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Add-In

Intercept Counting

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Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH have tried to make the information contained in this manual as accurate and

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Schnittlinienmessung

Intercept Counting 3

Intercept Counting

Overview 3

TERMINOLOGY ........................................................................3

MEASUREMENT PATHS .........................................................5

Step-by-step 7

GROWTH OF NERVE CELLS ................................................11

Size tab ..............................................................................15

Pattern tab .........................................................................16

Boundary tab .....................................................................18

Model tab ...........................................................................21

Classification tab ................................................................21

Display tab .........................................................................24

Display area .......................................................................24

Buttons ...............................................................................25

INTERCEPT COUNTING ........................................................27

EIC0206

Schnittlinienmessung •

2

Intercept Counting

Intercept Counting

Intercept Counting

Intercept counting is an add-in for your image analysis program. This mea-

surement procedure enables one to place a measuring line into an image

and searches for strong intensity deviations along this measuring line. The

points found in this manner are called intercept points. The program not only

locates such intercept points, but also measures the distance between two

such intercept points. The results of this measurement are classified and

displayed as a diagram.

Outline of manual

Intercept countings are used in very different areas. Intercept counting ful-

fills these various requirements. The operation varies based on the task.

Overview You will first find a general overview of the terms used in this manual.

Step-by-step Subsequently, an example from the areas of materials science and biology

will be worked through step by step. This segment will clarify which methods

and parameters are important for each case. Not all of the parameters are

explained.

Describing the com- This segment describes the Define Intercept Counting dialog box as well as

mands how to work with the Intercept Counting command.

Overview

Terminology

Structural boundary All image structures which are detected during measurement and labeled as

intercept points are characterized as structural boundaries within this docu-

mentation. In the field of metallography, the structural boundaries refer to

the grain boundary.

Intensity profile The first step in the measurement determines the intensity profiles of the se-

3

lected image. For this purpose, the intensity (gray value) of the individual im-

age points are plotted against their position along a certain path. When us-

ing 24-Bit true-color images, the intensity is determined as the mean value

of the three hues.

Intercept Counting • Overview

mined along the horizontal

line in the adjacent image.

The distinctive minima in the

profile are used during inter-

cept counting in order to de-

termine the intercept points.

The arrow marks a minimum

which you can exclude or

eliminate for the Boundary

type by selecting the appro-

priate parameters.

The profile used for the measurement depends on the measurement path

and is automatically determined.

Measurement path The measurement path corresponds to the path through the image along

which the intensity profile is determined and the intercept points are

searched for.

Intercept point An intercept point is a deviation in the intensity profile. The Define Intercept

Counting dialog box enables you to determine under what criteria an inter-

cept point is to be found; for example, should the measurement react to

peaks or valleys in the intensity profile. You can also add or remove intercept

points by clicking them.

Intercept length The intercept length is the distance between two consecutive intercept

points. In doing so, the intercept length is determined along the measure-

ment path. Therefore, it is not the smallest distance between to intercept

points.

4

tween the points circled in

white is the length of the

white arch between them.

Measurement pattern The measurement pattern is the entire area of the image which is included

in the intercept counting. The center point of the measurement pattern is al-

ways located in the center of the image. The stature of the measurement

pattern depends on the selected measurement path.

Related topics

Boundary tab 18

Remove intercepts 27

Measurement paths

Size of measurement The pattern size is a global parameter for the spread of the measurement

pattern pattern. The size of the measurement pattern is limited by the size of the im-

age and the selected measurement path.

The horizontal and parallel

lines of the combined mea-

surement grid define the

length of the pattern size.

Measurement paths

The measurement path is the segment along which the program searches for deviations in the intensity

profile.

You can choose from eight different measurement paths. The type of struc-

tures and their position in the image are necessary to decide which mea-

surement path is appropriate for a certain task.

Horizontal lines Horizontal lines are distributed equally across the measurement pattern.

You can set the distances between lines. Only a single horizontal line will be

measured in the middle of the measurement pattern if the distance is greater

than the height of the measurement pattern.

Vertical lines Vertical lines are distributed equally across the measurement pattern. You

can set the distances between the lines. Only a single vertical line will be

measured in the middle of the measurement pattern, if the distance is great-

er than the width of the measurement pattern.

