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1. Consider a cylindrical nickel wire 2.0 mm (0.08 in.) in diameter and 3 × 104 mm (1200 in.)

long. Calculate its elongation when a load of 300 N (67 lbf) is applied. Assume that the

deformation is totally elastic.

In order to compute the elongation of the Ni wire when the 300 N load is applied we must employ Equations

6.2, 6.5, and 6.1. Combining these equations and solving for ∆l leads to the following

s l0 F l0 F 4l0 F

Dl = l0e = l0 = = =

E EA0 æd ö

2

Ep d02

Ep ç 0 ÷

è 2ø

2

æd ö

A0 = p ç 0 ÷

è 2ø

Incorporating into this expression values for l0, F, and d0 in the problem statement, and realizing that for Ni,

E = 207 GPa (30 106 psi) (Table 6.1), and that 3 104 mm = 30m, the wire elongation is

(4)(30 m)(300 N)

Dl = = 0.0138 m = 13.8 mm (0.53 in.)

(207 ´ 109 N/m 2 )(p )(2 ´ 10-3 m)2

2. A cylindrical specimen of steel having a diameter of 15.2 mm (0.60 in.) and length of 250

mm (10.0 in.) is deformed elastically in tension with a force of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf). Given

that the Young’s modulus E = 207 GPa, = 0.3, determine the following: (a) The amount by

which this specimen will elongate in the direction of the applied stress. (b) The change in

diameter of the specimen. Will the diameter increase or decrease?

(a) We are asked, in this portion of the problem, to determine the elongation of a cylindrical specimen of

steel. To solve this part of the problem requires that we use Equations 6.1, 6.2 and 6.5. Equation 6.5 reads

as follows:

s = Ee

Substitution the expression for from Equation 6.1 and the expression for from Equation 6.2 leads to

F Dl

=E

æ d2 ö l0

pç 0 ÷

è 4ø

In this equation d0 is the original cross-sectional diameter. Now, solving for l yields

4 F l0

Dl =

p d02 E

And incorporating values of F, l0, and d0, and realizing that E = 207 GPa (Table 6.1), leads to

Dl = = 3.25 ´ 10-4 m = 0.325 mm (0.013 in.)

(p) (15.2 ´ 10-3 m)2 (207 ´ 109 N/m 2 )

(b) We are now called upon to determine the change in diameter, d. Using Equation 6.8 (the

definition of Poisson's ratio)

ex Dd /d0

n=- = -

ez D l/l0

From Table 6.1, for steel, the value of Poisson's ratio, is 0.30. Now, solving the above expression for ∆d

yields

Dd = - = -

l0 250 mm

3 4

= –5.9 10 mm (–2.3 10 in.)

3. A cylindrical rod 120 mm long and having a diameter of 15.0 mm is to be deformed using a

tensile load of 35,000 N. It must not experience either plastic deformation or a diameter

reduction of more than 1.2 × 10–2 mm. Of the following materials listed, which are possible

candidates? Justify your choice(s).

Modulus of Elasticity

Material (GPa) Yield Strength (MPa) Poisson’s Ratio

Aluminum alloy 70 250 0.33

Titanium alloy 105 850 0.36

Steel alloy 205 550 0.27

Magnesium alloy 45 170 0.35

This problem asks that we assess the four alloys relative to the two criteria presented. The first criterion is

that the material not experience plastic deformation when the tensile load of 35,000 N is applied; this means

that the stress corresponding to this load not exceed the yield strength of the material. Upon computing the

stress

F F 35,000 N

s = = = = 200 ´ 106 N/m 2 = 200 MPa

A0 æd ö

2

æ 15 ´ 10 m ö

-3

2

pç 0 ÷ pç ÷

è 2ø è 2 ø

Of the alloys listed, the Al, Ti and steel alloys have yield strengths greater than 200 MPa.

Relative to the second criterion (i.e., that d be less than 1.2 102 mm), it is necessary to calculate

the change in diameter ∆d for these three alloys. It is first necessary to generate an expression for Poisson's

ratio from Equation 6.8, where x = d/d0, and, from Equation 6.5, y = E. Thus

Dd

ex d0E Dd

n= - = - =-

ez s s d0

E

n s d0

Dd = -

E

From the data presented in the table in the problem statement, we now compute the value of ∆d for

each of the four alloys.

For the aluminum alloy (E = 70 GPa, = 0.33, and taking the stress to be 200 MPa)

Dd = - = -1.41 ´ 10-3 mm

70 ´ 103 MPa

Therefore, the Al alloy is not a candidate because its ∆d is greater than 1.2 102 mm.

(0.27)(200 MPa)(15 mm)

Dd = - = - 0.40 ´ 10-2 mm

205 ´ 103 MPa

For the Ti alloy (E = 105 GPa, = 0.36)

Dd = - = - 1.0 ´ 10-2 mm

105 ´ 103 MPa

4. A cylindrical specimen of stainless steel having a diameter of 12.8 mm (0.505 in.) and a gauge

length of 50.800 mm (2.000 in.) is pulled in tension. Use the load–elongation characteristics

shown in the following table to complete parts (a) through (f).

