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Claude Debussy Minstrels aus Préludes I fiir Violine und Klavier Minstrels from Préludes I for Violin and Piano Herausgegeben von/Edited by Thomas Kabisch Mit zusitzlicher bezeichneter Violinstimme von/ With supplementary violin part marked by Ingolf Turban G. Henle Verlag Den in den Bemerkungen ge n sei heralich fir ihre Be~ kt, die Quellon fiir die rorliegende Ausgabe zur Verfiigung zit stellen. rossingen, Herbst 2014 Thomas Kabisch Preface ‘The publication in 1910 of the 1* vol- sume of the Préludes for piano, issued by the Parisian publisher Durand, marked a turning point in the piano oeuvre of Claude Debussy (1862-1918). With these pieces, the composer struck out on an “anti-aneedotal” path, as the French musicologist Frangois Lesure has put nough with arabesques, estamp- cs, images, and other suggestive titles” (Claude Debussy: Biographie critique, Paris, 22003, p. 316). The twelve i jul pieces of the Préludes I are all provided with annotations that appear exclusively in the table of contents of the first edition of 1910, Debussy avoid- ced mottos of the kind that Robert Sehu- mann had employed, for example, not ‘to mention titles with programmatic content. ‘Already in the year of publication of Préludes J, Durand began releasing individual numbers in various instru- mental arrangements of which only one ‘can be traced back to Debussy himself ‘Minstrels, which appeared in 1914 in @ version for violin and piano, is a piece in which Debussy makes use of the spe- cial possibilities of a duo setting and that allows the composition’s musical substance to stand out all the more clearly, in contrast to the version for piano solo. “Minstrels” were the white actors in blackface of the “minstrel shows” of the day in which songs alter- nated with dance and comie interludes, Debussy attended one s ith Is fan show” ‘The humour cultivated in such shows was earthy. ancl hardly free of racism, while the same time indirect and artificial ins far as it was based om masks and m fiery. This dual aspect is tak the fabrie of the composition ‘The arrangement ofthis piece for violin and piano was made fora co cort given by Debussy’s friend, the vio- Tinist Arthur Hartmann (1881-1956) on 5 February 1914 in Paris Debussy participated as p dition to Edvard Grieg’s Vio 6 major op. 13, three works by De- bbussy were played in arrangements: the song “II pleure dans mon eceur” from the Ariettes oubliées and La Fille aut ‘cheveus: de lin and Minstrels from Pré- ludes 1.On the progeamme leaflet, Ar- ‘hur Hartmann is given as the arrang- er of all three pieces. Hartmann’s song transcription was published in 1908, and that of La Fille aux cheveus de lin in 1910, In his memoirs, Hartmann claimed that the arrangement of Min- strels was likewise his own (ef. “Claude Debussy As I Knew Him” and Other Writings of Arthur Hartmann, ed. by Samuel Hsu/Sidney Grolnie/Mark Pe- ters, Rochester, 2003, pp. 97-99). From two leters by Debussy, we know that he himself arranged this piece for violin and piano, The composer wrote to Arthur Hartmann on 5 January 1914: You ean count on me on the coming 5 February. [..J 'am working on Mir stre’ [sie] right now. Pet you know 4s soon as itis finished” (Claude De- bussy: Correspondance, ed. by Fran- «ois Lesure/Denis Herlin, Paris, 2005, p. 1739; all quotations from letters are French in the original) A leter addressed to Debussy’s publisher Jacques Durand reads: “The arrangement of Minstrels (sic] is by me; after the concert i.e. to- morrow evening, itis at your disposal” (Correspondance, p. 1738; the letter is erroneously dated 4 January 1914, but ‘was obviously fen on the ev before the concert, that is to say on 4 February 1914). On 17 February Debussy received 500 franes from Du- rand as remuneration for the arrange- iment (ef. Correspondance, p. 1738 footnate 2) A first draft of the arrangemen hears the date 17 January 1914 ancl, role 1ce to the upcoming concert. mnorons subtitle “Transcription pour piano et Hartmann” (Facsimile *Claucte Debussy As 1 Knew Him’ pp. 235-243), This autogeaph contains fessential core idens for the transforma- tion of the compositional substance of the piano piece into its new sound eon- stellation (fr example the ingenio distribution of the head motif) but i cannot have served as the engravers copy or asthe copy for the performance nerous dynamic and articulation marks are lacking or deviate from the version of the fist edition. tn the graph there are even sounds that can not be realised on the violin (m. 52 third chord c'ebl/ab!). Important “vio linistic” adjustments must therefore have been undertaken between 17 Jan- and the concert on 5 February, presumably in consultation with Hart- ‘mana, Even in its final form ~ the print ed version dedicated to Hartmann ~ traces of the work process are preserve inthe form of discrepancies of artieula tion and dynamics, These traces can al so reveal to todays performer the spe- cial character of the arranging process ‘whereby an existing work is adapted t ‘new instrumental combination and ¢ specific performance situation, Hartmann’s conviction that he him self had made the arrangement, and that he had ceded it to Debussy in ord to help him in his financial cistress, is possibly based on their joint work on i Hartmann’s own transcription of Min- strels differs in every respect from De bbussy’s version (ef. the facsimile of Hla manus copy in “Claude Debussy As 1 Knew Hin”, pp. 244-251). Even basic compositional decisions that are clear ly documented in Debussy’s autograph {auch as the division of the head mo- the fest mensuee) are missing in is based on the first edi tion. The Comments at the eux of th present edition provide information about the diserepancies between the Iv score and the separate violin part as well as about alternative versions in the autograph. The work numbers follow the catalogue in Frangois Lesure’s bio- graphy (Claude Debussy; Paris, 2003) The bracketed number is taken from Lesure’s earlier Catalogue de Vauvre de Claude Debussy (Geneva, 1977). We would like to thank the libraries mentioned in the Comments for kindly placing the sources for the present edi- tion at our disposal. Trossingen, autumn 2014 Thomas Kabisch Préface En 1910, la publication de son 1* livre de Préludes pour piano aux éditions Durand a Paris marque un tournant dans l’euvre pour piano de Claude De- bussy (1862-1918). Dans ce recueil, le compositeur emprunte une voie ainsi que la qualifie le musicologue frangais Frangois Lesure: «Finies les arabesques, estampes, im- ages ou autres titres évocateurs» (Claude ae Sa soe an ee ee tiques particuliéres ressortir encore plu: tance musicale de c rapport a la version terme de «minstrels: maquillés de noir d lors desquels altern et intermédes comic vu un de ces specta Uhumour qui y étai fruste et non dénué « fois indirect et artifi sur l’imitation et le « refléte ce dédoublem Liadaptation de | qi et piano fut réalis concert de son ami Hartmann (1881-" février 1914, auque pait en tant que pia nate pour violon en dEdvard Grieg, tro de Debussy y furent prétées: «ll pleure de lodie tirée des Ariett que La Fille aux che strels, deux prélude: Arthur Hartmann e gramme comme ade trois morceaux. La t mélodie effectuée pa parue en 1908, celle cheveux de lin en 19 venirs, Hartmann pr étre auteur de l’adaj strels (cf. «Claude De Him» and Other Writs