting them with a chord that wasn't musician's repertoire, Srnua By Sranucur and
derived from the key signature of the opening move- SpmNc Is Hrno, begin with a diminished seventh
ment. Obviously it didn't causehim to be reviled for chord on the keynote. In the caseofSrella, the chord
all time. In fact, it is this sort of ingenuity and courage is often revised by modern jazz groups to become a
that has shapedour musicalworld, so in modern times, flVo chord, but the original chord (still in use in some
the appearanceof an opening chord of bVIT shouldn't circles) is Io7. A third well-known rune, THr Sourvo
jar our sensibilities.Since that chord is located a semi- Or Musrc doesn't beginon Io, but after starting on I
tone above the V7, the progression most often plays major, it proceedsto Io for the second chord of the pro-
out as bVIT-V7 I. If the tune begins with bIII-?, then gression.In both SrBna and SpruNc Is Hrnn, the Io is
the sequence usually becomes bIlI-7.bVI7.lI-7,V7 I,
followedby a I major chord.
as it is in Srasr-Er,rATss.Blur Lou and I'rl Npvnn Bp
Tne SeI',Ir use the bVlT -V7 cell twice before going on Even the given melody's application to the dimi-
the the I chord. Wayne Shorter resolves the bVI-V nished seventh chord is unique. In all three of the
into a I minor chord in Fna-Fr-Fo-Fur',r.So there are aforementioned tunes, the sustained melody note on
variations on the formula. the diminished chords is the major seventh (i.e., a

melody note of B against a C"Z chord), a note that that it is difficult, sometimes, for the novice improvis-
not a member of the basic chord. It is, however. verv er to hear the distinction, yet it is important to leam
common to susrain a melody note against a diminished to do so.
seventh chord that is not a chord member. In Eubie
Blake's MruoruBs On you, the melody notes of the Tirneswhich begin on II7 include:
secondand fourth chords (diminished seventh chords
But Not ForMe
on ilI and #II) a minor sixth above the root, clear-
ly not chord members. IflWereABell
To understand this bewer, we
need ro examine the scalethat fits rhe diminished I KnowThatyouKnow
sevenrh chord, which is (appropriately) the dimin. In A Mellow Tone
ished scale, beginning the scale with a whole-srep(as
opposed to starting with a half-step, as is done with
dominant sevenrh chords). It is then discoveredthat Our LoveIs HereTo Stay
the scalecontains both the minor sixth (as in Mrrnro- Quiet Nights
nrcs On You) and major seventh (Srrrre and Spnnc RoseRoom
Is Henr) intervals above the chord root. We also
need StreetOf Dreams
to recognize the intense poignancy created by hearine
Why Not
those melody nores in combination with in. U"ril
chord, whlch is unquestionably the reason for the
composers'note choices.The latter point is likely the Tunes That Begin On IV (major)
reason why contemporary jazz composers frequently
use the slash chord of, say,B/C (B major triad, usually
peing thesame
asI, thenovicemayalso
in first inversion, over a C bass).The third and fifth IJexperience difficulty hearing thar a progressionis
the B triad (Df and Ffi) are the enharmonic equivalents beginning on IV (instead of I). Th. progr"ssionusual-
of the third and fifth of a C diminished triai (Eb and ly plays out as IV majoq IV-7 (and/or bVIIZ), to I.
Gb). Though the symbol does not indicate a Co chord. However, in the case of Ir,s Auuosr Lrrp Beruc IN
the illusion is there, and the root of the B triad supplies Lovr, the IV is followed by VZ (or sometimes IVo),
amajor seventhto rhe implied Co chordl So without then to I. The list of runes which begin with IV maior
using the "old-fashioned', diminished seventh chord include:
with a melody note that is a major seventh above the
root, the contemporary composer has nonetheless After You'veGone
achieved the benefits of the ,,poignancy" by another, y lt's AlmostLiheBeingtn Love
nearly identical means. JustFriends

TunesWhich Begin With II7 Tunes Beginning With I Major to IVZ

we_'vereally invaded Beethoven'sterritory

NT"* p..rur. of the closeresemblance of this cell to the
I \ sincethe II7 chord(not II mjnorseventh)iswhar
L)17 IV7 progressionthat formsthe backboneof the
classicaltheoristswould labelVZ of V (the II chord,
blues,the readermight reckon that composersuseit
becauseofits structure,functionsasthough it werethe when they wish ro createa bluesyfeelingwithin a non-
dominantseventhchordthat would to V) in the bluestune. Indeedthis is sometimes the case,asin \Vtr_
harmonic genre they refer to as ,,secondary domi- row'!7npp Fon Mr, for example.However,the cell is
nants," which is the genreusedby Beethovenat the usedat other timeswhen the composerwishesto capi-
beginningof the symphonymentionedearlier,only his .
talize on an emotional effect affordedby its usethat
wasV7 of IV (a11classicalcomposers used,,secondary differssomewhatfrom the bluesemotion.If the first
dominants,"but beforeBeethovenit wouldhavebeen chord is C major, for example,and the secondchord
unrhinkableto useir at the sturtof a work, beforethe is F7, there will be the feelingthatthe C maior chord
prevalentkeycenterhad beenestablished). The II7 is hasnow becomeaCminor chord (when the F7 chord
sonear to the sffuctureof a minorseventhchord on II is sounded).The entrance of the note, Eb, as rhe

f" *n"rir,r 4
seventh of the F7, while all other nores of the chord
(and its scale) derive from the key of C, creates
illusion of C minor. As discussedin Chapter Z,inrcla-
tion to the "downstep modulation,', the change from
major to minor (and vice versa) one a single chord
root, can be a sort of emotional roller .ourr.., so that
even the illusion of the major-minor sequence will
carry some of that emotional effect.

The progressionis sometimesinserted into tunes as

chordal substitutions (notnecessarllyat the begnnrng
of the progression), as keyboardists (especiallv) are
prone to do with the last two beats of the third bar of
Booy ANr Sour, where, in place of the given pro-
gression'sI-II-7 for the third baq they will use I-IVZ.

Tirnesbeginning with I-lV7 include:

lf YouCouldSeeMe Now
Oh, LadyBe Good
ThisCan't BeLove
Closs jc Brid g;;i'iW

: .:..:.::: ;. . r : . a , . . . . : : :. : : . : : . 1. . . 1. . : : - .


, . . . 4 :. , , . . . : ' . : . : : : . : . . ' . . . - . , , ' , : r i ' : , i i: :' ,. , , . : . : . , : ' ,



!l i1

t\-*-/ iL*:I
ridge is a term denoting a contrasting section describedasAA'BA? In that evenr, is Gooo Barr reaL-
of a tune. The most common synonyms for ly an AAAA form, rather than AABA? Does tha,r
the term are "channel," "B section," or sim- mean Gooo Ban has no "bridge"? Does Gpr Happi'
ply "the middle part." It is generally B meas- have t{ro bridges (B and C)? The answers to all tr
ures in length, and though it most often appearsonly these questionsare mostly of a subjective nature, iefr
once within the tune's chorus structure (i.e., AABA to an individual's personal opinion, bur the facr
or ABAC), a bridge will sometimesoccur twice, as rn remains that there is ample room to argue the poini
an ABAB form. Though both the harmonic srructure that the terms "bridge" and "B section" are not neces-
and the melody for a bridge is usually in very sharp sarily synonymous, though they are generally used that
contrast with the progression and melody used in the way.
A section, some bridgeswill retain the musical char-
The tune Topsy reveals another variation of the
acter of the A section. The best example of the latter
foregoing problem. Topsy also uses the harmony and
is Dizzy Gillespie's Goon Barr, in which the bridge's
melody of the first B-measuresection(A),again placed
harmony and melody are identical to the A section,
in the subdominant at the beginning of the secondB-
but in the key of the subdominant (lV). Another
measuresegment, but this time the tune returns to the
example is Grr Heppv, in which the 8-measureA sec-
original key after only 4 measures.So is the form of the
tion is followed by an identical B-measuresegment,
first two B-measuresecrions A B? A lt'? A B/A? A
also in the subdominant, in an ABCA form. The form
HlA7. Again, a determination would be subjective.
of GBr Ha.ppyreveals the need to make a mild distinc-
tion between a "bridge" and a "B section." Since the Regardlessof personalopinion, with regard to for-
"B section" of Gpr Happv is identical to the A section, mal analysis,che fact remains that one aspectof "clas-
but in a neq nearly.related key, it offers no contrasr ro sic bridges" is the reiteration of the A section in the
A other than the modulation ro the subdomrnant. subdominant, and the list of tunes incorporating that
The subsequent C section, however, is in sharp con- trait should include Gooo Barr, Grr Happy, and
trast (harmoilcally andmelodically) to both A and B. Topsv.
So is C the "real" bridge?If B has insufficient conrrast,
can it be called a bridge? Should the form really be The most common, by far, of the "classicbridges,"
however,are the following rwo types:

Figure 5-A

G-7 C7 FA p 7 ( o rn - 7 ) D 7 D_7 G7

C: V-7 I7 IVA rr7 (orvr-7) rr7 ll-7 v7

Figure 5.8



The two "classic bridges" shown in figures 5-A and Serpent'sTooth
5-B are so common that musicians of the 1940sgave
rhem nicknames, calling 5-A the ,,Montgomery l7ard
Bridge," and 5-B the ,,Sears Roebuck Bridge!" Turnpihe
Obviously the musicians of the day regarded each of WebbCity
those rwo types of bridgesto be ,o.o--on that each Sonnyside
\ras tantamount to a ,,cliche,,'hence the humorous
52nd StreetTheme
nicknames imply an "ofif-the-rack', mindset on the part
of the composer. The terms have all but disappeared
from the vocabulary of musicians, but asno new names LesterLeapsIn
have been invented to replace the old ones, we will Apple Honey
exercise the right to continue using them here. Tuxed.o
Of the two bridgesshown (5-A and 5-B), the most LoveYouMadly
common is the "Montgomery Ward Bridge', (5-A), One BassHit
tbund in almosr counrless tunes in many siyles. Oop-Bop-Sha-Bam
might surprise the reader who, becauseof the great
popularity of the I Gor Rny:rulr progression (ofas
is commonly called now, ,,Rhythm Changes") and its Cottontail
Iong list of contrafacts(Charles parker alone accounr_ Dexterity
ing for about 30 recorded contrafacts, many of which Suspone
are frequently played even today). Thoueh I Gor
RuyrHr'r and its many contrafacts do ,r" ,h" ,,Sears
Roebuck Bridge" (5-B), only a small number of other I A very thoroughgoing
list of contrafacrs, including those
tunes use the 5-B bridge, Scnapprp FnorraTHn Anrre, which use "rhythm changes,,,can be found in Dav]d Bakert
How To PIayBebop,VoI.3 (Alfred publishing Co.).
RoeerNs Nnsr, SuarrN,The Bruns Awav, pnruroo,
and C.T.A., to mention a few, which have dissimiliar
-4. sections to "Rhythm," but do use the ,,Sears
Roebuck Bridge." 5-A and 5.B have rwo sortsof popu- Many of the tunes which have a ,,Montgomery \fard
larity: 5-A is used in far more runes,but 5-B is Bridge" are in musical styles less-favoredby jazz musi-
th;ed cians, like pop and country for example. Even so, the
more often among jazz musicians, owing to the
extreme popularity of tunes which .rs. ;Rhythm number of standard and jazz tunes which use that
Changes." The following titles are only a partial listing bridge is so large as to be impractical to list here, but
of jazz tunes, mostly from the bebop era, which are Iisted below are a Gw of the more obvious examples:
contrafactual of I Gor RuvrHu, including of course
Satin Doll
the "SearsRoebuck Bridge"i:
Thrivin' FromA Riff MosquitoKnees
Celerity Marmaduhe
Crazeologr Undecided
MooseTheMooche Woody'nYou
Move I'm Confessin'
Oleo It Don'tMeanAThing
Ow TheThingsWeDid LastSummer
Passport JustSqueeze
An OscarForTreadwell DeweySquare
RedCross On TheSunnySideOf TheStreet
Rhythm-a-ning Tis Autumn
Salt Peanuts SeptemberIn The Rain

fl',urr*t"or f,o_
The "Montgomery Ward Bridge" has some very
"close relatives," if we are able to be flexible, and
since the object of this book is to leam to aurally
recognizechord progressions,examining some of the
variations could be helpful. For example' supposea
bridge is very similar to the "Montgomery Ward
Bridge" except that: (1) the modulation to the sub-
dominant appears just prior to the beginning of the
bridge, so that the bridge begins on the subdominant
major chord; and (Z) the subdominant chord is fol'
lowed by a back door progression (see Chapter 1),
returning briefly to I before going to the II7. Minor
uariationsonaprototype(in this case5-A) won'tprewent
o1.trearsfrom making the connectionbetweenthnt proto'
typeand a "closerelntiue."

