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Grid structures

Grid structures

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INTRODUCTION

The floor which is resting on the beams running in two directions is known as

grid floor. In these types of floor, a mesh or grid of beams running in both the

directions is the main structure, and the floor is of nominal thickness. It is used to

cover a large area without obstruction of internal columns. They are generally

employed for architectural reasons for large rooms such as auditoriums, vestibules,

theatre halls, show rooms of shops where column free space is often the main

requirement.

An assembly of intersecting beams placed at regular interval and

interconnected to a slab of nominal thickness is known as Grid floor or Waffle floor.

These slabs are used to cover a large column free area and therefore are good choice

for public assembly halls. The structure is monolithic in nature and has more stiffness.

It gives pleasing appearance. The maintenance cost of these floors is less. However,

construction of the grid slabs is cost prohibitive.

By investigating various parameters the cost effective solution can be found for

the grid slabs, for which proper method of analysis need to be used. There are various

approaches available for analyzing the grid slab system. In present study some of

these approaches are studied and compared with each other. The comparison is done

on the basis of flexural parameters such as bending moments and shear forces

obtained from various methods. For carrying out study, halls having constant width

10.00m and varying ratio of hall dimensions (L/B) from 1 to 1.5 are considered.

Notations used:

1) L = Length of Hall (Longer side of hall)

2) B = Width of Hall (Shorter side of hall)

3) l = Spacing of grid beams in the direction of the length of the hall

4) b = Spacing of grid beams in the direction of the width of the hall

5) Mx= Bending moment in the beams running in x-direction

6) My= Bending moment in the beams running in y-direction

7) Qx= Shear force in the beams running in x-direction

8) Qy= Shear force in the beams running in y-direction

Dimensions Considered

For the comparison purpose, the width of the hall is kept constant as 10.00 m

and length is increased by an interval of 1.00 m, so that L/B ratio varies from 1 to 1.5

at the interval of 0.1. For all hall sizes the thickness of grid slab is assumed as 100

mm. The size of the beams (0.23 m x 0.60 m) is kept same during entire study.

According to the Indian Standard Code IS: 456-1978, the ribbed slab system can be

analysed as solid slab, if the following requirements regarding spacing of beams,

thickness of slab and edge beams are satisfied.

1. l. The spacing Of the ribs should not be greater than 1.5 m and it should not be

greater than 12 times the flange thickness.

2. In situ ribs should not be less than 65 mm wide.

3. The ribs should be formed along each edge parallel to the span, having a width

equal to that of the bearing.

The moments and shears per unit width Of grid are determined from Table 22 Of IS :

456 code and the reinforcements are designed in the ribs.

The slab reinforcement generally consists of a mesh or fabric. A second approximate

method which is applicable to the grid floor system is the Rankine Grashoff theory of

equating deflections at the junctions of ribs.

Consider a grid floor shown in Fig. in Which the spacings of the ribs are a 1 and b1 in

the x and y directions respectively.

q = Total load per unit area and q1 and q2 are the loads shared in the x and y

directions

a= Shorter dimension of grid

b= Longer dimension of grid

The deflections of the ribs AB and CD at the junction O must be the same and by

equating the deflections,

we have deflection =

5 5

=

384 384

= +

= and

=

and bending moments for the ribs are given by

=

8

=

8

The bending moments in the other ribs can also be determined in direct proportion to

their distances from the centre. The ribs are designed as flanged sections to resist the

moments and shears. However the approximate methods do not yield the twisting

moments in the beams. For small span grids with spacings of ribs not exceeding 1.5

metres, approximate methods can be used, but for grids of larger spans With spacing s

of ribs exceeding I .5 m, a rigorous analysis based on orthotropic plate theory is

generally used.

Floors with restricted layout of beams, thickness of slab and edge beams can be

analysed by the conventional methods as in ribbed slabs. Large grid floors which do

not follow these restricted layouts are analysed by other methods. These methods can

be divided into three groups:

2. Stiffness matrix method using computer

3. Equating deflection method of each intersecting node oy simultaneous

equations.

