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# GRID FLOORS

INTRODUCTION
The floor which is resting on the beams running in two directions is known as
grid floor. In these types of floor, a mesh or grid of beams running in both the
directions is the main structure, and the floor is of nominal thickness. It is used to
cover a large area without obstruction of internal columns. They are generally
employed for architectural reasons for large rooms such as auditoriums, vestibules,
theatre halls, show rooms of shops where column free space is often the main
requirement.
An assembly of intersecting beams placed at regular interval and
interconnected to a slab of nominal thickness is known as Grid floor or Waffle floor.
These slabs are used to cover a large column free area and therefore are good choice
for public assembly halls. The structure is monolithic in nature and has more stiffness.
It gives pleasing appearance. The maintenance cost of these floors is less. However,
construction of the grid slabs is cost prohibitive.
By investigating various parameters the cost effective solution can be found for
the grid slabs, for which proper method of analysis need to be used. There are various
approaches available for analyzing the grid slab system. In present study some of
these approaches are studied and compared with each other. The comparison is done
on the basis of flexural parameters such as bending moments and shear forces
obtained from various methods. For carrying out study, halls having constant width
10.00m and varying ratio of hall dimensions (L/B) from 1 to 1.5 are considered.

## Typical Plan of Grid System and Notations Used

Notations used:
1) L = Length of Hall (Longer side of hall)
2) B = Width of Hall (Shorter side of hall)
3) l = Spacing of grid beams in the direction of the length of the hall
4) b = Spacing of grid beams in the direction of the width of the hall
5) Mx= Bending moment in the beams running in x-direction
6) My= Bending moment in the beams running in y-direction
7) Qx= Shear force in the beams running in x-direction
8) Qy= Shear force in the beams running in y-direction
Dimensions Considered

For the comparison purpose, the width of the hall is kept constant as 10.00 m
and length is increased by an interval of 1.00 m, so that L/B ratio varies from 1 to 1.5
at the interval of 0.1. For all hall sizes the thickness of grid slab is assumed as 100
mm. The size of the beams (0.23 m x 0.60 m) is kept same during entire study.

## (a) Approximate Methods

According to the Indian Standard Code IS: 456-1978, the ribbed slab system can be
analysed as solid slab, if the following requirements regarding spacing of beams,
thickness of slab and edge beams are satisfied.
1. l. The spacing Of the ribs should not be greater than 1.5 m and it should not be
greater than 12 times the flange thickness.
2. In situ ribs should not be less than 65 mm wide.
3. The ribs should be formed along each edge parallel to the span, having a width
equal to that of the bearing.
The moments and shears per unit width Of grid are determined from Table 22 Of IS :
456 code and the reinforcements are designed in the ribs.
The slab reinforcement generally consists of a mesh or fabric. A second approximate
method which is applicable to the grid floor system is the Rankine Grashoff theory of
equating deflections at the junctions of ribs.
Consider a grid floor shown in Fig. in Which the spacings of the ribs are a 1 and b1 in
the x and y directions respectively.
q = Total load per unit area and q1 and q2 are the loads shared in the x and y
directions
a= Shorter dimension of grid
b= Longer dimension of grid

The deflections of the ribs AB and CD at the junction O must be the same and by
equating the deflections,

we have deflection =
5 5
=
384 384

= +

## solving the above equations we have

= and

=
and bending moments for the ribs are given by
=
8

=
8

The bending moments in the other ribs can also be determined in direct proportion to
their distances from the centre. The ribs are designed as flanged sections to resist the
moments and shears. However the approximate methods do not yield the twisting
moments in the beams. For small span grids with spacings of ribs not exceeding 1.5
metres, approximate methods can be used, but for grids of larger spans With spacing s
of ribs exceeding I .5 m, a rigorous analysis based on orthotropic plate theory is
generally used.

