Part-I

Experiment- 4 Double Sideband Suppressed

Carrier(DSB SC).

1

The student will learn the basic concepts of amplitude modulation and examine the using of various modulation schemes. Draw 4 subplots on the same graph .Draw AM DSB − SC signal using M AT LAB or other mathematics software with the following parameters: Carrier sinewave frequency 10Hz amplitude 1volt. 1. 2. What is the desired phase? what is the worst case phase between the signals? 3. 4. 1. Prove that DSB − SC signal can be generated from two AM modulator as shown in Fig. He will need to know systems analysis in order to be in a position to design modulators and demodulators. * Understand amplitude modulation and the difference between suppressed and transmitted carrier modulation * Learn how to construct DSB − SC modulators. using mathematics describe signal at each point? AM modulator + ∑ input 1k Ω 1k Ω op Amp AM modulator Figure . modulating frequency sinewave 1 Hz amplitude 1 volt. 1.3 Necessary Background The student is required to have an understanding of Fourier transforms.1 Introduction Objectives This experiment deals with the basic of various amplitude modulation techniques for analog communication.1 .Evaluate equation 6 for the Product detector shown in Fig.-7 . The second plot carrier frequency as a function of time. The first plot modulating frequency as a function of time. A working knowledge of random processes and probability is needed to be able to evaluate system performance.: DSB_SC Modulator 1.-1.2 Prelab Exercise . the student will: * Recognize a mixer as practical multiplier. The third plot AM DSB − SC signal as a function of time. 2.1. Suppose that you have to calibrate (synchronize) the phase between the LO with the carrier of the DSB signal. Upon completion of the experiment. Background Theory 2 . * Know how to construct a synchronous demodulators. The fourth plot Fourier transform of AM DSB − SC signal. * Possess the necessary tools to evaluate and compare the performance of systems.

S(f) 1 -f(m) 0 f(m) Figure . 2 the following modulated waveform results: Sm (t) = A(t) cos(2πfc t + θ) (2) The frequency fc and the phase θ is constant.. That is. A time shift is not considered distortion in a communication system. since the angle actually corresponds to a time shift of θ/2πfc . The easiest way to illustrate this fact is to express Sm (t) in the frequency domain. We simplify the expression by assuming thatθ = 0.5 . The amplitude A(t) varies somehow in accordance with the baseband signal s(t) .. This will not affect any of the basic results. (The 5 .: DSB_SC modulation process This simple equating of A(t) with s(t) does indeed satisfy the criteria demanded of a communication system. that is.6 Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier If we modulate the amplitude of the carrier of Equation-. We require nothing more of S(f ) than that it be the Fourier transform of a baseband signal. to find its Fourier transform. the simplest answer you could suggest would be to make A(t) equal to s(t).the signal we want carried through the channel. If somebody asked you how to vary A(t) in accordance with s(t). S(f ) must equal zero for frequencies above some cutoff frequency fm . modulating signal t carrier t DSB-SC signal t Figure .: Spectrum of baseband signal Suppose that we let S(f) is the Fourier transform of s(t). This would yield a modulated signal of the form (3) Sm (t) = s(t) cos 2πfc t Such a signal is given the name double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB − SC) amplitude modulation for reasons that will soon become clear.4 . 2.