Intercept Counting • Overview

Crossed lines Horizontal and vertical lines are distributed evenly in the form of a grid. You

can enter the distances separately for both directions. Only a single horizon-

tal line will be measured in the middle of the measurement pattern, if the hor-

izontal distance is greater than the height of the measurement pattern. The

same is true for an oversized vertical distance.

Cross The cross consists of two diagonally crossed lines, as well as a line below

and to the left of this cross. The size of the measurement pattern corre-

sponds to the length of the horizontal line below the cross.

When using the cross as measurement path, the measurement pattern

does not cover the entire image. This measurement path is therefore not ap-

propriate for images which contain important structures along the image's

edges. This measurement path is not part of the ASTM standard and should

not be used for metallographical analyses.

Circles Three circles are placed in the center of the image. The size of the measure-

ment pattern corresponds to the diameter of the largest circle.

When using circles as the measurement path, the measurement pattern

does not cover the entire image. This measurement path is therefore not ap-

propriate for images which contain important structures along the image's

edges. It is appropriate for images with structures distributed equally

throughout the image or structures which progress from the middle of the im-

6

Cross and circles The Cross and circles path combines the Cross and Circles measure-

ment paths.

Step-by-step

Random lines The Random lines measurement path generates random lines which are

placed on the image. You can determine the amount of lines as well as their

lengths.

When using the Random lines measurement pattern, the measurement

pattern can be set so that it covers the entire image. This measurement path

is not part of the ASTM standard and should not be used for metallographi-

cal analyses.

circle as it rolls along a straight line. A cycloid is defined by the circumfer-

ence of the circle and the distance of the lines along which it rolls.

This measurement path is not part of the ASTM standard and should not be

used for metallographical analyses.

Step-by-step

Determining grain size

Materials analysis uses intercept counting to determine the grain size of me-

tallic samples.

7

Microscopic acquisition of

sheet steel.

This image illustrates the

grain size determination at-

tained by intercept counting.

Related topics

Adjust size 16

Intercept Counting • Step-by-step

The procedure

The number of intercept points between the measuring lines and the struc-

tural boundaries are determined during the determination of the grain size

after the intercept counting. The structural boundaries in this application are

referred to as grain boundaries. The grain size is determined by the mean

distance of two successive lines.

Result of intercept Intercept counting delivers the so-called G-value, which is defined as a char-

counting acteristic grain size in the ASTM standard. G is acquired from the number of

intercept points and the mean intercept length.

Preparation

Start your image analysis program, load the image you would like to ana-

lyze, and activate the corresponding image buffer. Select the Define Inter-

cept Counting... command. Depending on the version of your image analy-

sis program, this command will be located either in the Analysis or Measure-

ment menu.

Visualization When working with intercept counting, you change the various parame-

ters. In order to check these changes, you can have the results displayed

automatically. To do so, select the Autoupdate check box in the Display tab

located in the Define Intercept Counting dialog box. Enter the value 1 into

the s field located next to the check box. This way, the effects of the changed

parameters are displayed shortly thereafter.

A measurement path which is part of the ASTM standard E 112 is used

when carrying out a grain boundary analysis of a metallic sample. This ap-

plies to the Cross and circles measurement path. The measurement path is

selected in the Measurement path tab of the Define Intercept Counting... di-

alog box. The selected measurement path is shown directly in the image

document.

Hint In some cases, the measurement path will not be displayed in the image. In

this case, the size of the measurement pattern is too large. Reduce the pat-

tern size, as shown in the following step.

8

Related topics

Cross and circles 6

Pattern tab 16

Step-by-step

Hint Select the Image > Scale Bar > Show in Viewport command or the [Shift+F4]

key stroke to display a scale bar in the image. The size details of the scale

bar help you to select the pattern size.

You can set the pattern size on the Size tab. A change made to the value in

the Pattern size field will be displayed directly on the screen. The measure-

ment pattern cannot cover the entire image area, depending on the selected

measurement path. If the pattern size has been set too large, the measure-

ment path will no longer be shown in the image document. Set the pattern

size so that the measurement pattern covers the largest area possible in the

image.

Hint The Adjust size check box is available for all measurement paths which are

exclusively based on lines (horizontal, vertical, crossed and random). Select

the check box to automatically adjust the pattern size to the image size.

After a few seconds, the intercept points are displayed as circles on the

measuring line. Should this not happen, click once on the Execute Intercept

Counting button.