## Approximate Analysis Of Grid Floors

Floors with restricted layout of beams, thickness of slab and edge beams can be
analysed by the conventional methods as in ribbed slabs. Large grid floors which do
not follow these restricted layouts are analysed by other methods. These methods can
be divided into three groups:

## 1. Method based on plate theory (approximate method)

2. Stiffness matrix method using computer
3. Equating deflection method of each intersecting node oy simultaneous
equations.

In the following sections, a brief discussion of the method based on the plate theory
and reference to other two methods

## Analysis Of Rectangular Grid Floors By Timoshenko's Plate Theory

Many variations in the plate theory by different authors are available for analysis of
grid floors. The most popular one is that given by Timoshenko and Krieger t I J. They
have shown that the moments and shears in an anisotropic plate, freely supported on
four sides, depend on the deflection surface. The vertical deflection (D at any point of
a symmetrical grid shown in Fig
Analysis Of Grid By Stiffness Matrix Method

This is an exact method and needs a computer for its application. It assumes the frame
coordinates system X and Y and the member coordinate system X'—Y' as shown in
Fig. 6.1(b). The active joints are identified first and then the force displacement
equations are written for the various active member ends. The member stiffnesses are
then transferred to the frame coordinate system. From the stiffness matrix and joint
displacement equations, the force at each member joint can be obtained by use of
computer programs. Readymade programs for the various types of grids are also
available for quick analysis in design offices. If a computer and the relevant software
programs are available, the analysis can be carried out quickly. However, the results
of the computer analysis should be checked with values obtained from approximate
methods.

## Analysis Of Grid Floors By Equating Joint Deflections

In this method, the deflection of the joints and the loads on each Of the beams are
determined. As the number of resulting equations is large, a computer will be required
for its easy solution. (Analysis of Grid Floors ) by the National Buildings
Organisation, New Delhi gives tables and charts which may be conveniently used for
the analysis of rectangular and diagonal grid floors• In this method, torsion component
is generally neglected
Comparison Of Methods Of Analysis

No torsion analysis is suitable for the preliminary analysis and design. The torsion
analysis method gives fairly good results for rectangular grids. The handbook method
gives best results for square grids. However, complex grids, like diagonal grids, are
best solved by matrix method for final designs. Even though the slab analogy of
voided slabs is straightforward, its use should be restricted. For this the following
conditions are necessary:
1. Spacing of ribs should not be greater than 1.5 m or twelve times the flange
thickness (the clear spacing should not be more than ten times the thickness).
2. The depth of the rib should not be more than four times the width of the ribs•
3. With large spacing of the beams, grids do not act as a plate but as individual
units.

Accordingly' with the above spacing restrictions the plate analogy can be used for
approximate analysis Of rectangular grids. For grids not obeying the above spacing
rules, the approximate methods can be used for the preliminary analysis only. In all
the cases, the matrix method gives more realistic values and should be used for the
final analysis and design.
EXAMPLES
A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 9m x 9m is required for an assembly
hall. Assuming rib spacing of 1.5 m in the span of short direction and 1.5m in
the long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and
Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

## Load per meter = =10.416KN/m2

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.181

## = = 0.133 (X- direction)

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

## From design table

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x5503) (C=0.191)

= 63.8x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the
x and y directions respectively.

## =25.49 x 106 KN/m2

G= = 0.435µ

G = 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1= C2 = (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/055))( )

## C1=C2= 1.13 X10-3

Cx= GC1/b1 = = 8.35x103

## = = 12.34 ----------------------------------------------- (B)

= = 2.545 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 27.225

## Central Deflection (W1) = = = 8.82 m

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of

removal of supports.