Figure 5-C

C7 (orFA) FA F-7 sD cA D7 (or A-7) D7 D-7

17 (or IVA) IVA rv -7 bvrT IA II7 (or Vl-7) II7 II_7

The variation shown in 5-C is used in DoN'r GBr

AnouNl MucH ANvnonE, Rose Roola, THERI'LL
Nnvsn Br ANorHsR You, and IN A Mpllow ToNp'
It's interesting to note that DoN'r GBr AnouNn
MucH ANvvtonE is the only tune of the four listed that
has an AABA form. The others all have an ABAB'
structure. This may be indicative of a subtle tendency
or ffadition in song-writing. The the parenthesized
chord symbols in 5-C indicate various options some'
times usedwith respect to harmonic rhythm and chord

Sometimes a bridge will start on I and then modu'

late to IV as is the casein Mv Foor-rsu HraRt, shown
in Fisure 5-D.

Figure 5-D

cA G-7 C7 FA Ba LI A-7 D7 D-7 G7

IA v-7 17 IVA VIIo IIIT vI-7 II7 ll-7 v7

In other cases,the modulatingchordsthat leadto IV
maybe extendedto encompass the first four measures
of the bridge,delayingthe arrival of the IV chorduntil
the fifth measure,as found in Too Menvprous Fon
lUonosand ON A Crnan Dav. (5-E)

Figure 5.E

D-7 G7

II-7 V7

When the composer choosesto go to a VI- before the

II7, there may be modulating chords added that will
Iead to the VI-, as shown in 5-F. My Foor_rsuHeanr
and I'u Gr-ao THnnn Is You utilize that variation, and
the latter also usesthe early modulation to IV (like 5-
C, but without the subsequent,,backdoor,'feature).

Figure 5.F

G-7 C7

Even if a IV major chord is followed by a flVo7 (also

covered in Chapter 1), instead of a back door, our ears
can still catch the similarity between 5-A and the
variation shown in the following figure, which appears
in Leny BB Gooo.

Figure 5.Q
Some tunes will move from IV back to I briefly with- Other candidatesfor "classicbridges,"though not a-.
out a "back door" or a #IV"7, as is the case in BuN' commonas,say,the "SearsRoebuckand Montgomen
GnrEN (Figure5.H). Ward Bridges,"are sufficiendycommon to be consid-
eredhere assuch.Chapter3 ("Modulations")inrro-
ducedseveralofthose candidates,though that chapter
Figure 5'H

FA A-7 D-7


Yet another variation might follow the IV major with was chiefly concerned with modulations which occur
a seriesof descending dominants, starting in the fourth anywhere within the tune, rather than only those
bar of the bridge, leading down to the II7 of the fifth which occur at the bridge. Yet a considerable percent-
bar. Thxe THE "A" TharN, among many others, has age of rhe tunes listed in Chapter 3 did indeed have
that sequence,as shown in Figure 5-I. modulations which transpired at the bridge. Some of
those commonplace modulations at the bridge were
short-lived or transient, removing some of their signi-
Figure 5-I

FA FA F 7 E 7 zbt D7 D-7


The object in presenting the many variarions on rhe ficance as "classic bridges." Hence the following lists
"Montgomery \fard Bridge" (5-A) is not ro confuse will include only those tunes which modulate ro apar,
the reader. The point is that minor variations should ticular place, at the bridge, and which remain there for
not deter us from aurally recognizing that this classic approximately four measuresor more. The number of
bridgehas but three harmonic objectives:( 1) to modu- tunes in each list will attest to the fact that those
late to the subdominant (lV); (2) to arrive at alIT bridge modulations are common enough to be con-
chord on either the fifth or seventh measure;and (3) sideredpart ofthe "classicbridge" tradirion.
to end the bridge on V7, so as to be ready to return to
the "home" key for the next section. Those are the
three constants. Everything else is simply harmonic

(A minor key that is located a major third above
the tune's starting key, as in C to E-.)
STARTING KEY (asin C to Eb)
Don'tYouKnowI Care
I'm GettingSentimental
If I Hadyou
My Old Flame
I HearA Rhapsody
Indiana/DonnaLee(at the second
bridgem 25) JustTheWayYouLoohTonight
I NeverKnew
My OneAnd.enly Love
LongAgo And,FarAway
OIdMan River
(At least 10 more commonly-played tunes could
added to the previous list if we were to include bridses'tTaheThat AwayFromMe which begin on the II-Z and VZ of the new kev, th".,
YardbirdSuite resolvingto L)


(Relative minor of the starting key, as in C to
Embraceableyou STARTING KEY (asin C to Ab)
GeorgiaOnMy Mind Darn That Dream
How LongHasThisBeenGoingOn Do Nothin' Til YouHearFromMe
I ShouldCare EarlyAutumn
f I LoveAgain EasyLiving
MoonRiver ForHeaven'sSahe
My ShiningHout In ASentimentalMood
NancyWith The LaughingFace I'll KeepLovingYou
TimeAfterTime I'll TaheRomance
("How Long Has This Been Going On', and *Time SmoheGetsIn YourEyes
After Time" both start on VI-, then modulate to III_I) TheBestThing


STARTING KEY (asin C to E)
OnceIn AWhile
PolhaDotsAnd Moonbeams
PreludeToA Kiss
TheSongIs You
WatchWhat Happens
(The preceding list would be considerably longer if
were include rhose which begin the modulation at the
starr of the bridge, those tunes which don't modulate
until the second half of the bridge, and runes whlch
arrive at the new key just before the bridge.)

{ ' ' i , r "n s r r r f*

As startling as it might seemro the reader to leam that
so many tunes modulate the same distance up or down
for the bridge, it is even more surprising to leam that
many bridges share the same two successivekey rela-
tionships! For example the following bridge format is
used in GoocHrro, BnrwrpN THB Devrl ANo Tne
Dprp BruB Sra, Ir You Couro Sne Mn Now, perusr-
rNNe THonoucHFARE,I'o Do ANyrnrNc Fonyou, A
Ponrnalr On JrNNv, Ler Ir SNow, and Loven! (all
placed here in the xarting key of C for purposes of
study and comparison).

Figure 5.J

Area of E major Area of G major D-7 G7

I DroN'r Kuow Aeour You, ThxrN'A CuaNcp ON

Love, DaeHoun, and BRoaoway(notON Bnoaoway)
all usethe followins formar:

Figure yK

D_7 G7

r C : ) F :I I - 7
C: IA rI-7 V7

Sran Eyps has an only slightly different format from

the one shown in 5-K:

Figure 5'L


' C:) F:IA EbIl-7

Another reasonably common bridge, though perhaps minor third to a new key (also abruptly) for 3 bars,
not a "classic," is the one which appearsin A Nrcnr then shifts up a semi-tone in the last measure to a V7
IN TuNrsn, Torsv, and AroNs TocrrHrR, where a of the original key. In the bridge of Benny Carter's
minor tune's bridge modulates to IV- (by way of Vo WHrN LtcHrs Anr Low, there are three consecutive
and I7alt. of the original key) during the first four modulations up in minor third intervals, each as a II-
measuresof the bridge, then in the secondfour bars the VI progressionlasting two measures,with bars 7 & B
IV chord is treated as II of a new key a whole-step being taken up with preparing to retum to the origi-
lower. For example, if the tune were originally in C- nal key.
(during the A section), the entire bridge would be: GO
C7alt. F- (in the first 4 bars) and F-7 Bb7Ebmajor (in It is important to remember that even key relation-
mm.5, 6, & 7), then D@and G7alt. in the eighth bar ships (i.e., modulations up or down a major or minor
to facilitate a return to C- for the last A section. third, or to III- or VI-, etc.) mA successivemodula-
tions (such as "downstep modulations," modulations
Finally, there are at least two tunes that have bridg- down in half-steps,or those shown in 5-K and 5-L) can
es that modulate up in minor third intervals for two or be aurally cognized, so long as one takes the time to
more keys. In Opus r, the bridge abruptly (without learn some of the tunes that use them, listen to them,
modulating chords of II and V) starts in a new key that play them at the piano, and learn to make associations
is a minor third higher than the key of the A section, when confronted with an unknown tune that incor-
staying in the new key for 4 bars, then shifts up another poratesthose traits,

fh*;lii.r {_
,:' f 'd.
,.:' ,,', " , ,
1 ,,


TuNes rHAr usE THE Cyclp or


Monp TnrroNr SussrrrurroN




': , 1,. Cr-roRDMorroN wrrH orHER
CHonn TVpps


: . ' : , .: . 5'9
p to this point in our study, we have the various chord-types of the diatonic system
focused primarily on chord progressions, what was evident in the previou, .hupt"rr, where
especially the II-VI cell and its many focusedon the frequent alternation ofmaior
\/ variations and substitution principles; minor-maj or sevenrh,minor seventh,half-diminished
modulation tendencies and sequences; seventh, unaltered dominant seventh, and
common altereJ
bridge formulae; the vanous ways progressions dominant sevenrh chord-types within progressions.
how all of this relaresto formal ,rru.rJ."r, Instead, we will look at chord progr.riion
in terms of cells in
the placement of cells within a tune's which all the members are the same chord-type.
(into sections,as in A, B, etc.);
the sectional orsan- moving in a symmetrical manner. The symmetry
izations themselves; turnarounds; cadence and
fo.-,r*[u., uniformity of chord-type are sufficient to answer
etc., all relating to basic elements and traditrons rhe
in need for logical organization of a different sort
chord progressions.The common factor in than
the orsan- what was previously presented.
ization of all these things was the concept ,,torri./
dominant harmony" as it relates to key centers.
rs, we were concerned with chords of
the diatonic The Cycle of Dominant Seventh Chords
system and their corresponding chord-types,
and it
was easily rendered in Roman Numerals
becauseof is the simplest
that system'sorganization. Th" placeto begina studyof the
I symmerrical motion of like chord-types.
cycle is alreadyvery familiar to the reader,
In this chapter we will examine anorher domi-
kind of nanr seventh chords, and the trait is both",logical
organization and symmetry. We won,t abandon and
the traditional. Looking first at historical p.."..d..rtr,
cycle of fifths and chromatic chord motion,
because Figure 6-.4 shows the first six measuresof the
they are symmetrical patterns, but other symmetrical chord
progressionto the Dixieland favorire, BasN
sequenceswill be explored as well. And all Srnscr
the while, Brurs. Nore rhat the chords of measures2-6
we will be much lessconcerned with key centers arc a]l
and dominant sevenths,moving around the cycle.

Figure 6-A

Another early example comes from the bridge

Gershwin's I Gor Ruyrrrrra. Again we see a cycle
dominants throughout the eight-measurebridge (Figure
Figure 6.8 6-B).

