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25 JUNE 2018 URBAN

2 BRIEFING NOTE CLIMATE CHANGE


RESILIENCE
TRUST FUND

Urban resilience and sustainable


development

A number of approaches have emerged over the past decades to enhance KEY THEMES:
the design, planning, and implementation of physical infrastructure in cities urban resilience, sustainable
development, sustainable
in ways that maintain or improve quality of life while reducing environmental
development goals, urban
impacts. These include ‘sustainable development’ and ‘urban resilience’.
infrastructure

The ADB established the Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund LENGTH:
(UCCRTF) in 2013 to support climate change resilience through the 12 pages
delivery of infrastructure and institutional interventions in medium-sized
WHO IS THIS FOR:
cities in Asia. The UCCRTF provides an important opportunity for the ADB
This document is recommended
to demonstrate leadership and scale-up global investment in building
reading for ADB Project
resilience to the effects of climate variability and climate change, particularly Officers, stakeholders who
for the urban poor. support infrastructure and
urban programming and others
This document explains sustainable development and its relationship to working within the ADB to
prepare and implement projects
urban resilience. This document also highlights the importance of building
that relate to urban resilience
resilience to achieve sustainable development objectives. A series of
and sustainable development.
examples are provided to demonstrate how sustainable development can
be practically applied to city development planning, sector-specific plans
and physical interventions.
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What is sustainable development? What is the relationship between urban


resilience and sustainable development?
Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations Urban resilience and sustainable development are interrelated concepts.
to meet their own needs.1
Urban resilience focusses on a city’s ability to survive Not all resilience actions support
In the context of cities, sustainable development can and thrive in the face of climate change impacts, as well ! sustainable development, and vice
be defined as a city ‘that uses its resources in an as other environmental, social, and economic related versa. For example, construction of
accountable and responsible manner to ensure that shocks and stresses. Resilience can be supported by a desalination plant may improve
its citizens, and future generations, can maintain or reducing harmful environmental impacts and avoiding a city’s ability to cope with drought
improve their quality of life while reducing environmental unsustainable resource use (sustainable development). and water insecurity (resilience), but
impacts.2 may also drive poor sustainability
Sustainable development at the city-scale focusses on outcomes such as increased city
The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)3 set reducing the impact of cities on natural environments, energy use, harmful impacts to marine
out 17 high level goals, each supported by specific while also maintaining quality of life and meeting basic diversity, and pressure on municipal
targets and indicators. Taken together, these SDGs human needs. As cities are subject to growing intensity budgets. Considering city plans and
seek to balance the needs of the present day, the future and severity shock and stress events alongside global investments through both a sustainable
needs, and the natural environment upon which life trends such as climate change and urbanisation, development and urban resilience lens
depends.4 achieving sustainable development objectives will can help governments and investors to
require cities to better cope and respond to disruption identify these trade-offs and make well-
and changing conditions (urban resilience). informed decisions.

What is urban resilience? SCALES While interdependent, there are key differences between urban resilience
and sustainable development. While both sustainable development and
urban resilience encourage a holistic, systems approach to development,
they do so at different scales:
Urban resilience can be defined as the ability of a city to support its
residents - particularly its poor and vulnerable - to survive and thrive no Sustainable development works Urban resilience focuses on the
across local, city, ecosystem, local,city and ecosystem scales,
matter what kinds of shocks and stresses they encounter.5 regional, national and global scales. including how these relate to
regional and national systems.
Cities are exposed to a growing range of social,
economic, and environmental shocks and stresses.
Urban resilience can help to overcome the challenges LOCAL CITY ECO- NATIONAL & GLOBAL
SYSTEMS REGIONAL
LOCAL CITY ECO-
SYSTEMS
NATIONAL &
REGIONAL
of uncertainty and the compounding impacts of shocks
and stresses in cities.

Measures to build resilience include those that help


governments, communities, and infrastructure to
continue to function and recover quickly (survive) in the RESOURCES Sustainable development and urban resilience also consider resources in
face of shocks and stresses. A city that is more resilient different ways:
is able to transform functions and processes to better
respond to future shocks and stresses (thrive). Sustainable development is Urban resilience requires
concerned with managing limited resources to support the city during
resources and meeting the needs or after a shock or stress event for
of all people, including the most the benefit of all people,
poor and vulnerable, now and in the including the most poor and
future. vulnerable.