## 4) Design Moments and Shear:

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

=0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 117.46

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0088
= 115.736

Mxy = (-)( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )x0.0088x

= (-) 6.53

## Myx = (-) 6.05

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= -37.02( )

## =(-) {(0.85x105x ( )3 + 6.265x103( )}x 0.008( )

Qy = - 34.749 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0
B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0
C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0
D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0
E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866
F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1
G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1
H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866
Table-4.1
POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)
Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy
A 117.46 115.736 0 00 0 0
B 105.401 107.361 0 0 16.76 0
C 72.075 74.031 0 0 29.082 0
D 0 0 0 0 37.02 0
E 0 0 5.95 6.05 16.76 0
F 0 0 5.53 6.05 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 34.749
H 56.745 57.25 0 0 0 22.13
Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

## Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

= ( 0.36x20x1.5x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

## Since Mu < Muf Neutral axis falls within the flange

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

No of bars = =4

## Provide 4 bars of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 1256 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

## Maximum ultimate shear = (37.02) x 1.5 x 1.5 = 83.295 KN

v = = = 0.932 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

## Provide 8 mm dia bars 2 legged , = 2x50.24 mm2

= 0.2648

= 374.255

3d =3x500 = 1500m

## Provide 2 legged 8mm diameters bars @ 400mm c/c.

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M =115.736KNm

## Mu = 2x115.736x1.5 =326.205 KNm

R= = = 0.655

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

## Ast = 1062.1125 mm2

For 20 mm diameter bars, no of bars required = 4

st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

## Myx = 6.05 KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at
200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.
A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 10m x 14m is required for an assembly
hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the
long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and
Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

## Load per meter =1475.36/(10x14) = 10.53KN/m2

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

## Df/Dw =100/600 = 0.166

bw/bf =200/2000 = 0.1 (X- direction)

## From design table

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.5x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the
x and y directions respectively.

## G= (E/2(1+ µ)) = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/0.55))((0.23x0.55)/3)

## 2H = Cx +Cy = 12.52 x 103m unit

3) Central Deflection: (a= 10m , b=14m)

## ((2H)/(a2b2)) =((12.52x103)/(102142))= 0.638 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 10.83
6 6
Central Deflection (W1) = ((16q)/(10.83 )) = ((16x10.53)/(10.83 )) = 16.2 mm

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal
of supports.

## 4) Design Moments and Shear:

Mx = -(Dx ) = Dx( )2 [ ]

= 0.81x105( )2 x0.0194

= 154.93

## = (-) 0.81x105( )2 x0.0194

= (-) 79.04

Mxy = (-)( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )2x0.0194x
= -5.51

Myx = -5.51

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= (-)154.93( )

## = (-) {(0.81x105x ( )3 + 6.26x103( )}x 0.0194( )

Qy = - 18.58 ( )

Points x,y

A 5,7 1 0 1 0
B 4,7 0.021 1 1 0
C 2,7 0.01 1 1 0
D 0,7 0 0 1 1 0
E 0,12 0 0 1 0.04 1
F 0,14 0 0 1 0 -1
G 5,12 1 0 0.04 1
H 5,14 1 0 0 -1
Table-4.1
POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)
Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy
A 154.93 79.04 0 00 0 0
B 3.25 1.65 0 0 -154.93 0
C 1.54 0.79 0 0 -154.93 0
D 0 0 0 0 -154.93 0
E 0 0 -5.51 -5.51 -6.19 0
F 0 0 5.51 5.51 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 -6.19 -18.58
H 0 0 0 0 0 18.58
Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

## Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

= (0.36x20x2x103x100)(550-0.42x100)

## Since Mu < Muf Neutral axis falls within the flange

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

## Choose 20 diameter bars, Astb = 314 mm2

No of bars = =4
Provide 4 bars of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 1256 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

## Maximum ultimate shear = (154.93) x 2 x 1.5 = 464.79 KN

v = = = 4.22 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 980 mm2

Pt = = = 0.9

= 398.31Sx103

= 1.96

## Provide 10 mm dia bars 2 legged , = 2x157 mm2

= 1.96

= 160

3d =3x550 = 1650m

## Provide 2 legged 10 mm diameters bars @ 200mm c/c.

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 79.4 KNm

## Mu = 2x79.4x1.5 = 238.2 KNm

R= = = 3.93

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

## For 25 mm diameter bars, no of bars required = 4

Provide 25 st = 1960 mm2)