The Boundary tab enables you to determine which criteria are to affect the

grain boundary. For the example, the grain boundary is dark. Enter the value

95% into the correlation field and 0 into the Noise field. Set the image's zoom

factor, so that you can identify the grain boundaries. This enables you to de-

termine the Width parameter. These settings, however, are not enough to

detect intercept points. The value of Width should be approximately half the

size as the width of the boundary in pixels.

The grain boundary within

the white square has been

magnified to such an extent

that the width of the grain

boundary can be seen di-

rectly in pixels. The grain

boundary has the width of 5

pixels. In this case, you

9

should choose 3 pixels for

the Width.

Enter the minimum correlation for identifying a grain boundary in the Corre-

lation field. The specification is done in percent. The larger the threshold val-

ue, the more the small and/or narrow structural boundaries are suppressed.

Should too few or no intercept points have been detected, lower the Corre-

lation value until all the grain boundaries are selected in the extract.

Now, even the intercept points which do not match any grain boundaries are

shown. Raise the Noise parameter until only real intercept points are dis-

played.

Related topics

Measurement pattern 4

Size of measurement pattern 5

Boundary tab 18

Intercept Counting • Step-by-step

lowered to 69 in the left ex-

tract; Noise is 0.

Intercept points are shown

which do not correspond to

any grain boundaries.

The Correlation remains

constant and the Noise has

been increased to 4.5.

The intercept points dis-

played correspond to real

grain boundaries.

Set the zoom factor of the image so that the entire measurement pattern is

displayed in the image document. Make sure that all of the grain boundaries

have been detected. Change the Correlation and Noise parameters until all

grain boundaries have been found.

10

Click the Remove Intercepts button to delete surplus intercept points and to

exclude the results from the calculation. To do so, click the intercept points

you want to delete. Repeat this procedure until only intercept points which

have been correctly detected remain. To stop the procedure, click the right

mouse button.

Select the entry G from the picklist located on the Model tab to determine

the grain size determination of the G value in accordance to the ASTM stan-

dard W 112.

Related topics

Remove intercepts 27

Model tab 21

Step-by-step

Select the Automatic check box located on the Classification tab and click

the arrow keys located in the display area of the dialog box. The results of

the measurement will be displayed in the lower part of the dialog box. A di-

agram of the intercept lengths of 10 classes is displayed.

The diagram shows the dis-

tribution of the intercept

lengths.

Click the arrow button located next to the Write Results to Sheet button.

Click the Classification entry in the menu which opens. Click the Write Re-

sults to Sheet button to copy the measurement results to a sheet. A sheet

entitled Intercept and Classify will be opened. The distribution of the inter-

cept lengths is documented in this sheet.

The growth and spread of nerve cells lead to the development of axons in

branched structures. With the aid of intercept counting, the images of these

developments can be characterized and compared. In this context, terms

such as grain size cannot be applicable.

Microscopic acquisitions of

a nerve cell with axons.

This image demonstrates

the way intercept counting

works in the biological field.

11

The procedure

When analyzing the acquisition, the questions of the density of the struc-

tures and their distribution from their origin remain in the foreground. By this

type of acquisition, the structural boundaries make out the structures being

looked for in the image. A branched, widely spread out network leads to

many intercept points and a lower mean intercept length.

Related topics

Classification tab 21

Classification 26

Intercept Counting • Step-by-step

Result of intercept The results of an intercept counting measurement with such acquisitions

counting cannot be converted to a model in objective sizes. You can, however, at any

time, measure already made acquisitions of a sample with the same param-

eters and compare their results.

Preparation

Start your image analysis program, load the image you would like to ana-

lyze, and activate the corresponding image buffer. Select the Define Inter-

cept Counting... command. Depending on the version of your image analy-

sis program, this command will be located either in the Analysis or Measure-

ment menu.

It is best to use curved lines for the intercept points, since the structures in

the image consist of relatively long and straight line intervals, which do not

have a uniform orientation. Activate the Pattern tab located in the Define In-

tercept Counting dialog box and select the Cycloids measurement path.

The measurement path Cy-

cloids have been selected in

the image.

The distance between the

cycloids is 20 µn, its Radius

is 10 µm.

12

You can set the pattern size on the Size tab. A change made to the value in

the Pattern size field will be displayed directly on the screen. If the pattern

size has been set too large, the measurement path will no longer be shown

in the image document.