Load Length

N lbf mm in.

0 0 50.800 2.000

12,700 2,850 50.825 2.001

25,400 5,710 50.851 2.002

38,100 8,560 50.876 2.003

50,800 11,400 50.902 2.004

76,200 17,100 50.952 2.006

89,100 20,000 51.003 2.008

92,700 20,800 51.054 2.010

102,500 23,000 51.181 2.015

107,800 24,200 51.308 2.020

119,400 26,800 51.562 2.030

128,300 28,800 51.816 2.040

149,700 33,650 52.832 2.080

159,000 35,750 53.848 2.120

160,400 36,000 54.356 2.140

159,500 35,850 54.864 2.160

151,500 34,050 55.880 2.200

124,700 28,000 56.642 2.230

(b) Compute the modulus of elasticity.

(c) Determine the yield strength at a strain offset of 0.002.

(d) Determine the tensile strength of this alloy.

(e) What is the approximate ductility, in percent elongation?

(f) Compute the modulus of resilience.

This problem calls for us to make a stress-strain plot for stainless steel, given its tensile load-length data, and

then to determine some of its mechanical characteristics.

(a) The data are plotted below on two plots: the first corresponds to the entire stress-strain curve,

while for the second, the curve extends to just beyond the elastic region of deformation.

(b) The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region (Equation 6.10)—i.e.,

s 2 - s1

E=

e 2 - e1

Because the stress-strain curve passes through the origin, to simplify the computation let us take both and

to be zero. If we select = 400 MPa, its corresponding strain on the plot is about 0.002. Thus the

elastic modulus is equal to

E= = 200 ´ 103 MPa = 200 GPa (29 ´ 106 psi)

0.002 - 0

(c) For the yield strength, the 0.002 strain offset line is drawn dashed in the lower plot. It intersects

the stress-strain curve at approximately 750 MPa (112,000 psi ).

(d) The tensile strength is approximately 1250 MPa (180,000 psi), corresponding to the maximum

stress on the complete stress-strain plot.

(e) Ductility, in percent elongation, is just the plastic strain at fracture, multiplied by one-hundred.

The total fracture strain at fracture is 0.115; subtracting out the elastic strain (which is about 0.003) leaves a

plastic strain of 0.112. Thus, the ductility is about 11.2%EL.

(f) From Equation 6.14, the modulus of resilience is just

s 2y

Ur =

2E

which, using values of y and E computed above, (750 MPa = 750 106 N/m2 and 200 GPa = 200 109

Ur = = 1.40 ´ 106 N/m 2 = 1.40 ´ 106 J/m3 (210 in.-lbf /in.3 )

(2) (200 ´ 109 N/m 2 )

5. What is the magnitude of the maximum stress that exists at the tip of an internal crack

having a radius of curvature of 1.9 × 10–4 mm (7.5 × 10–6 in.) and a crack length of 3.8 × 10–2

mm (1.5 × 10–3 in.) when a tensile stress of 140 MPa (20,000 psi) is applied?

This problem asks us to determine whether or not the 4340 steel alloy specimen will fracture when exposed

to a stress of 1030 MPa. This requires that we solve for c from Equation 8.6, given the values of KIc

(54.8 MPa m) , the largest value of a (0.5 mm), and Y (1.0). Thus, the critical stress for fracture is equal to

K Ic

sc =

Y pa

54.8 MPa m

=

(1.0 ) (p)(0.5 ´ 10-3 m )

= 1380 MPa (200,000 psi)

Therefore, fracture will not occur because this specimen will tolerate a stress of 1380 MPa (200,000 psi)

before fracture, which is greater than the applied stress of 1030 MPa (150,000 psi).

6. An aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminum alloy that has a plane strain fracture

toughness of 40 MPa m (36.4 ksi in. ). It has been determined that fracture results at a

stress of 300 MPa (43,500 psi) when the maximum (or critical) internal crack length is 4.0

mm (0.16 in.). For this same component and alloy, will fracture occur at a stress level of 260

MPa (38,000 psi) when the maximum internal crack length is 6.0 mm (0.24 in.)? Why or why

not?

We are asked to determine if an aircraft component will fracture for a given fracture toughness

(40 MPa m ), stress level (260 MPa), and maximum internal crack length (6.0 mm), given that fracture

occurs for the same component using the same alloy for another stress level and internal crack length. (Note:

Because the cracks are internal, their lengths are equal to 2a.) It first becomes necessary to solve for the

parameter Y, using Equation 8.5, for the conditions under which fracture occurred (i.e., = 300 MPa and 2a

= 4.0 mm). Therefore,

K Ic 40 MPa m

Y= = = 1.68

s pa æ 4 ´ 10-3 m ö

(300 MPa) (p) ç ÷

è 2 ø

Now we will solve for the product Y s pa for the other set of conditions, so as to ascertain whether or not

this value is greater than the KIc for the alloy. Thus,

æ 6 ´ 10-3 m ö

Y s p a = (1.68)(260 MPa) (p ) ç ÷

è 2 ø

Therefore, fracture will occur since this value (42.4 MPa m ) is greater than the KIc of the material,

40 MPa m .

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