You are on page 1of 30
CLAUDE DEBUSSY SONATE FUR VIOLINE UND KLAVIER NACH AUTOGRAPH UND ERSTAUSGABE HERAUSGEGEBEN VON ™ u Ss ERNST-GUNTER HEINEMANN M MIT EINEM VORWORT VON DA FRANCOIS LESURE STRICHBEZEICHNUNG UND FINGERSATZ KURT GUNTNER KLAUS SCHILDE VORWORT Alls Claude Debussy Ende 1915 sein Projekt der .Sechs Sonaten fiir verschiedene Instrumente" skizzierte, plante er die dritte fir die Besetzung Violine, Engl horn und Klavier. Das Englischhorn geriet bald in den Hintergrand. Denn dem Komponisten schwebte die Uranffuhrung des Werks mit dem amerikanischen Geiger ungarischer Abstammung, Arthur Hartmann, vor. Debussy kannte ihn seit 1910 und bewunderte sein Geigenspiel, das etwas Zigeunerhaftes hatte. Trot schlechtester Gesundheit arbeitete er das ganze Jahr 1916 iiber an der Violinsonate. Als er sich zur Erholung in Moulleau bei Arcachon aufhielt, ktindigte er am 17. Oktober seinem Verleger an: leh habe kiirzlich bei einem Spaziergang ans Cap Féret die Kernidee zum Finale meiner Violinsonate ge- funden.* Es handelt sich um die erste, die sogenannte sneapolitanische Version eines Allegro giocoso-Fina- les. Die beiden ersten Sitze liefert er Durand im Februar 1917 ab, kiimpft aber in den folgenden Wochen Xs Att the end of 1915 when Claude Debussy waCglam his series ofsixsonatas or various instrurients) he orig- ‘nally mitentfed the third sonata tobe for violin, Fm “Bosna piane Son, however the English oraTeDy~ the wayside, forthe composer had in mind that the work would be premigred by Arthur Hartmann, an American violinist of Hungarian extraction. Debussy had known Hartmann since 1910 and admired his playing, which hhad something of a gypsy flair to it. Despite his poor health, Debussy worked on his violin sonata throughout the entire year 1916 ‘On 17 October, while recuperating in Moulleau near Arcachon, he announced tohis publisher: “I recently kit upon the central idea for the finale of my violin sonata during a walk to Cap Féret.” He was referring to the first, or so-called “Neapolitan” version of the final movement, marked “allegro giocoso”. After submitting the first two movements to Durand in February 1917, um die endgiiltige Form des Finales. Wie er Paul Dukas schreibt, ist er hin- und hergerissen zwischen einem Dutzend Méglichkeiten, wie man eine Violinsonate zum AbschluB bringt'. Es existiert heute noch eine groBe Anzahl Skizzenbliitter, die sein Zégern zwischen den Schaffensabschnitten, teils als fragmentarische Ver- suche, teils als hesser ausgearbeitete Entwiirfe, belegen. SchlieBlich kehrt er 2u sciner ersten Version zuriick, die er noch cinmal tiberarbeitet, und schlielit somit die Sonate im Laufe des Aprils ab. ,.Durch ein vielleicht ganz natiirliches Phiinomen der Zweigesichtigkeit ist sie lebendig, ja fast froblich.* Noch bevor die Ausgabe im Handel erschien, fand die Urauffiihrung am 5. Mai 1917 in der Salle Gaveau statt. Der Komponist begleitete jedoch nicht den Geiger ‘A. Hartmann, sondern Gaston Poulet im Rahmen eines ‘Wohltitigkeitskonzertes fir die Kriegsopfer. Wie Fran- cis Poulenc beobachtete, war der Saal halbleer und der Applaus ,gerade eben hiflich*. PREFACE Debussy spent the next few weeks struggling to put the finale into definitive shape. As he wrote to Paul Dukas, he was torn between “a dozen possible ways of bringing a violin sonata to a conclusion”. Even today there still exist many pages of sketches—some tentative fragments, others more elaborate drafts — testifying to his indeci- sion between periods of work. Finally he returned to his first version, reworkingitonce again and completing the sonata in the month of April. “Thanks to its two-faced: ss (perhaps a quite natural phenomenon) itis lively, indeed almost merry.” Even before the printed edition had gone on sale, the premiéretook placein the Salle Gaveauon5May 1917 at abenefit concert for victims of the war. Debussy accom- panied, not Hartmann, but the violinist Gaston Poulet. As the young composer and pianist Francis Poulenc ob- served, the hall was half-empty and the applause “just barely courteous”, PREFACE ‘Lorsqu’a la fin de 1915, Claude Debussy mit sur le pa~ pier son projet détaillé de «Six sonates pour divers in- struments», la troisiéme était indiquée pour violon, cor anglais et piano. Le cor anglais disparut bient@t lorsque stellung der Quellen dankt der Herausgeher der Biblio- théque nationale, Ps [Allegro vivo TALVI: In E (Partitur) Akkord e!