In the following sections, a brief discussion of the method based on the plate theory

and reference to other two methods

Many variations in the plate theory by different authors are available for analysis of

grid floors. The most popular one is that given by Timoshenko and Krieger t I J. They

have shown that the moments and shears in an anisotropic plate, freely supported on

four sides, depend on the deflection surface. The vertical deflection (D at any point of

a symmetrical grid shown in Fig

Analysis Of Grid By Stiffness Matrix Method

This is an exact method and needs a computer for its application. It assumes the frame

coordinates system X and Y and the member coordinate system X'—Y' as shown in

Fig. 6.1(b). The active joints are identified first and then the force displacement

equations are written for the various active member ends. The member stiffnesses are

then transferred to the frame coordinate system. From the stiffness matrix and joint

displacement equations, the force at each member joint can be obtained by use of

computer programs. Readymade programs for the various types of grids are also

available for quick analysis in design offices. If a computer and the relevant software

programs are available, the analysis can be carried out quickly. However, the results

of the computer analysis should be checked with values obtained from approximate

methods.

In this method, the deflection of the joints and the loads on each Of the beams are

determined. As the number of resulting equations is large, a computer will be required

for its easy solution. (Analysis of Grid Floors ) by the National Buildings

Organisation, New Delhi gives tables and charts which may be conveniently used for

the analysis of rectangular and diagonal grid floors• In this method, torsion component

is generally neglected

Comparison Of Methods Of Analysis

No torsion analysis is suitable for the preliminary analysis and design. The torsion

analysis method gives fairly good results for rectangular grids. The handbook method

gives best results for square grids. However, complex grids, like diagonal grids, are

best solved by matrix method for final designs. Even though the slab analogy of

voided slabs is straightforward, its use should be restricted. For this the following

conditions are necessary:

1. Spacing of ribs should not be greater than 1.5 m or twelve times the flange

thickness (the clear spacing should not be more than ten times the thickness).

2. The depth of the rib should not be more than four times the width of the ribs•

3. With large spacing of the beams, grids do not act as a plate but as individual

units.

Accordingly' with the above spacing restrictions the plate analogy can be used for

approximate analysis Of rectangular grids. For grids not obeying the above spacing

rules, the approximate methods can be used for the preliminary analysis only. In all

the cases, the matrix method gives more realistic values and should be used for the

final analysis and design.

EXAMPLES

A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 9m x 9m is required for an assembly

hall. Assuming rib spacing of 1.5 m in the span of short direction and 1.5m in

the long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and

Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.181

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x5503) (C=0.191)

= 63.8x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the

x and y directions respectively.

G= = 0.435µ

G = 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1= C2 = (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/055))( )

Cx= GC1/b1 = = 8.35x103

= = 2.545 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 27.225

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of

removal of supports.

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

=0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 117.46

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0088

= 115.736

Mxy = (-)( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )x0.0088x

= (-) 6.53

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= -37.02( )

Qy = - 34.749 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0

B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0

C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0

D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0

E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866

F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1

G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1

H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866

Table-4.1

POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)

Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy

A 117.46 115.736 0 00 0 0

B 105.401 107.361 0 0 16.76 0

C 72.075 74.031 0 0 29.082 0

D 0 0 0 0 37.02 0

E 0 0 5.95 6.05 16.76 0

F 0 0 5.53 6.05 0 0

G 0 0 0 0 0 34.749

H 56.745 57.25 0 0 0 22.13

Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

= ( 0.36x20x1.5x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

No of bars = =4

Shear Reinforcement:

v = = = 0.932 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

= 0.2648

= 374.255

3d =3x500 = 1500m

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M =115.736KNm

R= = = 0.655

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

For 20 mm diameter bars, no of bars required = 4

st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at

200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.

A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 10m x 14m is required for an assembly

hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the

long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and

Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

bw/bf =200/2000 = 0.1 (X- direction)

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.5x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the

x and y directions respectively.

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/0.55))((0.23x0.55)/3)

3) Central Deflection: (a= 10m , b=14m)

A+B+C = 10.83

6 6

Central Deflection (W1) = ((16q)/(10.83 )) = ((16x10.53)/(10.83 )) = 16.2 mm

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal

of supports.