The Boundary tab enables you to determine which criteria are to effect the

intercept points. For the example, the structural boundary is light. Enter the

value 50% into the correlation field and 0 into the Noise field. Set the image's

zoom factor, so that you can identify the details of the lines. This enables you

to determine the Width parameter.

Related topics

Pattern tab 16

Cycloids 7

Size tab 15

Boundary tab 18

Step-by-step

white square are magnified

to such an extent that the

width of the lines can be

seen directly in pixels. The

lines have a width of 2 pix-

els. In this case, you should

set the Width to 1 pixel.

with the idealized grain boundary profile of metallography. This profile can-

not be used for biological acquisitions. The similarity to an idealized profile

is thus not a criteria for locating the intercept points. A too low Correlation

would merely lead to image noise being identified as intercept points.

Click the Execute Intercept Counting button to check the quality of the mea-

surement with the current settings.

are found with the settings

Correlation 50 and Noise 0.

13

Increase the Noise value in numerous increments and observe how the

number of found intercept points decrease.

Intercept Counting • Step-by-step

are located on the image

structures when using the

settings Correlation 50 and

Noise 5.

Increase the image's zoom factor to be able to judge the quality of the indi-

vidual intercept points. Click the Add Intercepts and/or Remove Intercepts

buttons to still be able to execute some corrections.

Select the No model entry from the picklist located on the Model tab. The

offered models are only valid for metallographic analyses.

Select the Automatic check box located on the Classification tab and click

the arrow keys located in the display area of the dialog box. A diagram of the

intercept lengths of 10 classes is displayed.

The diagram shows the dis-

tribution of the intercept

lengths.

14

Click the arrow button located next to the Write Results to Sheet button. In

the menu, click the Classification and Rawdata entries. Click the Write Re-

sults to Sheet button to copy the measurement results to a sheet. A sheet

entitled Intercept and Classify and Intercept Rawdata is opened respective-

ly. The distribution of the intercept lengths is documented in the Intercept

and Classify sheet. The Intercept Rawdata sheet contains a list of all of the

individually located intercept lengths.

Related topics

Add intercepts 27

Model tab 21

Classification tab 21

Classification 26

Rawdata 27

Describing the commands

In this segment, the Define Intercept Counting... and Intercept Counting commands, as well as their pa-

rameters, are described in detail.

The Define Intercept Counting... command opens a dialog box with the

same name. The Define Intercept Counting dialog box contains six tabs:

Size, Pattern, Boundary, Model, Classification and Display. The dialog box

also contains a button bar and a display area.

Button bar

Display

area

Size tab

15

Use the Size tab to adapt the measurement pattern onto the image. Select

a measurement path on the Pattern tab before executing this adaptation.

Pattern size Enter the entire pattern size into the Pattern size field. The display in the im-

age document is immediately adapted to the new pattern size. The mea-

surement path is not visible in the image document if the pattern size is too

large. The unit of the value is extracted from the image's calibration data.

You can also change this value in the Calibration unit selection box.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

Adjust size Select the Adjust size check box to make the measurement pattern as large

as possible. The Adjust size check box is not active with, Cross, Circles,

Cross and circles, as well as Cycloids measurement paths. If you have se-

lected the Adjust size check box, the Pattern size field becomes inactive.

Note If the Adjust size check box has not been selected, the measurement pattern

has the shape of a square. Thus, the possible pattern size can be limited.

Select one of the measuring paths (Horizontal lines, Vertical lines, Crossed

lines or Random lines) and select the Adjust size check box to execute the

measurement on the entire image, even if the image does not possess a

square shape.

Total length The entry Total length gives the total length of all the paths of a pattern with

the set parameters. It is automatically calculated and cannot be edited.

Calibration unit Select the Calibration unit check box to select unit other than the image’s

calibration unit for the intercept counting. If you have selected the Calibra-

tion unit check box, the picklist for the units remains active.

Hint The selected unit is used for all of the length specifications for the Define In-

tercept Counting commands. Even the units for the size specifications on

the Pattern tab are changed. This can result in not having a pattern shown

in the image document.

Pattern tab

16

Use the Pattern tab to select the measurement path and to make the appro-

priate settings.

The fields available on the tab depend on the selected measurement path

and are therefore listed separately.