The placement of dominant cycles within a tune chords whose roots are a tri-tone apart share the same
varies widely, ranging from the beginning of the rune, third and seventh, though the names are reversed.
the bridge, even in the middle of a section. The num- What was not said then, and needs to be pointed out
ber of chords taken from a segment of the cycle also now, is that when dominant cyclesoccur, of the sort
r.aries. In Figures 6-4 and 6-8, both were 4-chord that we are discussing at rhis time, the thirds and
sequences.In the mid-3Osthe John Kirby Tlio record- sevenths of the successivechords create a clvomatic
ed a track called "Ab to C" in which the tune besins sequence, again with the chord member's names (3rd
with what the title implies, a 9-chord slice fromlhe and ?th) being reversedwith each chord (seeFigure
cycle, using dominant seventh chords, starting on AbZ 6-C).
and continuing around to Cl In the late 40s Charlie
Parker would sometimes begin a chorus of the blues ( I ) If thh looks and soundsfamiliar, ir is becauseChap-
with a long cycle of dominants that began a semi-tone ter 1 also pointed out that dominant seventh chords
above the keynore, dove-tailing into the IV7 at the that descend chromatically usually alternate between
fifth measure. For example, if the blues was in F, the the unaltered and altered varieties. In other words, if
progression of dominant sevenths, all with Z-beat only the third and seventh of a dominant seventh
durations, would be Ff B EA D G C F Bb,which is also chord are present, there are hlo potential roots, locat-
a9-chord segmenr of the cycle. In the 50s, Clifford ed a ffi-tone apart (seeFigure 6.D). It also meansthat
Brown recorded JoRou, the bridge of which contains there is a o,eryclose relationship berween: ( 1) domi-
two 7 -chord dominant cycles, one starting on G and nant seventh chords whose roots are a tri-tone aparr;
the other on F, each lasting fou. *.".ur.r. (2) cycle and chromatic sequencesof dominants; and
(3) altered and unaltered dominants. All of this is
Recalling the discussionof ,,tri-tone substitution"
illustrared in Figure 6.D.
in Chapter 1, it was said that two dominant seventh

Figure 6.C


Figure 6'C

cz (or) obt C7 (or) Cbt F7 (or) 87 ebt (or) E7

7- 3

L / dtl.

f l , " r * " + u . ,I
6r \P
Admittedly, this is an extremely confusing topic ro
understand (and equally difficult to explain), but also
very importanr, asir solvesthe problemsof: (1) finding I Can't Get Started
good voicings and smooth voice-leadinss for domi- A FlowerlsA LoveSomeThing
nant seventhsar the keyboard; (2 ) knowing when tri-
lf I LoveAgain
tone substitution can be used (and what the root
choices are); (3) knowing when a progressioncan be AIIOf Me
changed from cycle to chromatic (or chromatic to I Got Rhythm
cycle); ({) knowing when the option ro alter an unal- BasinStreetBlues
tered dominant (or "unalter" an altered dominant)
I Hadn'tAnyoneTillYou
would be the most effective, and the relationshin
between that and selecting a particular root; (5j
knowing what the basslsri options are, with regard to Isfahan
selecting and/or implying potential chord roots that Caravan
are a tri-tone apart; and (6) (for improvisers) under- Jordu
standing the scs.Iarapplications to tri-tone related
ComeRainOr ComeShine
dominants, when one is altered and the other is unal-
tered (they are the same). The usefulnessof all this Little Girl BIue
information is such that, if the reader is confused, it Fee-Fi-Fo-Fum
would be well worth re-reading (and applying)until it Misty
is completely understood and assimilated.Relating it
to the discussion of dominant seventh chords in
cyclic motion, all such occurencesrn runes couldbe
changed to chromatically-descendingdominants, alcer- PreludeToA Kiss
nating (usually) between unaltered and altered struc- SweetGeorgiaBrown/Dig
tures. For example, the progressionof DZ G7 C7 F7, SachO Woe
found in the bridge of I Gor Ruyrnn (and all con-
trafacts) could become D7 Db7alt. CZ B7alt., or
Ab?all, G7 Gb7ak. F7. Though both substitution Therels No GreaterLove
sequenceschange the roots/bassnotes, neither will WaltzForDebbie
change the progression'ssenseof direction and logic,
nor the improviser'sscalechoices. It simnlv enhances
Dominant cycles also appear often in tumarounds
the soundof rhe progressionand/orprovidesvarieryro
(especiallyasIIIT-VI7-II7 -V7) and codas/endings(i.e.
it. 'RouNr
MrnNrcnr and Bob Dorough's recording of
The following tunes contain segments which use JouNNv ONn-Norn).
dominant seventh chords in cyclic motion:

Chromatically Descending Dominant Chords (any type) In Ascending or
Sevenths DescendingMinor Thirds

previous discussionof cyclic dominants made

Aut f,rom this point to the endof the chapter,
we will
\-/it clear, hopefully, that there is a very close rela- I consider as few as two or more consecutive chords
tionship between dominanr sevenths in cyclic motion of the same type, to be sufficient use of a pattern, espe-
and those which descend chromatically, hence a fur- cially if the pattem is repeated immediately with
ther description is unnecessary.However, it should be another two-chord cell moving in the same manner.
pointed out that: (1) the frequency of occurence in Sometimes the pattern does continue for more than
tunes forboth is approximately the same;(2)the tunes two chords. For example, considering the minor third
listed for this segment are restricted to the ones in motion presently under discussion, \7oody Shaw's
which the composer specified chromatic domrnanrs, BeyoNo Alr Lrurrs has four minor seventh chords
as opposed to those created by chord substitution; and descending in minor third intervals in the last four bars
(3) only tunes which use at least three consecutive, of the bridge (A-7 Fil-7 Eb-7 C-7), and in his com-
chromatically-descending dominants will be listed. position, IN Cass You HevsN'T HEARD,the entire
Perhapsthe most stunning example of this trait occurs section for improvisation is an indefinitely-repeated
in Lovnn, in which the entire l6.measure A section is sequence of major seventh (+4) chords, moving r.rpin
characterized by chromatic dominants. Freddie minor third intervals, each chord lasting eight meas-
Hubbardt Cmsrs is also a good example, beginning ures.Charles Lloyd usedthe samesequence,also with
with a chain of six chromatic dominants in the first minor seventh chords, at the end of each chorus of
eleven bars. One of the most memorable usesof chro- Fonssr Flowpn (a four-chord sequence, also). But
matically-descending dominants, also characterizing there will also be two-chord groups with repetitions in
the entire A section is Duke Ellington's Sopnrsrr- a different "key," as in Joe Henderson's INNrn Uncp
cArED Lanv. The bridge of Thelonious Monk's WEr-r- where, toward the end of each chorus, he uses two-
You NBpnN'r is a constant barrage of chromatic domi- chord cells of major sevenths, each cell having mrnor
nants, ascendingfor the first half, descending for the third motion between the two chords, and repeats the
second half. cell three times from different starting points, becom-
ing E-Db, D-B, and C.A (note that even the first chord
Tirnes which use chromatic dominants include:
of each two.chord cell is placed a semi.tone above the
BodyAnd.Soul Nutville second chord of the previous group, revealing more
symmetry). The two-chord cell that follows the C-A
ByeByeBlachbird RainChech
also continues the root pattern, with Bb-G, but the
Crisis SatinDoll chord-types are slightly different. It should also be
ln A Mellow Tone \SophisticatedLady noticed that the aforementioned composers are all
JuJu Stablemates relatively recent, contemporary artists, perhaps indi-
cating a trend, as well as a harmonic technique that
Lover Star Eyes
might contrast with the traditional II-VI, tonic-domi-
Let'sFallIn Love Stompin'AtThe Savoy nant concept.
LushLife There'sASmallHotel
The following tunes make use of this sort of parallel
MagicMorning WarmValley
Midnightwaltz \WellyouNeedn,t
Moonglow Witch Hunt {Beyond AII Limits
As was the case with cycllc dominants, chromatic Gibraltar
dominants are also used often in tumarounds. In lst (ln CaseYouHaven'tHeard
endings, if the first chord of the repeated secrion is a
II chord, the tumaround can be dominants on I VII
bVII.VI. If the first chord of the repear is I, the turn-
around might be I VI bVI V (last rhree chords are ls Bop
dominants). They are also used in tags, codas, and ShyDive

Other Varieties of Parallel Chord Motion Major sevenths move down clvomatically in Walter
Bishop's Conar Ksys and Hubbard's Lnrrp SuN-
FLowER.Minor sevenths move dor,rryrin major third
and chromatic motion excepted, parallel
/-y.1. intervals in Wayne Shorter's Spsex No Evn.
\r*-zmotion with like chord-types is still in its forma-
tive state, hence specific patterns have not emerged Finally, Horace Silver's Srlvrn's SrnrNars usesan
(in tunes) in great nirmbers. Nevertheless, anticipat- interesting kind of symmetry in that itistwo-pmtsym-
ing that those numberc couldincreaseover the coming metry. Two-part symmetry is the principle we apply
years,we should at least take notice of pattems which, when building diminished and augmented scales.
for the present, only exist in a small handful of tunes, \Thereas the chromatic scale and the whole-rone are
even one, if the composer is still very active and/or t(s1s-p?rt
symmetry" in that all intervals in the scale
influential. are alike, the diminished scale usesthe even altema.
tion of whole-steps and half-steps, and the augmented
Minor seventh chords moving up or down in crhole- scale has altemating augmented second intervals and
stepswere used in Hubbard's Sry Dtvn and Ren Clav, half-steps. Silver's clwrd progressioncontains two-part
and in Shaw's MooNrnaNs and Karruue BerlrnrNa. symmetry in the first four chords of SlrvpR's
Minor-major sevenths move in whole-steps in Srv SrnrNann, which arc E-7 Bb-? A-7 Eb-7. So the
DrvB and in Horace Silver's Nrca's Dnreu. Major motion is tri-tone interval, half-step down, then
sevenths (often with +{s) are used in whole-step another ffi-tone interval. If the motion were contin-
motion in several of Henderson's compositions, to ued, it would use all twelve notes (as chord roots) of
include Blecr Nancrssus and INNBn (JRcn, and in the chromatic scale.Jamey Aebersold has applied this
Lloyd's Fonusr Flownn. Dominant sevenths with b9s variety of two-part symmetery in the chords of one of
and 13ths move in whole.steps in Kenny Wheeler's his play-alongs. Using a single chord-type, he used the
FoxyThor. sequence
C GbF B BbE EbA Ab D DbG.

n this chapter we will discussthree types of pro- The list of tunes for this trait is restricted to tunes in
gressions that are essential to the harmonic which the CESH used was the composer's intent or
vocabulary o{ jazz.They are quite different from tunes which have nearly always been interpreted by
A any of the traits of prior chapters, for the most arrangersand keyboardists to have a CESH, hence the
part, anyway, and very different from each other as tradition is well-ingrained. However, there are many
well. other tunes on which arrangers and performers fre-
quently use CESH that will not appear on the list.
Once the reader has familiarized himself/herself with
the sound of CESH, it will be easyto recognize when
CESH (pronounced "kesh") the option is seizedupon in a discretionary manner by
a performer. In fact, most people already know what
-T-h" word, "CESH," is drawn from the initials of CESH soundslike...thev iust haven't attached a label
I "Contrapuntal Elaboration of Static Harmony." to it.
Its meaning is simple: while a single chord is sustained
("static harmony"), one member of the chord is in If a performer wishes, by choice, to insert a CESH
motion ("contrapuntal elaboration"), moving by semi- in a tune that doesn't already have one, the opportu-
tones, to be precise.There are four varieties of CESH, nities abound. It can be used over any long-duration
two in minor and two in major, each havrng one minor chord, or any II-V progression(in major), and
CESH in which the root itself is in motion, and one we know those to be in plentiful supply! It is often in-
in which the fifth of the chord is in motion. An illus- serted by affangers and keyboardists to heighten the
tration of each of the four varieties is shown in Figure emotion of pathos being expressedby the lyric and/or
7-A. There are countless wavs to voice a CESH on the sound of the progression. Even the second half of
keyboard or in an arrangement, if we consider options a ballad that has a "Montgomery-Ward Bridge" is a
such as spacing;doublings; placement of the moving likely place, or any of the many tunes that go to VI-
voice within the voicing (top, bottom, middle, etc.); and/or II7 in the second half of the bridge. In the case
adding extensions (9ths, 11ths, and/or 13ths); of the first CESH shown in Figure 7 -A, if it is inserted
rhythmic settings; melodic decorations on the moving in place of a II-V cell spontaneously, and an unknow-
voice; and so on. The voicings in Figure 7-A have ing member of the group (especially the bassist)should
been kept very simple to insure clarity of definition. sound the root of the V chord. the trait will still work.

Figure 7-A


It will simply sound like a V7sus.4, subsequently

resolving to a V7 (without a sus.4).There are a variety
of ways in which CESH is symbolized, bur once rhe
reader is familiar with the sound and sffuctures, the
symbols become transparent in terms of meaning/

One more qualifier for CESH needs to be mentioned. MusicToWatchGirlsGoBy
There are progressions/arrangementsthat use some- My FavoriteThings
thing akin to CESH, but not quite the same, especial-
My FunnyValentine
ly with regard to the first CESH shown in Figure 7-A,
which, by the way, is by far the most common of the Ralph'sPianoWaltz
four. A good example of a near-CESH appears rn 'RoundMidnight
Michele Legrandt THr Suuupn KNows (Theme from SeventhSign
the movie, Suntmerof '42), where we seethe progres-
sion F- C7IEF-7lBb. Since the bassnore descendsin
What Are YouDoingThe RestOf YourLile
half-steps, it soundsvery similar to a CESH, but we can
seethat the 'static harmony'aspect is not really there, TheWayHe MahesMe Feel
since there is more than one chord.

The following tunes use CESH (categorized by CESH in minor, with the fi{th in motion
CESH in minor, with the root in motion JamesBondTheme
MeaningOl TheBlues
After TheLoving
ATasteOf Honey MemoriesOf You
CESH in major, with the root in motion
Bittersweet Bojanglu
BloodCount Ice Castles
BIueShies U
ByeByeBlachbird Truly
Charade With A Little Help FromMy Friends
DearLord, YouAre SoBeautiful
Child CESH in major, with the fifth in morion
In ASentimental
ln WalhedBud
It Don'tMean AThing
It OnlyTahes
A Moment
JustIn Time
Other examples of CESH may be found in some Latin
montunos, in the melodies to some bebop and blues
Michelle tunes ( i,e., CoNrnuanloN and TBNon MatNBss ), and
More improvisational patterns.