(1) World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. http://
www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf | (2) Ibid. | (3) United Nations. 2016. Sustainable Development Goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
sustainable-development-goals/ (accessed 16 April 2018). | (4) Asia Leadership Program. 2016. Sustainable and Resilient Cities: Theme 3: Sustainable
Infrastructure for Green, Low-Carbon and Resilient Development.(5) ADB. 2014. Urban Climate Change Resilience A Synopsis. Manila.
4 URBAN RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 5

EXAMPLE Why is is urban resilience important for


sustainable development?
Energy

URBAN RESILIENCE Achieving sustainable development is increasingly challenging due to


Diversifying and decentralising city energy sources can the growing impact of shocks and stresses associated with unpredictable
help ensure a city’s power supply continues during times of
stress or disruption.
and accelerating global change.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into These challenges are especially acute in cities,
SUSTAINABILITY effect in 2016 as a universal agenda to end poverty, which are home to the majority of the world’s poor
Increasing low-carbon energy sources can reduce carbon protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy and vulnerable people. Actions that build resilience
emissions and environmental pollution. peace and prosperity. ADB is committed to supporting to cope with these shocks and stresses – particularly
action and progress towards the SDGs throughout its those arising from climate change, urbanization and
activities across Asia and the Pacific. population growth – are critical to achieving long-term
sustainable development.
Climate change related shocks and stresses such as
drought and food insecurity are impacting broader The importance of city resilience to sustainable
sustainable development goals such as ending poverty development is evident in SDG 11, the objective of
and hunger (SDGs 1 and 2)6. Climate change is also which is to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and
disproportionately affecting women, children and sustainable.8 SDG 11 highlights the need for cities
Waste Collection & Consumtion
vulnerable groups, perpetuating existing challenges to continue to thrive, while improving resource use,
URBAN RESILIENCE identified in Goal 10: reduced inequalities.7 ADB reducing pollution, reducing poverty, and providing
Improving a city’s waste collection and recognizes that these inequities have ‘the potential opportunities for all. This includes (among other
management can help reduce flooding to undermine the region’s potential for achieving the priorities) access to basic services, energy, housing,
impacts (by improving drainage) and the long- Sustainable Development Goals.’8 and transportation.
term stress of waterborne disease.’

SUSTAINABILITY UN SDGs
Recycling can help to reduce overall resource
consumption while improving environmental
quality and providing livelihoods opportunities.’

Urban planning
URBAN RESILIENCE
Integrated, well-enforced urban planning can help to
reduce the impact of shocks and stresses on communities
– for example, by preventing development in land-slide
prone areas, by protecting riparian corridors for flood
management, and by promoting community access to
basic services, emergency evacuation and shelter.’

SUSTAINABILITY
Sustainable urban planning can provide a huge range of
benefits including efficient urban mobility, protection of
valuable natural habitat and resources, and healthy, safe
communities.

(6) United Nations. 2016. The sustainable development agenda. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/ (accessed 16 April 2018). |
(7) UNDP, 2013. Overview of Linkages Between Gender and Climate Change | (8) ADB 2018. Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies in Asia and
the Pacific.
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How does urban resilience contribute to


Image by Barbara Willi on Flickr.com

sustainable development?

The New Urban Agenda (NUA)11 adopted at UN Habitat III in 2016,


provides a global standard for sustainable development in cities, and a
framework for thinking about the way cities are planned and managed.

‘The New Urban Agenda is a roadmap for building cities In order to contribute to the wellbeing of all citizens,
that can serve as engines of prosperity and centres including the most poor and vulnerable, cities must be
of cultural and social well-being while protecting the planned, designed, constructed, and operated with a
environment. The Agenda also provides guidance for focus on sustainable development. The UN recognises
achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and that sustainability requires the integration of the
provides the underpinning for actions to address climate following four pillars.13
change.’12

SUSTAINABILITY

C A S E S T U DY Sandbag dykes were constructed in the city of Bangkok


during the 2011 floods, to control the influx of water
BANGKOK FLOODS SOCIAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL URBAN
into the city’s main business and tourist areas. This
DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT GOVERNANCE
channelling of flood water caused communities living
for example, water and for example, creation for example, waste and for example, reduction of
on the other side of the sandbags to be inundated. After sanitation, green public of decent employment, recycle management, inequalities, planning and
significant tensions arose, city authorities realized that transportation, green energy production, and distribution of energy efficiency, and water decentralization, and support
the city needed to take stock of the complex issues that access, and community decent energy. management. of local, national, regional and
may arise from climate change and develop a long- support. global links.
term perspective on how to deal with them. As a result,
more investment in flood mitigation and prevention was
proposed, as well as the construction of more retention
ponds, drainage tunnels and pumping stations that
created a more sustainable and viable water network in
the long-term.9