SLAB:

## Myx = 5.51 KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at
200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.
A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 9m x 12m is required for an assembly
hall. Assuming rib spacing of 1.5 m in the span of short direction and 2m in
the long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and
Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

## Load per meter = =9.94KN/m2

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :
= = 0.181

## = = 0.1 (X- direction)

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

## From design table

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x5503) (C=0.191)

= 63.8x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the
x and y directions respectively.

## = 25.49 x 106 KN/m2

G= = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/055))( )

## Cy= GC2/a1 = = 8.35x103

2H = Cx +Cy = 14.61 x 103m unit

## = = 5.22 ----------------------------------------------- (B)

= = 1.225 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 18.81

## Central Deflection (W1) = = = 8.82 mm

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal
of supports.

## 4) Design Moments and Shear:

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

= 0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 91.049

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

= 1.083x105( )2 x0.0088

= 65.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]
=(-) ( )( )x0.0088x

=(-) 4.53

Myx = -6.05

Qx = (Dx + )

=(-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

=(-)0.0088((0.85x105x ) +8.35x103x )) ( )

= -33.52( )

## = (-){(0.85x105x ( )3 + 6.265x103( )}x 0.008( )

Qy = - 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0
B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0
C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0
D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0
E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866
F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1
G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1
H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866
Table-4.1
POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)
Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy
A 91.049 62.5 0 00 0 0
B 78.85 54.125 0 0 16.76 0
C 45.524 31.25 0 0 29.082 0
D 0 0 0 0 33.52 0
E 0 0 3.92 5.2392 16.76 0
F 0 0 4.53 6.05 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 15.57
H 45.524 31.25 0 0 0 13.48
Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

## Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

= ( 0.36x20x1.5x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

## Since Mu < Muf Neutral axis falls within the flange

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

## Choose 20 diameter bars, Astb = 314 mm2

No of bars = =4
Provide 4 bars of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 1256 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

## Maximum ultimate shear = (33.52) x 2 x 1.5 = 100.56 KN

v = = = 1.0056 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

## Provide 8 mm dia bars 2 legged , = 2x50.24 mm2

= 0.2648

= 374.255

3d =3x500 = 1500m

## Provide 2 legged 8mm diameters bars @ 400mm c/c.

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 62.5 KNm

## Mu = 2x62.5x1.5 = 187.5 KNm

R= = = 0.375

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

## For 20 mm diameter bars, no of bars required = 4

Provide 20 mm diameter bars of 4 st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

## Myx = 6.05 KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at
200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.
A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 10m x 12m is required for an assembly
hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the
long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and
Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

## Load per meter = =9.44KN/m2

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.167

## = = 0.1 (X- direction)

= = 0.1 ( Y-direction)

## From design table

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.51x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the
x and y directions respectively.

## =25.49 x 106 KN/m2

G= = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/.6))( )

## C1=C2= 1.264 X10-3

Cx= GC1/b1 = = 7.002x103

## = = 5.06 ----------------------------------------------- (B)

= = .9722 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 16.53

## Central Deflection (W1) = = = 9.3mm

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal
of supports.