Mx = -(Dx ) = Dx( )2 [ ]

= 0.81x105( )2 x0.0194

= 154.93

= (-) 79.04

Mxy = (-)( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )2x0.0194x

= -5.51

Myx = -5.51

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= (-)154.93( )

Qy = - 18.58 ( )

Points x,y

A 5,7 1 0 1 0

B 4,7 0.021 1 1 0

C 2,7 0.01 1 1 0

D 0,7 0 0 1 1 0

E 0,12 0 0 1 0.04 1

F 0,14 0 0 1 0 -1

G 5,12 1 0 0.04 1

H 5,14 1 0 0 -1

Table-4.1

POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)

Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy

A 154.93 79.04 0 00 0 0

B 3.25 1.65 0 0 -154.93 0

C 1.54 0.79 0 0 -154.93 0

D 0 0 0 0 -154.93 0

E 0 0 -5.51 -5.51 -6.19 0

F 0 0 5.51 5.51 0 0

G 0 0 0 0 -6.19 -18.58

H 0 0 0 0 0 18.58

Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

= (0.36x20x2x103x100)(550-0.42x100)

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

No of bars = =4

Provide 4 bars of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 1256 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

v = = = 4.22 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 980 mm2

Pt = = = 0.9

= 398.31Sx103

= 1.96

= 1.96

= 160

3d =3x550 = 1650m

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 79.4 KNm

R= = = 3.93

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

Provide 25 st = 1960 mm2)

SLAB:

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at

200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.

A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 9m x 12m is required for an assembly

hall. Assuming rib spacing of 1.5 m in the span of short direction and 2m in

the long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and

Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.181

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x5503) (C=0.191)

= 63.8x108mm4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the

x and y directions respectively.

G= = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/055))( )

2H = Cx +Cy = 14.61 x 103m unit

= = 1.225 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 18.81

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal

of supports.

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

= 0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 91.049

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

= 1.083x105( )2 x0.0088

= 65.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

=(-) ( )( )x0.0088x

=(-) 4.53

Myx = -6.05

Qx = (Dx + )

=(-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

=(-)0.0088((0.85x105x ) +8.35x103x )) ( )

= -33.52( )

Qy = - 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0

B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0

C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0

D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0

E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866

F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1

G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1

H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866

Table-4.1

POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)

Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy

A 91.049 62.5 0 00 0 0

B 78.85 54.125 0 0 16.76 0

C 45.524 31.25 0 0 29.082 0

D 0 0 0 0 33.52 0

E 0 0 3.92 5.2392 16.76 0

F 0 0 4.53 6.05 0 0

G 0 0 0 0 0 15.57

H 45.524 31.25 0 0 0 13.48

Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

= ( 0.36x20x1.5x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.1629x 10-3

1162.93 mm2

No of bars = =4

Provide 4 bars of 20 mm diameter (Ast = 1256 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

v = = = 1.0056 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

= 0.2648

= 374.255

3d =3x500 = 1500m

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 62.5 KNm

R= = = 0.375

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

Provide 20 mm diameter bars of 4 st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at

200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.

A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 10m x 12m is required for an assembly

hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the

long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and

Fe415 grade steel. Live load may be assumed as 4KN/m2

Solution:

Depth of Ribs:

2)Loads:

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.167

= = 0.1 ( Y-direction)

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.51x108mm4 = I1 =I2

x and y directions respectively.

G= = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/.6))( )

Cx= GC1/b1 = = 7.002x103

= = .9722 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 16.53

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal

of supports.

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

= 0.85x105( )2 x0.0093

= 116.24

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0093

= 67.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-) ( )( )x0.0088x

= -4.73

Myx = -6.85

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= (-) 36.122( )

Qy =(-) 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 4.5,6 1 0 1 0

B 3,6 0.866 0.5 1 0

C 1.5,6 0.5 0.866 1 0

D 0,6 0 0 1 1 0

E 0,10 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866

F 0,12 0 0 1 0 -1

G 4.5,12 1 0 0 -1

H 4.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866

Table-4.1

POINTS MOMENTS(KNm) SHEAR(KN)