This example demonstrates that decisions that improve Integrating these four pillars requires viewing the
the ability of the city to function in the face of shocks ‘city as a system’, made up of many connected and
and stresses in the short-term can also contribute interdependent assets, resources, institutions and
to sustainable development when those solutions communities. Cities are increasingly exposed to shocks
improve the quality of life of all citizens, including future and stresses that affect these pillars simultaneously,
generations, in the long-term. or may have a compounding affect across pillars.
Improving urban resilience can allow a city to overcome
the uncertainty and compounding impact of shocks
and stresses, while also progressing towards more
sustainable development pathways.

(9) United Nations, 2016. Sustainable Development Goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/ (accessed 17 April 2018). (11) United Nations. 2016. New Urban Agenda. http://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda | (12) Unites Nations. 2016. The New Urban Agenda: Key Commitments.
https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2016/10/newurbanagenda/ (accessed 17 April 2018). | (13) Asia Leadership Program. 2016. Sustainable and
Resilient Cities: Theme 3: Sustainable Infrastructure for Green, Low-Carbon and Resilient Development.
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How are sustainable development and urban How are sustainable development and urban
resilience integrated into city development plans? resilience integrated into sector specific plans?

A selection of example actions for integrating sustainable development The following examples focus on the water and sanitation sector planning
and urban resilience into city development plans, sector specific plans, and
physical interventions are provided below.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN RESILIENCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN RESILIENCE

Identify actions that align with Evaluate city exposure and Review the water network for Establish early warning systems to
regional and national sustainable vulnerability to hazards, informing inefficiencies and losses (including identify drought and water scarcity
development objectives and city-level actions to better cope with leakage and non-revenue water) to concerns before they impact the
commitments. these challenges. inform upgrades and maintenance. urban population.

Establish a long-term, city-wide Encourage a multi-sector approach Develop a Water Infrastructure Establish demand management
vision, including clear objectives to planning that considers how Investment Plan14 which considers practices - for example, through
and policy targets (such as a 24/7 climate change may impact the city’s more poor and vulnerable aquifer recharge and use of surface
water supply strategy) aligned to the CITY resource availability and communities. SECTOR water.15
SDGs. DEVELOPMENT consumption. SPECIFIC
PLANS Establish targets for city water PLANS Consider a decentralised
Consult with citizens, NGOs and Engage with city stakeholders, supply and sanitation, for example: approaches to the removal of
civil society to identify resource including the poor and vulnerable, distribution network coverage of wastewater.
constraints and basic needs, and to identify and assess critical 70% (medium term) to 80% (long
identify actions to address gaps now infrastructure, and enhance its term). Raise citizen awareness of how
and in the future. performance in times of shock or to treat (boil or chlorinate) water
stress. when supplies are interrupted or
Ensure plans address the needs contaminated.
of all citizens, including improving Implement public awareness-raising,
quality of life and resource access ensuring citizens know what actions
for the most vulnerable. to take to cope and recover quickly
when shocks and stresses occur.

EXAMPLE ADB’s Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund (UCCRTF) is EXAMPLE Myanmar ranks as one of the most vulnerable country in the
supporting urban planning for five coastal towns in Bangladesh b world to extreme weather events over the last 20 years. Providing
through the ‘Coastal Towns Environmental Improvement Project’ climate resilient infrastructure to better cope with challenges
(CTEIP). Rapid Urban Climate Change Assessments (RUCCAs) associated with climate risks and rapid urbanization is a priority
identifying key climate change risks and urban vulnerabilities for Yangon City, where UCCRTF is providing a grant to analyze
were prepared for each town. These informed Climate existing current urban plans and infrastructure investments from
Resilient Integrated Urban Plans which address community the perspective of climate resilience. The grant will fund a scoping
and infrastructure climate change and disaster risks alongside study focusing on water supply, wastewater management, solid
long-term sustainability objectives such as urban greenspace, waste collection and treatment, and flood protection. It will take a
environmental quality and human wellbeing. UCCRTF has also holistic approach to review existing and future climate risks, sector
established a spatial data platform (Spatial Data Explorer – or strategies, infrastructure gaps and resource challenges to donor
‘SPADE’) to help ensure urban planning data and analysis stored, investment towards a sustainable and resilient future for Yangon.
shared, and used to inform future city activities.