## 4) Design Moments and Shear:

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

= 0.85x105( )2 x0.0093

= 116.24

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0093
= 67.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )x0.0088x

= -4.73

Myx = -6.85

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= (-) 36.122( )

## = (-) {(0.85x105x ( )3 + 6.265x103( )}x 0.008( )

Qy =(-) 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0
B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0
C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0
D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0
E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866
F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1
G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1
H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866
Table-4.1
POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)
Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy
A 91.049 62.5 0 00 0 0
B 78.85 54.125 0 0 16.76 0
C 45.524 31.25 0 0 29.082 0
D 0 0 0 0 33.52 0
E 0 0 3.92 5.2392 16.76 0
F 0 0 4.53 6.05 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 15.57
H 45.524 31.25 0 0 0 13.48
Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

## Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

= ( 0.36x20x2x103x100)(550-0.42x100)

## Since Mu < Muf Neutral axis falls within the flange

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.39x 10-3

1396..21 mm2

## Choose 25 diameter bars, Astb = 785mm2

No of bars = =4
Provide 4 bars of 25 mm diameter (Ast = 3140 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

## Maximum ultimate shear = (36.52) x 2 x 2 = 138.08 KN

v = = = 1.218 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

## Provide 8 mm dia bars 2 legged , = 2x50.24 mm2

= 0.2648

= 262.91

3d =3x550 = 1650m

## Provide 2 legged 8mm diameters bars @ 400mm c/c.

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 67.5 KNm

## Mu = 2x67.5x2= 270 KNm

R= = = 0.462

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

## For 22 mm diameter bars, no of bars required = 4

Provide 20 mm st = 1519mm2)

SLAB:

## Mxy = 4.73 KNm

Myx = 6.88KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at
200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.
A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 12m*16 is required for an assembly
hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the
long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and
Fe415 grade steel. Total load including self weight is 6.5 KN/m^2

Solution:

## Lx= 12m, Df =12000/20=600mm

Lx=2m, Df=2000/20=100mm

2)Loads:

## Load per meter =6.5KN/m2

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.166

= = 10(X- direction)

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

## From design table

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.6*10^-4M^4 = I1 =I2
Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the
x and y directions respectively.

## =25.49 x 106 KN/m2

G = = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/0.6))( )

## = = 1.61 ----------------------------------------------- (B)

= = .38 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 7.08

## Central Deflection (W1) = = = 15 mm

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal
of supports.

## 4) Design Moments and Shear:

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

=0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 91.049

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0088

= 65.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-)( )( )x0.0088x

= (-)4.53

Myx = -6.05

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )
= -0.0088((0.85x105x ) +8.35x103x )) ( )

= -33.52( )

## =-{(0.85x105x ( )3 + 6.265x103( )}x 0.008( )

Qy = - 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 68 1 0 1 0
B 4,8 0.866 0.5 1 0
C 2.8, 0.5 0.866 1 0
D 0,8 0 0 1 1 0
E 0,12 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866
F 0,16 0 0 1 0 -1
G 6,16 1 0 0 -1
H 0.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866
Table-4.1

## POINTS MOMENS SHEAR POINTS MOMENTS SHEAR POINTS

(KNm) (KN) (KNm) (KN)
Mx My Mx My
A 108 61 A 108 61 A
B 94 53 B 94 53 B
C 54 30.5 C 54 30.5 C
D 0 0 D 0 0 D
E 0 0 E 0 0 E
F 0 0 F 0 0 F
G 0 0 G 0 0 G
H 77 43 H 77 43 H
Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

## Ultimate moment = 324 KNm

Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

=( 0.36x20x2x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

## Since Mu < Muf Neutral axis falls within the flange

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 2078x 10-3

2078 mm2

## Choose 25 diameter bars, Astb = 490.8mm2

No of bars = = 4.23

## Provide 4 bars of 25 mm and 1 bar of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 2277 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

## Maximum ultimate shear = (29.52) x 2 x 2 = 118.08 KN

v = = = .984 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.523

= 55.32x103

= 0.255

## Provide 8 mm dia bars 2 legged , = 2x50.24 mm2

= 0.255

= 394.039

3d =3x500 = 1500m

## Provide 2 legged 8mm diameters bars @ 400mm c/c.

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 61KNm

## Mu = 2x61x1.5 = 183.5 KNm

R= = = 2.54

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

## Myx = 5.3 KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at
200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.