f m -f(c) -f c +f m f c.subscript m−stands for maximum. 1 1 cos(A + B) + COS(A − B) (5) 2 2 If cosA is replaced by s(t). The bandwidth required for transmitting a message signal s(t) of bandwidth fm is twice the bandwidth of baseband signal (see FIG. cos A cos B = 2.It does not mean to imply that S(f )must be of the shape shown. the sketch is meant only to indicate the transform of a general low-frequency bandlimited signal. 5) .7 Transmitted signal power and spectra. be 1 MHz.000 Hz.) Figure 5 gives a representative sketch of S(f). where s(t) contains a continuum of frequencies between 0 and fm the trigonometric identity can be applied term by term to yield a result containing all sums and differences of the frequencies. we have solved the first of the two problems. That is. Let us plug in some typical audio numbers. and if we define the average power of s(t) as 1 Sx = lim T →∞ T 4 1 1  lim T T →∞ T  −T 2 Z2 T A2 2 s (t) cos2 (2πfc t)dt 2 Z2 T A2 2 s (t) + 2 −T 2 −T 2 A2 2  s (t) cos 2(2πfc t)dt 2  −T 2 Z2 T s2 (t)dt ST = A2 Sx = Sc Sx = 2Psb 2 6 (6) ..6 .005. to compute the average power ST assume s(t) is power signal thus ST = ­ (Sm (t)) ® 2 = lim 1 T Z T 2 T →∞ = T →∞ lim The Band Pass Filter null the second integral. The modulation theorem is used to find Sm(f ) : 1 [s(f + fc ) + s(f − fc )] (4) 2 This transform is sketched as Figure 6 Note that modulation of a carrier with s(t) has shifted the frequencies of s(t) both up and down by the frequency of the carrier. Equation 4 indicates that the modulated waveform Sm (t) contains components with frequencies between fc − fm and fc+ fm As long as signals in this range of frequencies transmit efficiently and an antenna of reasonable length can be constructed.000 to 1. Then the range of frequencies occupied by the modulated waveform is from 995. This is analogous to the Sm (f) = = [s(t) cos 2πfc t] = Sm(f) 1/2 2*fm -f c.: Frequency domin of DSB-SC signal trigonometric result that multiplication of a sinusoid by another sinusoid results in sum and difference frequencies. be 5 kHz and fc . BT = 2fm Another important parameter is the average power needed to transmit the modulated signal Sm (t) DSB SC signal. Let fm .f m f(c) f c +f m Figure .

where f 0 and θ0 represents frequency and phase errors. SSB v1(t) LOW PASS FILTER vout Synchronized Oscilator LO Figure . Any practical oscillator has inaccuracy due to frequency drift and in our case phase error relative to the transmitted carrier.where Sc = A is the average carrier.If we assume s(t) is a real signal and LP F reject high frequency component (cos4πft).-7) is a mixer circuit that down-converts the (bandpass signal plus noise) to baseband.9 Effect Of Non Ideal LO On Synchronous Detector.-8 the detected signal V1 (t) in our case (DSB −SC modulation) is ALO cos(2πf 0 t + θ0 ) [Ku s(t) + Ku s(t) cos 4πfc t] V1 (t) = Sm (t)ALO = 2 If we assume s(t) is a real signal and LP F reject high frequency component (cos4πf t). then Vout equal to ALO Vout = Ku s(t) cos 2πf 0 t + θ 0 ) = Kd s(t) cos 2πf 0 t + θ0 ) (8) 2 if we assume that f 0 → 0 during detection we get Vout = Kd s(t) cos θ0 which mean that it’s very important to synchronizes the frequency and phase of the LO to the modulated signal.refer to Fig. Let represent it in mathematical form as LO = cos(2πfc t + 2πf 0 t + θ0 ).Product Detector A product detector (Fig.7 . 2 2.8 Synchronous Detector. Therefore the LO is synchronized with the carrier of transmitted signal. then Vout equal to: ALO Vout = Ku s(t) = Kd s(t) (7) 2 From Equation. in this case all the power transferred into the sidebands. 3. Experiment Procedure 7 . According to equation 6 we see that DSB −SC 2 modulation makes better (relative to DSB − T C) usage of transmitter power.7 we see that the output of the is equal to modulation signal s(t) multiply by constant Kd where it is stand for the detection constant. In our case (DSB −SC) with single tone modulation .: Product Detector 2. in both phase and frequency . The output of the multiplier is ALO [Ku s(t) + Ku s(t) cos 4πfc t] V1 (t) = Sm (t)ALO = 2 where the frequency of the oscillator is f c and the phase between LO and modulated signal Sm(t) is 0 .Psb = average power of each sideband.