C-.C-lBb.Ao I.bVl7 (and/or bIII-7)

harmonic trait had to be rendered in lettered fhis progression is used in both major and minor.
I chord symbols because it has no name (yet) and I Muttv older standards used it, generally in the
becutse it cannot be rendered in Roman Numerals. bVIT version. ln the bebop era, many of those stan-
There is a mild similarity to CESH, but they are not dards were revived largely becausethey contained the
the same. The AO is usually functioning as lI of G bVI chord, so that beboppers could change it to one of
(major or minor). This progressionappearsin: their most-favored chords, the bIII-7. Our Or
NowHpns, INoreN Suuurn, and Jusr FRrnNos were
Angel among them.
When the progressionis in minor (I-'bVI7)' it has
Day By Day a blues-like quality. In fact the blues scale of the I- ,
DolphinDance say C-, with a scale of C Eb F Gb G Bb C, all of the
I Fallln LoveTooEasily notes except G also work with the Ab7 (bVI7 of C-).
Both the major and minor versions of the trait exist in
lsn't lt Romantic
some of the earliest jazzcompositions (from the 20s),
as some of the titlei will show, yet it is still being used
TheMaestro in present-day compositions. The following tunes are
MagicMorning among those that use the I-bVI7 trait:
On GreenDolphinStreet Angel Eyes
EyeOf TheHurricane
TheGirl FromlPanema
I MeanYou
\ndian Summer
VJust Friends
Moanin'(Mingus',not Timmons'
My ldeal
Off Minor
\OutOl Nowhere
OutOf ThisWorld
Springls Here


he harmonic language undergoes frequent A "polychord," then, is a stacking of two (or more)
refreshings, thanks to creative musicians chords, whereas a "slash chord" is a single chord with
who are ever searching for new manners of an assigned bass note. Polychords provide three
expression. Such changes do not generally advantagesover conventional chordsr(1) by selecting
constitute a sweepingabandonment of time-honored the appropriate upper chord (usually a triad), any
traditions so much as they embelhsh and enhance desiredverticle sonority may be achieved. For exam-
those traditions. It is always difficult and risky to ple, if a C7 with an addedninth, augmentedeleventh,
declare which of the newer expressionswill take hold and thirteenth is needed, an upper triad of D major
of the musical imaginations of both the creators and will provide the added notes. If only the thirteenth is
their audiences, thereby becoming a more permanent desired, an A minor triad will add the thirteenth
part of the tradition they seek to enhance. It is safer to alone, as the C and E of the A minor triad already exist
sit back and wait for a reasonableperiod of time and in the C7. If an augmented fifth and flatted ninth are
observe subsequentoutpourings, to see if the more needed,asin the first chord ofthe bridge ofSrplla Bv
recently createdtraits withstand the test of time, reap- SraRucur (a G7, if played in Bb) then a Gf minor
pearing in numerous compositions by at least several triad will supply those notes; (2) polychords uniquely,
present-day composers,and beginning to permeate the yet easily, organize the voicing of a chord into a very
harmonic vocabulary of comping keyboardists. pleasing arrangement of chord members, and are easier
to read quickly than conventional symbols with mul-
The more recent traits seem to center upon the tiple arabic numerals attached; and (3) polychords can
general areasofchord-t1pes and chord progressions(or introduce unusual chord structures, previously
chord connections). The newer chord-typesare most- thought to be ill-advised or unthinkable, and cause
ly "polychords" and "slash chords." Both have been them to sound acceptable,even desirable.For exam-
around for some time, at least three or four decades, ple, a musician would probably consider the use of an
but the particular choices and manner of use by augmented eleventh and an augmented ninth (espe-
modem-day musicians are what make them items for cially the latter) to be tantamount to musical suicide
discussion here. Figure B-A shows the distinction when used with a major seventh chord. Yet if a B
between "polychords" and "slash chords." major triad is superimposedover a C major seventh,
the effect is exciting and even familiar, though the
added B triad adds a D$ (the augmented ninth of the
C chord)! If indeed it sounds "familiaq" it is likely
Figure 8-A because approximately half of the selections on the
1949-50album, BirthOf The Cool, by Miles Davis, uti-
lized that particular polychordal combination, especi-
polychord slashchord
ally on ending chords. It remains a popular choice of
contemporary composers, arrangers, and keyboard-
D (- chord .hord 1 gb7
(/ (- chord /( 1- bassnote ists.1

I A complete rendering of polychordal possibilities, along with

their conventional equivalents, appearsin ImprovisingI azz,
in Fig. 17 (Coker, Simon and Schuster,1964).

"Slash Chords" are a more recent development, most The polychord on the left side of Figure B-B (A triad
likely originating in \on-jazz circles, especially classi- over C7) createsa relatively common sonority, some-
cal and pop/rock styles, whenever a bass note other times referred to as the "diminished scale dominant,"
than the root was desired (corresponding to inverted since that is the scale that perfectly expressesa domi-
chords, where the third, fifth, or seventh was used as a nant seventh with an altered ninth (+9 or b9) and thir-
bassnote). Jazzcomposers,however, developed slash teenth. Dizzy Gillespie used that sonority in many of
chords into an entirely new mode of harmonic expres- his compositions and solos,dating back to the 1940s,
sion that is widely used in the present. Its development so it has been around for awhile. Horace Silver began
was first marked by using notes of the scale for bass using that specific polychordal voicing in both his
notes, notes which often were not thirds, fifths, and compositions and comping in the 50s.Nonetheless,it
sevenths, but ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths. This has since appeared in the compositions of Thelonious
opened the door to using altered chord tones as bass Monk (MoNr's Mool), !7ayne Shorter (h.rnaNr
notes, eventually leading to using even notes whlch Evrs), and Herbie Hancock (Dor-mrrN DeNcn), and
were neither a chord member, a scale note, or an continues to be frequently used in the present. Some
altered chord tone. The original version (revised tunes use exceedingly long durations of the diminished
since) of Ron Miller's \foon DeNcpz used, as the scale dominant (four to nine measures), such as
second chord of the bridge, a Cf-7 with a C bassJThe Woody Shaw's KanruNa BaLrEruNa, Shorter's Shr-o
revised version usesan E major triad with a C bass, FrowrR, and David Baker's Le Mmom Norn. These
causing the chord to sound like a C major seventh tunes would be especially helpful to the reader in
with an augmented fifth ( +5 ), which is a milder sonor- leaming to hear the diminished scale dominant. As
ity. Both versions are very enchanting, however. The stated earlieq the other polychord in Figure B-B also
point of all this is that the further development of slash dates back to at least 1949, vet it continues to be in
chords by jazz musicians has opened up whole new popular use today, though increasingly found as a
vistas of verticle sonorities.3 "slash chord" (as in a B major triad over a C bass)
rather than exclusively as a polychord. Examples of
Certain polychordal combinations and slash tunes which use that chord, either as a polychord or
chords have emerged as especially popular among slashchord, are:
creative musicians. Among the favored polychords is
the one discussedearlier, where a major triad is built LamentForBooher(Hubbard)
off the major seventh of a major seventh chord (as in Pablo'sStory(iebman)a
a B major triad over a C major seventh chord), and the
AIgo Bueno(Gillespie)
adding of a major triad on the thirteenth (or sixth) of
SpealrNo Evil(Shorter)
a dominant seventh chord (as in an A major triad over
aC7), both shown in Figure B-B. TheLieb(Miller)
'RoundMidnight - Introd.uction
Figure 8-B

4a, typicalvoicing: g*
typlcal voicing:


C7 I

nore: Cil is enharmonic equivalent to Db

4Liebman recorded this tune for a play-along album, published
by Advance Music for their JazzWorkshop Series.The
pianist, Richie Beirach, seemsquite taken with the polychord
2A play-along version of \ilooo DaNcr appearsin The Masic shown in Figure B-B, not merely using it in Panro's Sronv,
where it is part of the composition, but also in spontaneous
Of RonMitler (Miller, Columbia Pictures Publ., 1986).
comping and reharmonizations on othertunes on the album,
3 For a complete investigation of slash chord possibilities, refer
the most striking example on the track, Dav ANo Nlrr,
to Modal Jazz Composition(Ron Miller, Advance Music, where he usesthat polychord in a chromatically ascending
1993\. sequencefor seuenconsecutive chordsl
It should interest the reader to learn thatallof the spe- third. Such a resolution is not required in the jazz and
cific tunes menrioned thus far are available in a play- pop music of today, as the sus.4 is no longer regarded
along form, either from Aebersold (A New ,\pproach as a strong dissonance incapable of being indefinitely
To Jazzlmprouisation, Vols. 9, 10, 11, 33,40,56, and sustained. The 4-3 resolution is still used occasional,
60), Jazz Workshop Series (Advance Music), Hal ly, but more often than not the fourth remains sus-
Crook's Creative Comping (Advance Music), or Dan pended for the duration of the chord. Billy Strayhorn,
Haerle's Tunes For Improuisaion. in one of the earliest usesof the chord, incorporated
the sus.4 chord twice in his highly-acclaimed compo-
Tirrning our attention now to slash chords, by far
sition, LusH Llrr, wrirten in the early 30s when
the most popular chord-type is the dominant seventh
Strayhorn was fifteen years oldl The chord-type
chord with a suspended fourth, often referred to as
remained relatively absent from use until Herbie
simply a sus.4 chord. It is not always symbolized as a
Hancock's MaroeN Voyece and DorpruN DaNce
slash chord. Figure B.C illustrates some of the more
appeared shortly before 1970. MarorN Voyacn was
common symbols in use ar this time.
particularly stunning, in that the tune uses only four
The "sus.4 chord" has an interestinghistory. Clas- different chords, all with four-measure durations (two
sical composers of earlier centuries, especially j.S. of them recur three times over the 3Z.measure,AABA
Bach, frequently used whar are called "4-3 suspen- form). The Db-7 is the only chord that is nor a sus.4,
sions" and "4-3 appogiaturas," but in either case the and it only occurs once per chorus (seeFigure 8-D).
fourth always resolved to a "consonant"

Figure 8.C

Slashchord symbols:
G-/ G-79t

C non slashchord symbols: C7sus4 L /sus C7sus9 3


Figure 8'D

A-7/ c-7t
4 /D /F

A-7/ c-7t
/D /F


To be sure, the sus.4chord did appear in several places For those who might wish to focus on tunes which use
before MarnBN Vovacr, such as McCoy Tyner's Pas- longer durations of the chord, to facilitate learning to
sroN DANCE,the second chord of Fr-eMENcoSxBrcHss aurally recognize the sound of the sus.4., all of the
(from the Miles Davis album, KindOf BIue), the eight- tunes in the following list have four or more measures
measure interludes on the Davis recordings of Dran of duration of the sus.4chord:
Olo SrocrHollr and IN Youn OwN Swenr !Uav, and
perhaps even MtLrsroNrs, which many jazz improvis- Barbara
ers think of as having long stretches in G-, but there Fantasyln D
is a bassnote of C, which makes it a C7 sus.4chord. YuAndNo
Wayne Shorter and Bill Evans were also starting to use
sus.4 chords in their compositions around the same
time, but it was the extraordinary popularity of
MaroBN Voyacr that precipitated the sus.4 chord's WhyWait
becoming the most popular chord-type of our time. yPassionDance
In subsequentyears the sus.4chord has reappeared
in more the manner of Strayhorn's LusH Lrnr as well, Spidit
that is with relatively short durations of two to four Walhin'Up
beats. And composerslike Ron Miller use the sus.4 Little Dancer
with considerable mobilitv and motion, as evidenced
near the ends of the bridges of THp Ltre and NIcnr
ChildrenOf The Night
DaNcBn (seeFigure 8-E)
4n YourOwnSweetWay(Davisversion)
Figure 8-E