Mx My Mxy Myx Qx Qy

A 91.049 62.5 0 00 0 0

B 78.85 54.125 0 0 16.76 0

C 45.524 31.25 0 0 29.082 0

D 0 0 0 0 33.52 0

E 0 0 3.92 5.2392 16.76 0

F 0 0 4.53 6.05 0 0

G 0 0 0 0 0 15.57

H 45.524 31.25 0 0 0 13.48

Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

= ( 0.36x20x2x103x100)(550-0.42x100)

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 1.39x 10-3

1396..21 mm2

No of bars = =4

Provide 4 bars of 25 mm diameter (Ast = 3140 mm2)

Shear Reinforcement:

v = = = 1.218 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.628

= 48.432x103

= 0.2684

= 0.2648

= 262.91

3d =3x550 = 1650m

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 67.5 KNm

R= = = 0.462

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

Provide 20 mm st = 1519mm2)

SLAB:

Myx = 6.88KNm

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at

200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.

A reinforced concrete grid floor of size 12m*16 is required for an assembly

hall. Assuming rib spacing of 2 m in the span of short direction and 2m in the

long span direction, design the grid floor. Adopt M20 grade concrete and

Fe415 grade steel. Total load including self weight is 6.5 KN/m^2

Solution:

Lx=2m, Df=2000/20=100mm

2)Loads:

3) Analysis:

a) Section Properties :

= = 0.166

= = 10(X- direction)

= = 0.133 ( Y-direction)

I = CbwD3

= (0.191x200x6003) (C=0.191)

= 82.6*10^-4M^4 = I1 =I2

Where I1 and I2 are the second moment of inertia of T-sections about their centrodial axis in the

x and y directions respectively.

G = = 0.435µ

G= 11.09x106 KN/m2

C1=C2= (1-0.63(x/y))(x3y/3)

= (1 - 0.63(0.2/0.6))( )

= = .38 ----------------------------------------------(C)

A+B+C = 7.08

Long term deflection is equal to 2 to 3 times elastic deflection depending on the date of removal

of supports.

Mx = -(Dx ) = ( )2 [ ]

=0.85x105( )2 x0.0088

= 91.049

My = -(Dy ) = Dy ( )2 [ ]

=1.083x105( )2 x0.0088

= 65.25

Mxy = -( ) = -( ) ( )2 [ ]

= (-)( )( )x0.0088x

= (-)4.53

Myx = -6.05

Qx = (Dx + )

= (-) ( )(Dx + Dy )

= -0.0088((0.85x105x ) +8.35x103x )) ( )

= -33.52( )

Qy = - 15.57 ( )

Points x,y

A 68 1 0 1 0

B 4,8 0.866 0.5 1 0

C 2.8, 0.5 0.866 1 0

D 0,8 0 0 1 1 0

E 0,12 0 0 1 0.5 -0.866

F 0,16 0 0 1 0 -1

G 6,16 1 0 0 -1

H 0.5,10 1 0 0.5 -0.866

Table-4.1

(KNm) (KN) (KNm) (KN)

Mx My Mx My

A 108 61 A 108 61 A

B 94 53 B 94 53 B

C 54 30.5 C 54 30.5 C

D 0 0 D 0 0 D

E 0 0 E 0 0 E

F 0 0 F 0 0 F

G 0 0 G 0 0 G

H 77 43 H 77 43 H

Table-4.2

5) Design of Reinforcement:

Moment Capacity of Flange section Muf= 0.36fckbfDf(d-0.42Df)

=( 0.36x20x2x103x100)(500-0.42x100)

Mu = 0.87fyAstd (1- )

= (1- )

= 2078x 10-3

2078 mm2

No of bars = = 4.23

Shear Reinforcement:

v = = = .984 N/mm2

Assuming two bars to b bent up at the supports, Ast at supports = 628 mm2

Pt = = = 0.523

= 55.32x103

= 0.255

= 0.255

= 394.039

3d =3x500 = 1500m

Mu Along Y- Direction:

M = 61KNm

R= = = 2.54

(Ast/bd) = pt = (1- )

st = 1256 mm2)

SLAB:

Since the moments being small in the slab, mesh reinforcement consisting of 6 mm diameter at

200 mm c/c provided both ways for positive and negative Bending Moment.

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