-d'-a'-d°; in E (Stimme) ohnee’ inden Nachdrucken von Eanchin der Partitur ohne! ‘T84: In den Quellen lusigando. ‘TIS4VI: mf nur in Spielstimme von E; wird erst in Nachdrucken von E in die Partitur dbernommen. UInterméde ‘T56u: Inden Quellenirrtiimlich stattb vor e™. v ‘T1246. 0: In den Quellen wird im Gegensatz zu den an- deren Stellen der gesamte Akkord und nicht nur ein Ton wohl irettimlich dbergebunden. III Finale TOVE: Haltebogen feblt in den Quellen auBer in der Istimme von E. ‘0: Haltebogen von G zu G in T 183 gemai A; fehlt inE. 7.206: Das Zeichen 1 in Violine und Kl tur) hat hier die Bedeutung eines Akzents; die Spiel- stimme von E hat LJ was als Abstrichzeichen zu verste- (E, Parti- shalb in der Spielstimme von E 1. henist. Wir setzen: COMMENTS ON THE EDITION Abbreviations: A= autograph manuscript ‘upper staff. = piano, lowe ‘We have based our edition on the sketches (Ms. 15380), the autograph engraver’s copy (Ms. 992,1), Debussy’s hand-corrected proofs of the engraving (Ms. 992, score only), and the first edition (Fol. Vm 9.1318, score and violin part). All of these sources are located in the Bibliothéque nationale, Paris. As Debussy entered a large number of changes in proof, the first edition of the Violin Sonata actually represents the definitive version, and has served accordingly as our principal source. ‘As customary for chamber music, Debussy merely ‘wrote out his autograph manuscriptin score rather than producinga separate violin part for the use ofthe violin- ist. Similarly, only the score was initially engraved. Itis not entirely clear how the separate violin part ofthe first edition came about. It departs from the violinstaff of the printed score in many details of phrasing and articula- tion. Inall likelihood the violin parthad been marked up for performance purposes, probably by Gaston Poulet, who created the work at its premitre. The discrepancies between the score and the printed part are highly dis- satisfying and a source of confusion. For this reason, we enlisted Kurt Guntner to prepare violin partfor ouredition on the basis of thescore, pay- ing due respect to its appearance and musical concep- tion. To reflect the state of the first edition, we decided to print the original violin part asan appendix to the enclo- sed part for purposes of comparison. Signs enclosed in parentheses, such as accidentals, dynamic marks or slurs, are lackingin the sources. Original fingeringis re- rst edition; P=proofsheets; u~ piano, produced in italics. The editor wishes to thank the Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, for kindly placing the sources at his dispo: TAllegro vivo M41Vn: Chord given as c'-d'-a'-d? in E (seore), but without c! in E (part); later reissues of E also omit cin the score. M84: Sources read lusigando. M154Vn: mf appears in E (part) only; not until later reissues was it included in the score. T Intermede ‘M561: Sources erroneously place 4 on e” instead of b. M124f.u: Unlike the other passages, the sources tie the entire chord over the bar line rather than just one note, probably by mistake. I Finale MOVn: Tie lacking in all sources except Vn part of E. M182 u: Te from G toG in 1183 taken from slacking ‘M206: In this context, the mark 7 in the violin and pi- ano (E, score) indicates an accent; the Vn part of E has U, which should be construed as a downbow. We have therefore placed Min the Vn part of E.