Tnp Lrss
'/o (ozsus+9) D/ EV
/E /F

Nrcnr DaNcnn

--------ft4-- { .}
The historical perspective given on the sus.4 chord monic "has beens." The extent of their prominence
brings up an interestingpoint. Why do somesonorities will vary, as will their longevity as harmonic "super-
require so long to be discovered?Why are some disco- stars." The lesson to be learned here is that we need to
vered, then lie dormant for decades(as in Strayhorn's watch for new harmonic developments, learn to uti-
use of the sus.4in Lusn Lrrn) and then re-emergeas lize them early, be cautious about predicting the time
an extremely popular sound? What is it that causesa and durations of their novae. and be readv to moder-
sonority to suddenly burst into prominence? Does it ate their use after they've passedtheir apexes.
take a widely-accepted tune (like MarnnN, for
example) to bring the chord-type into prominence? Another prominent slash chord is a major triad
Then what causes them to diminish, even virtually with a bassnote that is a major third interval below the
disappeaq with nearly equal swiftness? Are such root of the triad (as in an E major triad with a bassnote
chords akin to a passing fad? Do we rire of hearing of C). This is an alternate way to express a major
them, at least when they are in profusion? At the turn seventh chord with an augmented fifth (see Figure
of the twentieth century, diminished sevenrh chords, B-F).
augmented triads, and whole-tone scales were
extremely popular. By the 1950s they had virtually Figure 8-F
dropped out of sight. In the 50s and 60s, the dimin-
ished scale suddenly became popular (but apphed ro
dominant sevenths,not diminished seventh chords),
= ca+5
engendering countless "hip" patterns on the scale.
Now the use of that scale has moderated to a much
lower level. In the 60s the augmented scale and its
chordal counterpart, the major sevenrh chord with an
augmented fifth, began to emerge, and the popularity As statedearlier,this chord-type is still rising in popu.
of that sound is still rising, its apex still in the future. larity, but already the following tunes use it:
The sus.4chord has reached its apex and will probab-
ly diminish somewhat over rhe nexr decade,but that's Lostlllusion
a risky guess.Other new sonorities are just beginning Ruth
to attract attention, like the slash chord in which a Nature'sFolhSong
major seventh with an augmented flfth has the
seventh in the bass(as in a C major seventh with a Gf,
for a fifth and a bassnote of B), a sound that will be SailAway
discussedlater in this chapter. HopeStreet
The point of all this is that chord-types and scales,
My Little BrownBooh
in terms of their prominence, seem to have a life span,
that is they seem to come and go. They won't disap- Lost
pear altogether, but will simply join a host of other har- WildFlower
The next slash chord, shown in Figure B-G, is also still The slash chord shown in Figure B-G has been used in
on the rise. It conveys a certain poignancy about it the following compositions (more may be expected in
that touches the heart, hence it is often used at dra- the future):
matic points within a song. lt also sounds more like a
chord bom of "pedal point," and was used occasional-
ly by Joni Mitchell in that manner, as in her composi- JustTheWayYouAre (introduction)
tion of the 60s, Corr Blun Srml, for example. The Abba Father
chord often appearsbetween two tonic major triads, so A Childls Born
that the bass note remains on the root of the tonic
chord. The slash chord that is constructed as a major
seventh chord with an augmented fifth, having the
Figure 8-Q seventh as a bassnote (discussedearlier) first came
to notice in Herbie Hancock's Lrrrlp ONn, record-
ed by Miles Davis in the mid-sixties.Ron Miller was
very taken with Hancock's composition, stating in
his book, ModnlJazzComposition,that Llrtr ONs
(and his subsequent analysis of it) forever changed
his musical concepts. Miller wrote RurH shortly
thereafter, hlghlighting that chord-type, and subse-
quently used it in many other compositions. Like
many of the slash chords, the bass note is usually
played in octaves, similar to most examples of
"pedal point" (seeFigure B-H).

Figure 8-H


abt*st ,rt/o o,, abllc AbL*4*5/ or,G 7susP9

/G /G
Because the chord shown in Figure B-H so closely hlnner Urge
resemblesa IIO with the dominant nore (V) of an LoftDance
imaginary minor key (l-) in the bass,some conceive
that chord as the minor counterpart of the sus.4chord.
To explain, the sus.4 chord, even by virtue of some of
the symbols for the chord, could be described as a com- )()/ild Flower
bining of a II-7 with its V (as a bassnote), as in D-Z Wind,ows
(II) over a bassnote of G (V). Its minor counre{paft, ThelntrepidFox
then, would use a half-diminished seventh on II, DesertAir
instead of a minor seventh chord, but still using the ScotchAndWater
dominant note in the bass.And just as the sus.4chord's
in major is often used as an entity, not needing to In CaseYouHaven'tHeard
resolve to either V or I (as we found in MarlrN
Vovacn, for example), the same is true of the chord-
type shown in Figure B-H. Though a relatively new Turning our attention now to chord progressions and
and distinctive sound, this slash chord has already chord connections, several tendencies can be noted.
been used in the following tunes: First of all, since contemporary tunes have generally
moved away from cycle progressions and the II-VI
Infant Eyes progression, as well as the short chord durations found
Ruth in most standard and bebop tunes, we need to exam-
Angela ine what seemsto be replacing those traits. The sorts
Naima ofchord-types discussedso far in this chapter are rela-
tively new and unique, requiring longer for the hearer
to assimilate the various complexities, and that helps
to explain why the chord durations are generally long-
Nite Dancer
er than those used with more traditional chord-types.
SpringSong The advent of modal tunes also contributed to both
TrainShuffle the longer chord durations as well as the general
Prism absenceof traditional concepts for chord connection.
Wild Flower The newer chord-types don't fit so neatly into tonic-
GlassMystery dominant concepts, and so the composer either is
Ralph'sPianoWaltz looking for contrasfbetween one chord and another, or
testing successivechords with the ear to arrive at a new
kind of chord connection (if it works, useit!). Another
tendency, probably influenced by pop and rock music,
Thisls ForAlbert
is to use considerablymore repetition, often alternat-
Although it is certainly nor a new chord-type, nor is it ing evenly between two chords only. The rise in popu-
a slash chord, the major seventh chord with an aug- larity of the "ostinato" or "vamp" also accounts for
mented fourth is worth mentioning in this chaprer, nor much of the repetition. And again, repetition also
because of its structure, but because contemporary reduces the need for unusual chord-t1pes and is less-
composers frequently either give it long durations or challenging for the hearer to assimilate.
use it in parallel morion (as Ron Miller usedthe sus.4
One of the tendencies, with regard to chord
chords of THp Llpe and Nrre DaNcrR, shown in
connection, is to follow a major seventh chord with an
Figure B-E). Several of Joe Henderson'scompositions
altered dominant (+5, +!) whose root is one half-step
usethe major seventh (+4) extensivelyin this manner,
lower that the root of the major seventh chord (as in
as in Bracr Nancrssus and INNBn Uncr. Others, like
a C major seventh followed bv a B7alt.). This is found
Woody Shaw and Chick Corea, like to use the chord
in the last two chords of Joe Henderson's Rrconna-nr;
in extended durations, with or without parallelisms.
the last two chords on Cedar Waltont Bonvn; the
The following runes are good examplesof either exten-
last two chords of the first ending of Wayne Shorter's
ded durations or parallel uses of the maior seventh
\fno FrowrR; rhe last two chords of Chick Corea's
chord (+4):
Frve HuNnnro Mrlrs HrcH (except that he uses a

minor chord instead of the major seventh); the first two Using the numbersof each of the eight variations in
chords of the improvising section of SrarN; and twice FigureB-1, the following lists wlll indicate rhe runes
in the last four bars of \Talter Bishop Jr.'sConar Ksys. which usethosevariations:
Note that five of the six tunes listed so far usedthe trait
as the last two chords of the tune! Clare Fischer uses Hunt
rellitch ryellYouNeedn't
that sequence of chords in the thirteenth and four- Gaucho
kEl affinto'i'o
teenth bars of the bridge of PrNsanrva, \Talter Booker SpeahNo Evil LushLife
usuesit as the first two chords of the improvising sec- Fantasyln D (in 2-beatdurations)
tion of Saulaoe, and Benny Golson usesit in the third
Primal Prayer
and fourth measuresof STaBLEMATES. lUayne Shorter's
E.S.P. and Dan Haerle's Scoorpn both use that har-
oryfiPistroPhY tBolivia
monic trait at the beginning of their tunes, but in a
reuerseorder (as in B7alt. to C major seventh). \Uith
eleven entries for that trait, it is safe to say that this
waltz *w

particular chord connection goeswell beyond coinci-

dence and can be considered to be a strong tendency.
'lochwise ittleSunflower
Of the repetitive variety of chord connection, we (4-bardurations)
fant Eyu
will discussthree significant tendencies. The first one
has many variations, but they all bear a close resem-
blance, each moving repetitively between two chords
whose roots are a half-step apart. The eight variations
are shown in Fieure 8-1. 'hatWas


Figure 8-I

O'- bnl
\:./ IA bttt

U) 17 bw (d,
\-,/ r- bw

9Il bul @ hto

\1,/ 'IIA @h'
A second type of repetitive progression is shown in The last repetitive progressiontrair is one which is just
Figure B-J, again altemating evenly between two beginning to emerge. The only recordedexamplethat
chords, but this time the roots of the two chords are a might be relatively familiar to the reader is a tune
whnle step apart. There are two varieties, one using recorded by the Brecker Brothers, called Nor
major sevenths for both chords, the other having ErHropra, However, a few new tunes, yet unrecorded
dominant sevenths for both chords. but known to the authors, use the trait. More impor-
tantly, it is beginning to permeate the comping style
Figure 8.J

O,o t)\
\:) t7

The tunes which use the first progression of many prominent keyboardists, which is a srrong
in B-J( 1) are: indication that the trait will find its way into a con-
siderable number of compositions in the near future.
Ron Miller, a composer who always seemsto be on the
TheMaestro leading edge of his craft, has already used the ffait in
ln C-ase
YouHaven'tHeard(2-beatdurations) severalcompositions.
FantasyIn D
Figure 8.K

The tunes which use the second progression

in 8-J(2) are:
G-72 or C7sus9 G-Lt or c7+4
Killer Joe /c- /c
straight Life
West CoastBlues
On Broadway(2-beatdurations)
SevenStepsToHeaven(in the introd,uction)

Note that, unlike the repetitiveprogressionsshownin

FiguresB-I and B-K,the rootsof the two chordsarethe
scune, only changingin chord-rype.The changeis very
subtleaswell, only involving the changeof onenore,
since both chord-typesare within the samechord
family (dominant sevenths).The effect, however,is
especiallypleasinganother reasonwhy it will most
likely comeinto prominence.Keyboardistsarebegin-
ning to utilize the trait in any tune which has sus.4
chordsin durationsof four or more measures, suchas
MeroBN Vovecr, or eight-measureinterludes on a
singlesus.4,like the one Miles Davis addedbetween
eachchorusof Brubeck'sIN Youn OwN Swprr \Uny.

AFIERWORD The measure numbers, given where needed on the
various tune lists for each trait, were primarily supplied
for the purpose of directing the reader to places within
the the tunes where the trait was taking place. How'
ever, both the improviser and the composer can glean
esearch leading to knowledge and under-
additional benefits from noticing the relative consis-
standing is an ongoing activity. Overlooked
tencies of those numbers *woughoutthe list given for a
and/or incomplete information is always a
particular trait. In other words, the traits are not only
possibility, regardless of the effort to be
common to a considerable number of tunes, they often
thorough. Research is also limited to the examples
take place in the samemeasL4res within thosetunes!
that have existed prior to that research.Finally, the
presented results of research are often in need of a sort The seriousreader, if he/she is captivated by this
of personalization to better serve the individual user. sort of research and sees the obvious merits of its
This book is no exception to those three points. study, musf continue aAding to and embellishing the
contents of this booki Look for additional traits, new
With regard to the first point (overlooked and/or traits, and more tunes to add to the lists. Personalize
incomplete information), the harmonic traits present- the contents for better understanding and assimila-
ed in this book, though in abundance, are not a com- tion. If the tune lists do not contain titles that are
plete rendering, owing to: ( 1) the deliberate omission familiar to the reader,searchfor at least one which uses
of traits which were known to exist, but which seemed the trait in question that is familiar, adding it to the
too rare for inclusion; (2) the need to focus on the list. Finally, since the purpose of the book is to assist
most common traits, to facilitate better assimilation the reader in learning to heot the traits, look for addi-
and to avoid overburdening and/or discouraging the tional ways to aurally assimilate the material that
reader; and (3) the possibility that, despite concerted might go beyond what is suggestedat the end of each
effort, one or more traits failed to be noticed bv the chapter. For example, in this age of syntheslzers,
authors. sequencers,computers,MIDI, and multi-track record-
ers, there are a multitude of possibilities for creating
Some of the harmonic traits that were deliberate. individualized materialsthat will assistthe reader(and
ly omitted because of a lack of tune examples were perhaps others aswell) in learning to hear and cognize
traits only found in tunes of a relatively recent vintage, more quickly and completely. Learn to use a keyboard
hence those numbers may increase in the future, to play traits. Read a multitude of tunes at the key-
deservinginclusion at that time. Neq.utraits, not yet in board, where the written symbolswill join forceswith
existence in even a single tune, will doubtlessly the hearing of them, facilitating both an intellectual
emergeas well. and an aural understanding. Compose tunes that use
some of the traits presentedin this book (that activi-
With regard to the tune lists associatedwith each
ty will promote the fastest possible assimilationl). If
harmonic trait, though hundreds upon hundreds of
one is accustomed to using play-alongs for study, try to
tunes were examined and considered, the presented
transcribe and/or improvise with the play-along pro-
lists are by no meanscomplete. Some were deliberate- gressions before looktng at the provided reference
ly omitted because they were considered to be too
material, so that the ear is fully engaged. Get into the
obscure, or simply because they weren't among the
habit of trying to cognize chord progressionsin all
clearest examples of a trait. Others are absent from the
listening, whether on radio, television, recordings,live
lists because they didn't come to mind, though they performances,etc., even when listening to someonein
were known by the authors. Hardly a day went by private practice. Finally, try to enlist a musician friend
when , upon hearing a live or recorded performance,
to join you in your study, so that you can help each
the authors were reminded of yet another tune worthy
of inclusion, and that processwill no doubt continue
long after the publication. Also, we are equally certain This activity, as experienced by the authors, will so
that some tunes failed to get on the lists simply focus the mind, so stimulate the ear, that noticeable
becausewe didn't know of the tune'sexistence.Final- leaps of musical prowess are inevitable. As a creative
ly, new tunes will be written that belong on one or "nudge," this book could be describedas the "ultimate
more of the tune lists. tune-study,"