Calibration unit All size values of the measurement path (Distance, Radius, Length) can only

accept values of integers. Select the Calibration unit check box located on

the Pattern tab to be able to select a smaller unit. This is necessary if the

increment of the preset calibration unit is too large to be able to make a fine-

adjustment.

Distance Enter the distance between two horizontal or vertical lines of the pattern in

the Distance field. You can enter any value into the field. As soon as the dis-

tance is greater than the corresponding expansion of the image, the mea-

surement path restricts itself to a single line in the middle of the image.

Related topics

Measurement paths 5

Define intercept counting

Crossed lines

Horizontal Enter the distance between two horizontal or vertical lines of the pattern in

the Horizontal field. You can enter any value into the field. As soon as the

distance is greater than the vertical expansion of the image, only a single

horizontal line will be used in the middle of the image.

Vertical Enter the distance between two vertical lines of the pattern in the Vertical

field. You can enter any value into the field. As soon as the distance is great-

er than the vertical expansion of the image, only a single vertical line will be

used in the middle of the image.

There are no free parameters when using the Cross, Circles and Cross and

circles patterns. You can set the entire size of the pattern on the Size tab.

The Random lines pattern consists of randomly generated lines which run

through the measurement pattern.

Count/Length You can determine either the number of lines or the sum of their lengths. To

do so, select one of the two options. The entry field for the selected options

becomes active, whereby the other one becomes inactive.

Count Enter the desired number of random lines into the Count field. Each random

line runs from one edge of the measurement pattern to the other. You can

create a maximum of 1,000 lines.

Hint When using a large number of lines, the time required for your computer to

carry out the analysis increases. Increase the Count in intervals to be able

to survey the resulting line pattern.

Length Enter the desired total length of the lines into the Length field. The created

random lines run, with an exception, from one edge of the measurement pat-

tern to the other. The last line ends on a point where the total length has

been reached. This can occur in the middle of the image. The size unit of the

value corresponds to the selected unit in the Calibration unit field located in

the Size tab.

17

Seed Enter a starting value for the random number generator into the Seed field.

The random number generator of your image analysis program uses a

mathematical formula to create a series of random numbers. For this pur-

pose, a starting value (Seed) is required. The same starting value leads to

the same sequence of the random numbers. Select the check box in front of

the Seed field to set the starting value. This value is now going to be used

for the creation of additional random lines. The lines also remain constant if

the calculation of the measurement pattern is repeated, for example by the

alteration of a parameter or clicking the Execute Intercept Counting button.

Cycloids pattern

Distance Enter the desired vertical distance between two cycloids into the Distance

field. The combination of this distance and the pattern size determines the

number of cycloids which the measurement path consists of.

Radius Enter the radius of the circle from which the cycloids are to be generated into

the Radius field. When using very large values for the radius, the number of

cycloids in the measurement path decreases.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

Boundary tab

The Boundary tab enables you to determine the parameters which are to ef-

fect the intercept points. The settings which you make on this tab are very

important for the quality of the measurement.

In addition to the general settings which you make on this tab, you can also

interactively add or remove intercept points.

Select the Dark option if the intercept points of the structure which are to be

found with the measurement path appear dark in the image. Minima are then

searched for in the intensity profile. The criteria required for an intercept

point are set together with the other parameters of the dialog box.

Select the Bright option if the intercept points of the structure which are to

be found with the measurement path appear bright in the image. Maxima are

then searched for in the intensity profile. The criteria required for an intercept

point are set together with the other parameters of the dialog box.

Select the Step option if the intercept points of the structure which are to be

found with the measurement path appear as steps in the image. Steps are

searched for in the intensity profile. The criteria required for an intercept

point are set together with the other parameters of the dialog box.

Width Enter the full width at half maximum of the convolution function into the

Width field. The value should amount to about half of the width of the bound-

ary structures in pixels. There will not be enough intercept points found if the

18

width is assessed too high. There will be too many intercept points found if

the width is assessed too low. Surplus intercept points can be removed with

the Remove Intercepts command.

Correlation In the Correlation field, enter the correlation required. This value must be

surpassed after the convolution of the intensity profile with the idealized

grain boundary profile for a local extremum to be recognized as a structural

boundary. The larger the value, the more the small and/or narrow grain

boundaries are suppressed.