Resolution bandwidth 10 kHz. 2. 7. Why can’t you see the spectrum as before? 10. 4. 8.2 Multiplying Signals Here we want to look at the basic component Double Balanced Mixer as frequency converter or frequency multiplier. RF − AW G. why they are lower then input signal (-10dbm)? HP-33120A opt 001 15.3 Sum.000. Using the markers of spectrum analyzer.3. measure the amplitude of multiplication products. 5. now you operate the split screen . 4.Frequency 100 kHz amplitude -10dbm. and you have the frequency and amplitude of each marker.: Mixer products 6. 3. Span 1 MHz. Set the spectrum analyzer to Center Frequency 10. Connect the double balanced mixer according to Fig.Frequency 10.8 . Harmonics and Image Frequencies .000.Signal Generator (SG)HP − 8647A.000 MHz I L BPF10. try to identify another major component explain how each component generated. PressMKR key on spectrum analyzer.in frequency domain using spectrum analyzer.Oscilloscope HP − 54600A. 8 . what happen. and change the baseband frequency to 100 kHz. 1. print the results. Observe the signal at Spectrum-Analyzer spectrum analyzer use the marker function to define the frequency domain around 10 MHz.7 MHz Spectrum analyzer HP-8590 Figure . 3. Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AW G)HP − 33120A. 8 . This experiment will realize the non-ideal operation of frequency multiplication. 1. Adjust the test equipment as follow: LO − AW G.Double Balanced Mixer Mini-Circuit ZAD − 2(ZP − 2). Change only the baseband frequency to 3 kHz observe the frequency domain around 10. and place 4 markers on the 4 major multiplication products.1 Required Equipment . Turn off the markers and table. 5. 2.7 MHz.7 MHz what happen. Disconnect the IF filter from the above system. Change the baseband frequency to 10 kHz observe the frequency domain around 10.7 MHz amplitude 7dbm.7 MHz.000 MHz R HP-33120A opt 001 15. 1. Band Pass Filter 10 MHz Mini-Circuit BBP − 10.7 3. Why can’t you see the spectrum as you saw it in pharagraph 3? 3. and the properties of the signals which they generate . 9. 6. Press MKR FCTN and M K T ABLE ON OF F . and the limitation of our Test and Measurement equipments .Spectrum Analyzer (SA) HP − 8590L.

Replace the spectrum analyzer with oscilloscope .9 . 1.-10 to implement product detector. AW G. 3. now explain what happen to the spectrum of the modulated signal? print the results.7 MHz . and watch the display of the spectrum analyzer and try to explain what happen? print the results. DSB modulator . using the cursors or other function. and later with other modulation systems.7 MHz amplitude 7dbm.now try to stabilize the signal on the screen. In this part of the experiment you will analyze the operating concept of product detector. what is the frequency of envelope of the modulated carrier and how this frequency relate to the baseband signal? what is the exact mathematics relation between the two signals. by setting the span to 1 MHz around the product. Set the T &M equipment as follow: HP − 8647A -Signal Generator . 1.Change the amplitude of the AW G (modulating frequency) to -10dbm and the amplitude of the Signal Generator (LO) between 7 dBm to -80dbm. 9 . How the spectrum of this signal related to the baseband signal? print the results.amplitude 7 dbm . Connect the Test and Measurement test equipment according to Fig. 6. HP-33120A 15. 2.Frequency 100 kHz amplitude -10dbm.Connect the system as indicated in Fig. 3.000 MHz Spectrum analyzer HP-8590 R 515.-9.1 Double Side Band-Suppress Carrier (DSB − SC) modulation/detection. The AW G of the detector have to be connected as slave to the signal generator HP − 8647A according to Appendix 1.000.2. 2. print the results 5. 3. Adjust the test equipment as follow: Signal Generator. 3.2 Product Detector. We choose to demonstrate the Product Detector it with DSB − SC modulation.Frequency 10.4. HP − 33120A -Baseband generator frequency 100 kHz . print the results. print the results. make zoom. Reconnect the spectrum analyzer change the amplitude of the AW G(100KHz) between -10 dBm to +20dbm. 3.Frequency 10.7 MHz Signal generator HP-8647A Oscilloscope 54600A Figure .00 MHz I L BPF10.000. Choose the 32.: DSB-SC modulator 4.4.4 3.1 MHz harmonic. Use the marker function of the spectrum analyzer to compute the bandwidth of DSB signal.amplitude -10 dBm. Change the span of spectrum analyzer to 500 MHz. now you can see all the spurious of the mixer.