j:,ii';,,:t,,,i,., :,i
THEUST played and heard many times, to ingrain the sound of
the trait. It would also be helpful to study the remain-
(AppendjxA) ing titles on the part of the progression, should one of
those tunes come up unexpectedly in a playing situa-
tion. Teachers of improvisation, arranging, andlor jazz
theory courses also need to make choices, so as to
fl-lhis is a complerelist of all the tunesdiscussed present an efficient list of tunes that would expose the
I and/or renderedin one or more of the many
class to as many of the traits as possible in a limited
I liststhat appearthroughoutthis book. It is nor, amount of classtime. To assistboth the individual and
certainly,a completelist of all rhe tunes that should the teacher, we've tallied the number of times that
be in the jazzmusician'srepertoire.\7e areneither sug- each tune was discussedand/or listed the book, so that
gestingthat the readerleam all thesetunes,nor arewe a reasonably good or desired tune that also includes
suggestingthat the runesin this list are the very best more than one trait might become one of the choices.
tunes that have ever been written (though someof These numbers shoc, in the porenthesesafter the title.
them are amongthe best).Thesetuneswereselected When a title is not followed by a number in parenthe-
becausethey shareone or more harmonic traits. The sis, it indicates that the tune was only mentioned or
liststhat follow the discussionof eachtrait areintend. listed one time. This shouldn't automatically disqual-
ed to be long enoughro supportthe notion that the ift the tune from inclusion in an efficient list, especi-
trait is indeed common, and presentedwith the ally if the reader views the tune as a great or needed
assumptionthat the readerrecognizesat leastone of tune, but it is an indicator of its usefulnessin assimi-
the tuneson eachlist. lating all the traits with asfew tunes aspossible.A high
percentage of the listed tunes are available in a pub-
lished play-along format, which could be very helpful
to the reader. \Thenever a number appears after a
How To Use This List title, it is indicating a particular play-along album
which includes that title. A one or two-digit number
Becausethe list is very long, the user will be confront. is a volume in the seriespubl ishedby JameyAebersold
ed with the need to make choices, creating a much (A NeouApproachTo Jazzlmprouisation).A five-digtt
shorter, more efficient list that would help hlm/her to number is a CD number of one of the play-alongs in
leam, especially to hear each of the harmonic ffarrs.
JazzWorkshopSeries,published by Advance Music.
The tunes selected for thatpurpose should be leamed,

*!t rotn"' ?ffi{*@ uo
Blood (2)66
6267- bUl(L etb gfa(Kxourt
A Born BlylrBossa
s4 u 67 DeaiLofd28
>, (?3)
AffairedAmour BlueLou Del Sasser(2) 13
"qb ,t +4
A b T oC Bl"ipMoon34 U 70 DesertAir
lsA LovesomeThing
66 (z)
fttEs Desafinado
31 U 74

!.['sa DaY
25 (z)+s
\yesgte leweySquare6U69
Nf,v;";1u',y"'r't BluesForAlice(2165
?-t^ 7l
e Delores
Lovins It6u r?-
BodvAndSoul(6\ 41 U74
(3)6u "6e
Ah-Leu-Cha ql c> (%)t18)(u) ??'ggt*
ul :1- Do flothin'Til YouHearFromMe (2)
iF ,,
Aiy*tMisbehavin' G*-
\t'fl{oFi ee1
u,sibgbt) Bonnie's
Me LL \t(azS
e'ss w' (21
Don'tYouKnowI Care
+t 4 e( ; 6 \ ' Douiie2) 62
{ffeau{futzz D"gYou HearTheVoices
t{ft,t,oowoman 6s
.YNl'{sLYe(3) ?qtaus+
ufft62 Blachbird
(2)3ea 6s
its,{p ez UtW
11 lyty$gumn (z)+o
tgarrtg@zz f,gtaloufe
59 Ftvlii,s (2)22u,se
0j u 43 ffravan EyqhJ2) 18
+{,c?.'Ji+, Celeritv
,lgpscar F6rTreadwell t, 33
a 59
A PortraitOf Jennv Sra38 z8
( 6C)' {{oro
lP'oa' {qbrs*oUtrYou
(2) 14503u 51
32u 66 Emilv(2\ 18
A g{ist 63 a5 ',f '

Rhumba tT":t'i{'|,su 61 s6
of TheNight(Shorter's)
of Honey *9*,
China Bov
ATimeForLove40 ,, Happens
I/+ lErything
ln NewYorh(2) 40 T'thvgq{ (orD}..4ef,suetl6$ fneHurricane'l'l
\gum Co[raneBlues16 1i f
$, e'67
ComeRainOr ComeShine25
46 t?\lrryW@6,6s,68,
FeeFi FoFum
t1b 6Z

Egl'?f1SYt CpralKevs(2160
AndBeads 7
&y0,*, 8,!J!;k ffnd
Fjg Brothers
w;9'nu' t,
28 500MilesHish
CrazeologSr 1+6)
Anu,O Wherels My Bess Flam-enco
}ug f
TheDevilAnd TheDeepBlue Crisisi8 U 60 Ft1y;Tngo
"5) +e
seaP1t$ (55) C.T.A.
( sr) F!4t, ro TheMoon

e ?vl411u " {g/s

$ffrsweet ,Wr{lorDream(2) Fggrints33 u s4

|,;9'r DayAnd Nite14504 Fdys@er(2)74
Htr lt;:i'f e)
BlachNile 33
t Heaven's
Sake (3\

T?- z2f{s glwine AndRoses

(2)40 Fotir7, 65,A 67 zl
Fon o€ "3rv
ihl; ii*i
FoxvTrot t Hsar (z) 66
Jg$W Come
f $haPsody
r{etgn\tratnv) ro I Know
ThatYou 40 One-Note

Eg'sigyVyv ae
t:Jy?:#LovingYou lf,l),,,,,
+Ie bLGg
GetHa00y BeTheSame
l'll Never 50
'crigntfl:$Q) (5) 16U 53
u 68
28,6s, APrit43 JovSorins
fl\Remember ??-'264\ 44
Gibraltar60 (2)58
l'{dakeRomance JUJU J5
tt 6\ 6'
Glass a6
tll*Wind JustFriends4) 34 U 59
1q Ib' L 5 1 1 \q ? ' , 6 9
stesrhe You25
I Love J$t ln Time
f$ 41 b?

bowen Laav
ThatI LoveYou
lm Confessin'
I MeanYou36U 56
lgstSqueezeMe 48 U 71
69 ronight61uss
GoneWithTheWind(2158 OverYou(2)52
Sentimental il;il, wayYouLook
4L (re) {m SgttinS ,t
GoodBait(2)' 65 ,'(fl\orhere tsYou Katrina.Ballerina(2) 9
z! (5o)' (6+)t ?')
q)" - t;mOfdFashioned(3)55 K/leiJoe14u70
al+ +z qq t.ot *F-kta
High43 'r4W'ltv{yi$gt^ [gdtbird
(3) 36 a 70 cz)
Half Nelson(3) Mood(2) 12 Lament 60
z1 +> lnA S-entimental
Gtove 35
,, 6+
In CaieYouHaven't (3)9
Heard 'tt'tJil'o
(2) 25 U 74 6, 76 Tg
Hayef7u-Met MissJones Indiana(3) 61 LazvBird38
Lg (+\)
r/e;e'i Tliat RainyDaY23 1r5 " 7o
IndianSummer(21 (lr)
kq 69
oneysuchle DroP
ff {{,;9x,,* tz1 )Pon
(4\ 33
lnfantEves LpterLeaqsln
QryStreet63 7b ?a ( +6 ?l
ly t?*You InnerUrse(3) 38
?>-.76. (bJ+) ,,,, w'tt,,*
HaiThisBeenGoingOn (2)
tprthg{ed-snfall (2)58 Let'sFallln Love58
- sa Sorronu 23 u 58
ln Love
r\t" ffsPection
34 U 59
lnvitation ri[oq{,'{z)
HowMv HeartSings (>")
z) ln WalkedBud56 Litha14505
(3) 25 U 74 75
I Can'tGetStarted. 6+
lL zl 6"
lceCastles +VT$X,
sweetwaY LgE 8b*,t
G+ You(2) 22
,4{&#) I Rem.dmbdr
z5 I+q
21 6z
Little One
l'd DoAnvthinpForYou 6u (+s)
(2) 60
I Should Care(4) 23
,\fr)l KnowAboutYou48 zh ,l ltq 55 ?l tqls
lsn't lt Romantic
, /}oh)t of A Chance
tr"raA Ghost 69
tgget LoftDance19
,\Mith (2)55
7u9re* And
lLCould ToYou(2) 22
HaPPen 2+"5'
ff rr+
u?,.. (2)5e
EasitY rllogdueanA rhing(2)se Lost
(2)41 Lostlllusion
{+HflYou [t'ifn,
AboutYou 7t
25 LoveForSale
tf|rLotgAgainQ) a0 As WellBeSPring 4)
f{igh, (2) 22 U 61
lf' qI \WereA Bell(2\ 46 l6$tUTakesA Moment 63 (f61
\-t lgrveYouMadlY
'qs .Yqu CouldSee Me Now(2)72 It's AlmostLiheBeingln Love
(66) q?
ForYourFurs u 68
Noone(2)1s,61, Et"P
Lfl,rfrYouViolets {,+Ighg LuckySouthern
o Kichout of You51 ToHer Face(2)
L8:, tI've
h Erdrfrn
I Gotlt Bad48 25 fli ro,rc\32u 66
zt 4a'6>
rT tr (f)(ro)
t,g"$ht$grl!f,ffiet JamesBondTheme
6" ttu'''l9'Lry
TillYou(3) 58 JitterbugWaltz72 Maiden.Vovaqe11 U 54
! Hadn't-An'yone ?) (?.) (++) t'-+e;t+e)
Ar{ \L 6i

Happy Nshtl{d DrTt
e) x PtdryttPraWr
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( i)) (+6\ ' Y6't+sot
78/rruoolbrstcuur{... Not Ethioaia'
Sglrrn Sniu+
lylganingOf TheBlues ft,4,,ru,',r,
tt_ 6)' '
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MeanToMe 65
z$ Q LittleBoat(2) 31
u _Bar"quinho/My
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ngg.n'stnno (3)14504
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(2) Rav'sldea36
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o{{ou Beautiful
Doll \,t',lggiq;f
o1;; oe Roio35 RedClav'60 0.ED cot'99
${ishtuooa {6.+\:
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uigi{+.watu $l$Devil
Milestones OldManRiver ffryn^n-o-n,ng BH:i1a cNir*'r6c)
2, t2- /eo8u6s
Moanin'(Mingus') ooY RoseRoom(21
6g l$ct'o' q" (52\ ' '
Moment's 41 38 U 65
Notice Rosetta
4h >o q] QgBr6adwat 2l}
Mohk'sMood56 o,yeJfoved
(z)st 14s03'
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Moodlndiso12 Onceln Awhile34 EYffi'atsl)
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Moonlisht ln Vermont
6. ${o

trt Q!$FinEerSnaP 2o!.o4qt9;'

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l$orose pst Grsen.Dolpfiip
Street(4)i4 U 59 SaltPeanuts
21 4r qq'69 9.
(,9tt 9
SideOf TheStreet49 y,'tDftc?12u66
Ntore (2\ 13
16F. proP-BoP-Sh-sam

Hii''r w#p) i:,8\>'

l.r{tiquito Knees Ornitholow(2)6u69 endWater't't
t4 rq*" *{cE
t,{ p{Jlfr^ rheAppte
(2)6 u 6e
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Mr.Broadwav (3) 22 U 59
Out Of Nowhere SenorBlues
tr. 21 t5 68 69
WatchGirlsGoBy rhiswortd46 Rain
ffEicro SUof :vry'7i':rhe
Things25 rheRainbow
34 Jerenata Jz
E+Favorite tgr 0rr
Mv FoolishHeart 3 /25]' o; SreyPent's
tineo\zs pblo'sStory14504 $gm
Mvldeal SeventhSisn(3\
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(3 ?4 7) .!
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34 U 61 Pent-UaHouse8 3z
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,o g,
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(2)4o Poka DotsAnd.Moonbeams
(2) n A SomebodvLovesMe
W\Y/y 031tr5 zq
Song Uy PrinceWillCome58
#qrr*t lEteaay
YorkState tz)so
try N^ttufu loge
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Tte rutn {,9 u.rA br> Set-tne*.