(14) ADB. April 2016. Medium Term Integrated Climate Resilient Urban Infrastructure Investment Program and Pre-Feasibility Study. Final Report–Sahiwal, Pakistan (14) ADB. April 2016. Medium Term Integrated Climate Resilient Urban Infrastructure Investment Program and Pre-Feasibility Study. Final Report–Sahiwal, Pakistan
Chapter VI Sector Assessment, Strategies and Roadmaps. | (15) November 30, 2016. TA 8913 REG Subproject 1: Developing Integrated Urban Development Plans Chapter VI Sector Assessment, Strategies and Roadmaps. | (15) November 30, 2016. TA 8913 REG Subproject 1: Developing Integrated Urban Development Plans
in Selected DMC Cities Incorporating Urban Climate Change Resilience Principles. in Selected DMC Cities Incorporating Urban Climate Change Resilience Principles.
10 URBAN RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 11

How are sustainable development and urban FURTHER RESOURCES:

resilience integrated into physical interventions? ▪▪ ADB. 2018. Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies in Asia and the Pacific:
https://www.adb.org/publications/sustainable-resilient-societies-asia-pacific
▪▪ ADB. 2014. Urban Climate Change Resilience A Synopsis. Manila.
▪▪ ADB. April 2016.Medium Term Integrated Climate Resilient Urban Infrastructure Investment Program and Pre-
The following examples relate to transport sector interventions. Feasibility Study. Final Report–Sahiwal, Pakistan Chapter VI Sector Assessment, Strategies and Roadmaps.
▪▪ Asia Leadership Program. 2016. Sustainable and Resilient Cities: Theme 3: Sustainable Infrastructure for Green,
Low-Carbon and Resilient Development.
▪▪ J. Watts.2011. Thailand seeks flood prevention plan as Bangkok clean-up operation continues. The Guardian
(Australia edition). 27 December: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/dec/26/thailand-flood-plan
▪▪ United Nations. 2016. Sustainable Development Goals.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN RESILIENCE http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/
▪▪ United Nations. 2016. The sustainable development agenda.
http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/
Protect market streets that play Incorporate porous pavement in ▪▪ World Commission on Environment and Development.1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment
an important role in the city’s daily non-motorized facilities, such as
and Development: Our Common Future: http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf
economic activity by restricting porous asphalt and porous concrete.
transport modes in these areas to This may increase visual separation
avoid congestion, ensure access from vehicular routes, reduce storm-
and egress of products, and water runoff volumes, and reduce
enhance pedestrian access. pollutant transport through direct
infiltration16.
PHYSICAL
Incorporate green infrastructure,
INTERVENTIONS
Water Sensitive Urban Design Strengthen inter-modal connection
(WSUD), and integrated drainage by extending rail, roads and related
systems in order to decrease services directly to port and dock
stormwater runoff, reduce urban facilities to increase mobility during
heat island effects and increase or after a disaster.
amenity.
Incorporate evacuation route
Incorporate dedicated cyclist and planning and signage in road design
pedestrian lanes and facilities and construction.
in design to improve safety and
promote passive transport modes.

EXAMPLE In Indonesia many communities suffer from climate change driven


water stresses, particularly relating to water quality and access,
inadequate sanitation and pollution. UCCRTF is supporting a pilot The Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund (UCCRTF) is a multi-donor trust fund established in
for innovative water sensitive urban development approaches 2013 with the objective of building the resilience of 2.2 million people in 25 cities in eight countries in Asia.
though the Revitalization of Informal Settlements and their It aims to reduce risks faced by vulnerable communities and assets from extreme weather events through
Environments (RISE) project in Makassar. The pilot is adopting better city planning and climate-resilient infrastructure.
nature based solutions such as multifunctional green spaces,
rainwater harvesting catchments, restored natural waterways to The trust fund is administered by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) with contributions from the
support flood resilience, alongside ecosystems approaches to Governments of the United Kingdom and Switzerland and the Rockefeller Foundation.
wastewater recycling. This integrated approach targets multiple
benefits for improved sustainability and resilience including
improved water quality, reduced external contamination, improved For further information on the UCCRTF, please contact:
domestic sanitation and water security. Virinder Sharma
vsharma@adb.org

(16) ADB, 2016 TA 8913 REG Subproject 1: Developing Integrated Urban Development Plans in Selected DMC Cities Incorporating Urban Climate Change
Resilience Principles. Climate Resilient Integrated Urban Plan. Patuakhali.
URBAN CLIMATE CHANGE RESILIENCE TRUST FUND