Sonnvside A SmallHotel20
There's Wut C6astBlues(3) 43, 64, a 74
,l 69
Soon22 You
,!i, YlrNyy BeAnother (3)44 WhatAreYouDoingTheRestOf You
z* Lady12 Thin+s
T{qe Foolish - Life
Of Your New(2)41a 74
SoulEyes (2) 32 a 74
W4shadow q,
>o z8' WhatWas
' ( + +14505
Soain \ 15u 55
WT*,'You(2) WhenLishtsAreLow(3) 52
2su 6s
StfrhLow OfMusic
/_ t\
(-bt) ( 51)
Wb-en SunnvGetsBlue49
SadahNo Evil4\ 33 ibl"tiW, Knows
(2) zft 11 44 r5
.?r,,*l$+'164) rhpiiuif of vourLips
72 {tlen
YT' 9a
WhisoerNot 14
Sorinsls Here(2) 34 TheWavHeMahesMe Feel 68'
6?' Why Not
\'f,,[f9],r,0', [!U
u' Can'tBeLove
{a VVYg'(5)33
'tg;,u" lp
t OigOf You38,59,er 68 Wild.Flower
?4 ?6 f?iy
" Me
*t'P;'(94'" 52
I n B I Sr o r A l 9 e f t 5 J
z.t 69
{$isffsquerade Windows (2)
Thrivin'FromA Riff6 767'.
$geplechase 9, t{gdg;lunt(z)
(3)22,se,u 68 !{\f+',;rimep)a1
l'6,,Ztllrlltht e tintu HelPFromMY Friends
At TheSavov
St6moin' (z)ss
r1ry,Qryers [4h
Qr',,, Lae TisAutumn
?( 76 (lr)'
Itfatgnt 5f (3)65
Paradise ForWords(3) 39
lq Alarv-elous V5,'{i
\frst{,! !+ 4\lsa7
slyetof oreams (2)72 '!9'4-&--> YardbirdSuite(2) 6 U 69
Summertime25 U 54
3s ?)
(r" be -, YouAreSoBeautiful
Sw +t v{'qg!'u*t 6?.
YouDon'tKnowWhatLovels 32
Susoone rff"tg fzl 4r.
5,' (2)40
Brown39,67,u 70
w 4\ 7, 65,U 67
And Foolish

A'Train12,65,U 66
?6 (?D t'+e)
(a+) 3z
TaheThe E{nptRe 34, 59,U
OutOfA Dream
(5r"') onLove
o Chance Junction
lLxedo 70
-qL (z) zz
langenne 29228
Vtl,UGl44 f{z
(b") NgaegaeaQ)
ThatSAll 58
rlfestThing ForMelsYou(2) Y$nuots
w{g*121 12" Iiil
Song uPts
{SChristmas {thin'
tPanem31u 70 45
Iht goo^ bL
Fox(2) WarmVallev48
Wqlntiffid 6,
ntgf,Has (2)52
at 4?'
city 14s03
T{qPartf'sOver25 \t$'ll BeTogether
Therels No GreaterLove34 WellYouNeedn't (2)56
6z 61 ??-

T]PS a Once you feel you've "nailed" a chord and its
L) . "key," gerbusy(with your improvisation), so as to
(WhenWorkingWjth Eor-Troining have time to further confirm (or deny) the correctness
of your guessby getting to all the other notes of the
(AppendixB) chord or its scale (continuing to listen carefully to the

f) The chords on the tape will probably be in a ran-

j If the particular track being used as a mixture of 7 *domseries. Hence you want to notice if the next
* * chord-types, try to aurally identify rhe type before chord is some quickly discernable distance from the
playing anything. If this ls difficult for you, you may previous one, in which caseyou wouldn't even need
want to precede your work with the tape with some to guess(unless the previous one was not "nailed").
warm-up at the keyboard. Play the various chord.types Those "distances" might be a semi-tone higher or
with whlch you'll be confronted, in a common/typical lower, a whole-step higher or lower, forward or back-
chord voicing. Play examplesof them, one at a rime, ward in the cycle, even a minor third up or down and
on different roots, slowly, and try to assimilate the still be discernableto you, depending upon your expe-
sound of each. If you find that two or more chord.types riences with playing those common root sequences.
sound too nearly the same, juxtapose them, concen-
"! You might also want to notice those times
trating on the seemingly mild difference between /l
-1" Ll owhen, after going to a new chord, the tape
mightreaunto the one two chords ago, which is prob-
Remember that when working with the rape, you ably still lingering in your memory (i.e., C-7, A-7,
X** *have to play something (as quickly aspossible) in c-7).
order to confirm or deny your guessand to allow rime -!
1 If the next chord sounds outlandishly remote
for additional guesses.
i I nfrom the key of the last chord you heard, it
Remember, also, to keep listening to the tape as probably means that it is a relationship you can'r recog-
J +you play, so that you don't continue to play in the nize quickly (a root motion nof mentioned above in
wrong key simply because you made the mistake of point +r9),hence it's probably either a major third up
only listening to yourself, without comparing what or down or a tri-tone away, since those are the only
you're playing with the sound of the tape. remaining possibili ries.

If the first note you try is a wrong note, quickly 1 ? Sometimes,aswe listen to a chord, our mind's
J r move the note up or down one half-step...a right L Aa oear can hear a commonplace lick that works
note is that close by. with the chord. Depending upon the specificity of the
lick's correct placement, we can identify the chord's
q You might want to find the roots at first, by placement by flnding and playing the lick. For exam-
*l * listening carefully to the bassnote, then find it on ple, if you're hearing a minor seventh chord and your
your instrument as quickly as possible. mindt ear hears the "Cry Me A River Lick" as sound-
ing "correct" against the chord, the if you can find the
When searchingfor the root, don't ger disffacted
A starting pitch of the lick on your instrument, say D,
X"-J by the "lead note" of the voicing on the
" then you already know, that it's a C-7 (whether you
could be most anything!
play out the remaining notes of the lick or not), since
*? If you're not looking for the root, or want to move the lick has to start on the 9th to be correctly placed.
* to the next developmental stage,find a note that Even if it turned out that the chord was really an A
sounds right with the chord, then improvise up or half-dimlnlshed chord, or an F7, or an altererd B7, you
down the scale until you arrive at what you perceive will still have discoveredthe seneral scaleform.
to be the root... or, by-pass the search for the root by
trying to identify the note-of-chord (or scale) you've
played (the 3rd, the 9th, or whatever), then you know
(hopefully) the root's identity without playing it.

he term "road map," as it pertains to music, IV.fiIVO-I

was coined by professionalmusicians,espe- Tli-Tone Substitution
cially those who are employed as "reading
musicians" in the entertainment indusffv BackDoor
(stageshows,recording, television variety shows,dan-
ce music,etc.). The music they read is often lacedwith Coltrane Matrix
a considerable number of special instructions, such as Confirmation Sequence
Da Capo, Del Segno, Coda, coda signs,repeat signs,
repeat instructions (such asphrasesto be played more BebopTumaround
than twice, i.e. "3x," "{x," etc.), 1st and 2nd endings
(sometimesmore), edited cuts, and so on. Reading this DownstepModulations
sort of music accurately requires more than merely ModulationsDown In Half-Steps
reading pitches, rhythms, dynamic markings, and arti-
culation. It calls for a special skill to cope with the con- MontgomeryVard Bridge
siderable number of markings that are used to organize
measuregroups,especiallyasthey pertain to re-usedor
repeated sections.This organization is aptly referred to Rhythm Changes
as the "road map."
Cycleof Dominants
In recent years, road map has also become a term
used by jazzmusicians to describea plan of harmonic Dominants
events in a tune's chord progression, enabling them to
understand,memorize,and transposethat progression
ParallelChord Motions
more easily, rather than simply trying to memorize a CESH
long series of chord symbols without regard to their
relationships with one another. For example, why
would we want to trouble ourselves with memorizing
a seriesof symbolslike CA, Eb?, AbL, B7, EA, G7, and By utilizing the foregoing terms (and others) in our
CA, if we can identify the entire serieswith the single thinking and communicating about progressions,the
thought, "Coltrane Matrix?" This book supplies many processof analysis,understanding,memorization, and
such "single thoughts" that identify commonplace transposition is greatly accellerated,as is our ability to
progression cells, explain harmonic rationale for indi- quickly transmit harmonic information to others. Ima-
vidual chords and groupsofchords, key relationships, gine, for example, the efficiency level achieved by
modulations, chord substitutions, common bridge fot- being able to tell a member of a group that the tune
mulae, turnarounds, cycles, chromatic motion, and you're about to play has an AABA structure, uses
symmetrical motion, most of which have identifiiing Rhythm Changes, but has a Montgomery \7ard
terms/labels: Bridge, instead of reciting approximately 20 chord

a..* ; '1

Perhaps the most beneficial aspect of devising road To assistthe reader in learning to create road maps for
maps for chord progressions is its promotion of uni- the progressionof any tune' we are providing examples
r-ersality, with respect to performing a given tune in on the following pages.A variety of progression'types
anv key (or atl 12 keys,for practice). A good road map are given, as well as a variety of road map techniques,
rrill de-emphasizethe significance o{ specifickeys'even as different challenges require varying solutions' Indi-
rrithin a single tune that contains one or more modu' viduals may wish to alter the given road maps, especi-
lations, focusing more on the intervallic relationship ally if the alterations cause the road maps to be clear'
tetween one key and another, perhaps coupled with er, easier,and more quickly utilized by that individual.
the means of arriving at the new key (if it is not by Some of the road maps provided here may seem to
using Il-V of the new key). Herein lies one of the most merely "talk you through the changes," in an outline
unrecognized and unacknowledged aspects of serious that is as long or longer than the progressions them'
ja:z study.A goodiazzmusician doesn't simply readthe selves. But once the progression is clearly wtdcrstood,
nores of a melody. He/she wants to understand how by bringing your attention to important structural
and why the melody was constructed, what makes it fit details, it becomesmuch easierto use the "map." Then
rogether, how it relates to the harmony, what scalar it can be shortened considerably by omitting details for
and appeggiatedfragments are present' whether or not which reminders are no longer needed' leaving only
certain commonplace melodic formulae exist, and in the crucial "signposts along the road," such as modu-
general, what makes the melody "work." When ob- lations, unusual chord connections' and/or abrupt
sen ed, those aspectsof the melody generate a deeper changes of direction in the progression' Also under'
understanding, to be sure' but that understanding also stand that creating and ustng road maps is a skill, and
makes it much easier to transpose the melody to a dif- if the skill is new or unfamiliar to the individual,
t-erentkey! Classical musicians also have the need to he/she must tenaciously hone the skill (especially in
rransposemelodies from time to time, but traditional- the beginning stages) until beneficial results are
iv it has seldom involved analysis, generally being achieved, rather than become discouraged and aban'
accomplished by mechanically transposing each indi' don the effort.
vidual note up or down by a specific interval, which
doesn't promote a clear structural understanding of the
enuiremelody. Tiansfer the jazz musician's analytical
concept from melodies to chord progressions,and it is
easy to see why some of them become so adept at
TTS = Tli-Tone Substitution
improvising on tunes in keys other than those in
u'hich they were orginally created. BD = Back Door

DSM = DownstepModulation

r. LanN Molr

C: tr-7

A-7 D7 AV-7 DD7

VI_7 II7 bu bvw vr7

c7 FA

v7 IA

D7 D-7

C: VI-7 III-7 Vt7

D.C,, with znd ending

RoadMap (AABA):

\7S1 o,l
.-'i I chromatic -7 |

I r- I
bYl-l or Vlatt.
l;^ffi I
- ,lt 2-J
4 'l
I tttsr ll,ll
z. Montgomery\fard Bridge,
IA exceptfor last measure.
ll F- 8 -l ' D.c.

Improvisor need not observe dominants in II-V

progressionsunless they are altered.

Pnnri \frnn\
' '\larat

". I^ A'Y"rro*Ior"



At: f,IVoz IA

ebt nbl

RoadMap (ABAB'):

mm.r.4. Startson II7 (asin Ch.4,Beginnings), mm.r7.zs. Sameasmm.1-9.

then "regular"II-VI.
in Ch.1), returningto I.
mm.5.8.Modulatesto IV, by way of its II-VI.
mm.z}3z. Cycleof dominantsevenths(VI 7,117,V7
m.9. Srayson iV. ending on I major. BD, returningto the originaltonic (I)'

mm.r3.1$.Verl similarto beginning(ll7), exceptthat

the I is not reached.
3. Laov Npno




IA Ab: II-7 v7

nhl A-7 D7
IA C: VI-7 lI7

D-7 E-7 rbz nbl obt

btntz bvra blz

RoadMap (ABAB):

IA BD IA Go down a whole step V7 of new key

ll' F2-l
I +24
I to a -7, which becomes1
I II-7.of a.newkey that I
is a M3 down from
original key.

IA vI_7 II-V of originalkey Beboptumaround

newkev r I l-.)-J
I l.1i:'f:f:*til',*,
1 / l4 ll-24

(To convert Laoy Nnno to Halr.-NprsoN, change m.Z

to B-7 E7,then Bb-?Eb7in m.8)

#etnr{ l\*r:y:<







Jt obt

III-7 vI7 Il-7 v7 IA G: II-7 v7

G-7 C7 FA F-7 ebt

IA v7 IA v7

rbl obt cbl

D.C. alfine

RoadMap (AlfBA):
mm.r.3. A11chordsuerycloseto "home" (ll,V or I). mm.9.1(. Exactlylike mm.1-8,but a half'stephigher.
Could even be harmonically generalizedas I by the of II'VI's in G, F' and Eb'
mm.r5-2r. DSM sequences
mmzz-23. Modulatesup a m3 (Eb-Gb),Gb beingthe
m.4. BD.
key of m.9.
mm.5.7.Also very closeto "home,"as"extension"of m.z4.lI-Y of the originalkey (F).
II-VI (seeCh.1).
rrrm.25-32. Sameasmm.1'8, exceptthat m.B is II-V
m.8. PreparatoryII-V of new key of one'half step of the orginialkey, sincethe modulation to Gb is not
hieher(Gb). neededat this point (m.32).

(Goocmrn, though in Ab insteadof F,usesthe same
progressionasfound ir.nm.L5-32 of JovSenrNcfor all
three of its "A" sections(AABA form), stayingin Ab,
rather than modulating up a half-stepfor mm.9.16.
The bridge of Goocnrlo spendsfour barsin C, then
four bars in Eb, as describednear the end of Ch.5,

5. Uonoy Bacrwanos, SaHrn

C-, bvn Eb II7


c-' bvlz bw
G7 rbz


sbt obt

D.C. atfine

Road Map (AABA):

ilur.r.2. IVIT V7 I- in startingminor key (seeCh.4, mm.r7-zo. Cycle of dominants, starting one half-step
Beginnings). below chord of m.B, ending with a 4-beat duration on
a major chord (Db).
mm.3.4. II7 V7 I in relativemajor (alsocoveredin
ch.4). mm.2t.24. Same as mmJ7-20, but a whole-step
mmz 5.32. Identical to mm. 1-8.
mm.7.8. bVIT of startingminor key.

mm.9-r6.Repeatof mm.1-8.

?,rftr{ \l.nnq
: /r rl'1 s

Sru Fte \r},rtoec,g Zorl ftLE

6. THp MeNv THtNcs You Arr,r


Ab:VI-7 II-7

obl D-7

ryA IA

c-7 sbt

E|:YI-7 II_7

nhl A-7


II-7 v7 IA

rfr-z C7alt.

E: II-7 v7 IA Ab:IIITalt. (V7of VI )

F-7 eb-t Jt nbl

VI-7 II-7 v7 IA

obl ob-t cbt c-7 Bo7 (or B-7)

IVA IV -7 III_7 blJ.t"l (orh111-7

sb-t Jz nbl


RoadMap (AlfBA/C):

First of all, note that the Roman Numeral analysis for m.24. This altered dominant leads to the first chord of
the first two 8-measurephrasesareidentical, though in the closing lZ-bar phrase (as V7 of VI-7). As impro-
different keys. Also notice that the closing l2-meas- visers often experience difficulty with this measure,
ure phrase (after'the bridge) has the same first five especially if the tune is played in a non-standard key,
measures as the beginning of the tune. a simple solution is to use a lydian-augmented in m.24
whose root is the sane as the root of the preceding
mm.r-s. Cyclic extension of the II-VI progression major chord (rn.23). In the standard key given here,
(vr-?rr-7v7r rv). m.23 would be an E major scale,and m.24 would be an
Couldbe harmonically-generalized
by the improviser. E lydian-augmented scale (whiclr perfectly rccorrlnlo-
dates the altered dominant).
mm.6,8. Modulation up a M3 from starting key, by
way of II-VI. At the juncture of the two keys,the lV rtrrrt.z1.2g. Exactly like the first five measuresof the
chord of the first key proceedsup a half-stepto II of tune,
the secondkey.
m.3o. BD J
mm.9.r6. Identical to mm.1-8, but starting a P5
mm.3o.33. If ablll-7 is chosen for m.3 2, then mm.3O-
33 arc all minor seventh chords, descending chroma-
nrm.r?.zo. (bridge) Remains
in the key of m.16,using tically.
mm.33,36. II-VI in the original key, though most
nm.2r.z3.Modulationdowna m3 (usingII-VI). II-7 players will insert Gg C?alt. in m.36 to prepare the
of new key is one half-stepbelowpreviouskey'sI. F-7 at the beginning of additional choruses.

*nrxr{ &Arxxq
, u 'rd Vnnq

7. KnounrER RocKS oF OLD

ebr rbt nb-

Bb:II-7 V7 IA IV7 bv:n-t

tr ^t/2
v ,,.o I wholestep | 1/2step
DD7 c-7 c#-7 B-7 E7 c-7 F7 ebl

blntz rr-7 btlt-t ,tI-7 N7
l bildge I DSM

lI-7 chords

eb-t rbt

bttt-t b.irt

Road Map (AABA):

This is a very difficult tune to play well, and there are

no "short-cuts."Howeveq much can be learned by
studyingthe observationssketchedinto the progres-
sion above,perhapsbecomingparts of a road map in

8. Snrvens Sanan MaoB


A-7 J-t

A-7 c-7

\c-7) (D-7) A-7

This tune was selected as an illustration of a progres-

sion which defies Roman Numeral analysis (there are
others), or at least it becomes a pointless exercise to do
so. Only the key of Bb is established(mm.11.14), and
its obscure placement within the progression makes it
a doubtful key for the tune. The "floating" nature of
the minor seventh chords requires a different sort of
road map, one which focuses on chord root motion,
rather than harmonic function.

RoadMap (ABAB):

mm.r-8. A seriesof minor seventhchords, inZ-bar mm.rr-r4. II-VI in the majorkey,followedby rising
durations,with a root motion of tri-tone (E-Bb),half. diatonic motion (l II-7 III-7 IV) that is relatively
stepdown (Bh-A), and tri-tone (A-Eb), as described inconsequentialto the improviser.
near the end of Ch.6.
mm.r5.r6. Another return to the chord of m.5,
mm.9.1q.Areannto the chordof m.5 (A-7). followedby its "sister"dominant, creatingan implied
II-V cell.
mm.rr. The chord of m.10 shifts up a m3 to a minor
seventhchord (C-7) thatwillfunction asII of a major
kev (Bb).

9. Eua Bv Sr,tnemcHr

A7alt. c-7

Bb:f,IVo VIITalt. TI-7 v7

F-7 ebt Ebl nbt

Eb II-7 v7 Bb:bY117

ebl eb-t

F: IV-7

FA G-7 D7att.

IA II.7 IIla VI7ah.

G7alt. c-7

Bb:VI7ah. IT-7

ebz shl

A7alt. Da G7alt.

ilIvs VIITah. IIIa VI7ah.

Ca F7att. ehl

IIa V7att. IA

Road Map (ABCD):

Sincethis is a unique,complex,and through-compos- m.8. BD of the tune'skey.Mm.7-8 could alsobe view.

ed tune, it ivould be helpful to make the following ed asIV to IV-.
m.g. I ne tonlcl
r the tonic chorddoesn'tappearuntil m.9; A retum to the first two chords of the tune
r the EOA7 cell resolvesthree different ways,to II-7 (m.10),butonlytwobeatseach,logically
(tn.3),to lil-7 (m.11),and to IIlg (m.27); III-7 (m.11).

r therearethreeBD progressions,in m.8 (Ab7to Bb), m.rz. A BD that signalsa modulation to the dominant
in m.12 (Bb-? Eb7to F), and in m.21 (Ab7 to Bb key (V).
mm.r3.1S. A rather ordinary progression in the domi-
r the long root cyclethat beginsin m.25 (E, A, D, G, nant key (I-II-7 -IIIa -Yl7alt. ).
C, E Bb),which is actuallyenextensionof the II-V
'n m.r7. A unique starting chord for the bridge (Vl7alt.
I progression"asshown Ch,1.
of the orginal key), but resolving in a traditional man-
ner to II-7 in m.19. Note that entrance to II marks the
end of a four-chord cycle that began in m.15.
mm.r.2. A'minor'lI-V cell (g and7alt.) on illV and
VII of the key. mm.2r-24. BD, resolving to the original tonic.

mm.3.4. II and V of the key,but doesnot resolveto I. mm.2!.Jz. A classicextension of the II-VI progres.
sion, as shown in Ch.1, beginning on illV and ending
mm.5-?. A brief modulation to the subdominantkey on I.
(IV), by way of its lI-Vl;

o u r P P 6)
ro. You Srspppo INro A SrnBav

CA obl

C: IA hr
eb-t nbl

AblI-7 v7 IA

G-7 C7 FA

F: II-7 v7 IA

A,-7 D7 eb-t nbt D-7 G7

III-7 vl7 c, bll-t bvtz II-7 v7

cA obl

IA brrl

eb-t cbt

Ab:ll-7 v7 bv:l.t vI7

Da G7 cA A7alt.

v7 IA


Road Map (ABlfC):

mm.r-4. Two major seventhchords,risingby half.step rrrrrr,2r-22.At this point the progressionseemsto be
(I and bII). headedfor the samemodulationdown a M3, ?soccur-
red in m.5, but resolvesinsteadto what would have
mm.5-9. Modulation down a M3 from the starting been bVIIT to VI7 (mm.23-24) of that key. That is
key.II of the new key is a whole-stepbelow the origi- relatively commonplacein tunes,as a sort of "delay'
nal l. or a m3 belowthe bll chordof mm.3-4. ing'rstrategy,beforegoingon to the ll-7, whichwould
of the subdominantkey(IV of have been a Bh-7 chord, if the tune wasstill proceed-
mm.9.r4. Six measures
ing to the key of Ab. This is why the RomanNumeral
the original key), staying close to IV. The II chord
(m.9) of the subdominantkey is one half-stepdown analysisusesthose designationsin mm.73'24' The
from the preuiouskey of mm.7-8. hearercontinuesto anticipatean eventualgoalof Ab
major... until m.25shattersthat anticipation'This is
mm.r5.r6. bIII-7 bVIT II-7 V7 of the original key, a clever twist on the part of the composer.
which is tlpical of songsfrom that era, asa dramatic
mm.25-32.An unexpectedretum to the original key'
way to approachthe retum of the original key.
by way of aIIOV7 I, remainingvery closeto the home
rrm.r7-2o. Sameasmm.1-4. key for the last eight measures.

Qu:rxd &Afinq