The correlation is a mathematical measurement used to estimate the simi-

larity of structures. Here, the intensity profile is correlated with the idealized

grain boundary profile. The result of a correlation calculation is a positive

real number between 0 and 1. The closer the correlation is to 1, the better

the conformity. With a correlation of 1, the correlated structures are identical.

The indication of the required correlation is in percent, whereby 100% is

equivalent to a correlation of 1, and 1% is equivalent to a correlation of 0,01.

Related topics

Add intercepts 27

Remove intercepts 27

Define intercept counting

Hint The idealized grain boundary profile which is the basis of this calculation,

describes the grain boundaries of metals. The analyzed structures, espe-

cially biological samples, are only randomly similar to this ideal type. Using

such samples, the correlation is not a sensible criteria for evaluating the be-

havior of the identity profile. If Correlation is too small, random intensity de-

viations will also be detected as structural boundaries.

Noise In the Noise field, enter a dimensionless value which gives the intensity of

alleged noise in the intensity profile. The indication of Noise serves to ignore

minor deviations in the intensity profile when searching for intercept points.

Hint Increase the Noise parameters if too many intercept points are found.

Use thresholds only Select the Use thresholds only check box to use threshold value settings

made somewhere else in your image analysis software to be used as criteria

when searching for intercept points.

By means of setting the threshold, areas of the image will be differentiated

and assigned to so called phases. Intercept points for the intercept counting

are points on which an intercept line reaches a phase transition. An intercept

line can only be classified successfully in this method, if its mean intensity

value also lies above the threshold.

Hint When the Use thresholds only check box has been activated and the Step

option has been selected, the grain boundaries of metallic samples or ax-

ons, for example, will be detected as two intercept points. The combination

of Use thresholds only and Step is to be avoided.

Setting thresholds

This segment will describe the procedure of defining threshold values. The

procedure is not specific for working with the Intercept Counting add-in.

Cut ends of carbon fibers

are shown in the image

above. The fibers’ gray val-

ues depend on the angle of

the cut.

19

• When analyzing true-color images the Set Color Thresholds dia-

log box will be opened. The two dialog boxes (for either true-color

or gray-value images) differ considerably from one another.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

histogram (below) has three

gray value peaks that clearly

correspond to image struc-

tures: The dark background

is somewhere in the vicinity

of the gray value of 85. The

gray values of the particles

are correlated with their

forms: the lighter particles

have a gray value of about

153; the darker ones around

130.

• The bar below the diagram shows you how many gray value rang-

es and/or phases are defined. Each phase has its own color.

3) Delete all phases already defined except one.

• To do this, select an entry from the Phase list and click the Delete

button. As soon as only one phase is defined the Delete button will

become inactive.

4) Select the Histogram entry from the Diagram group.

" The diagram now shows the gray-value distribution within the im-

age frame you have set.

• The current threshold values are shown in the diagram as two per-

pendicular lines. The lower threshold is blue and the upper is red.

5) Mark the Current option in the Preview group.

" The active phase is shown in color within the image so that you

can view what affect your settings have.

20

6) Define the gray value range for the first phase directly in the diagram.

Define the gray value range so that all the particles which belong to this

phase are shown in color.

" Move the mouse pointer over one of the two threshold lines. The

mouse pointer will change into a double arrow. Hold down the left

mouse button and pull the threshold to the desired value. The set

gray value range will be colored within the image.

Define intercept counting

directly in the histogram.

The gray value ranges of the

different phases appear in

color within the image when

setting thresholds.

" A new entry will be added to the Phase list. The standard name

can be substituted with any other name you might prefer.

" The new phase will automatically be colored in a color not yet tak-

en. If you like, you can alter the color by selecting one from the

Color palette.

" The newly-added phase will now be activated - this means that the

diagram will now show the threshold values for the new phase. In

the image, the corresponding gray values are displayed in color.

8) Define the gray value range for the second phase.

9) Confirm the new threshold setting by clicking OK.

Model tab

The Model tab enables you to determine how the conversion of the intercept

counting in medium grain size is to proceed. Specifying a medium grain size

is only sensible with metallic samples.

The Model tab contains only a single selection field in which you can select

the model to be applied.

No model Select the No Model list entry in order to avoid the calculation of the intercept

21

lengths distribution in a grain size. No Model is the correct setting for all

measurements in which no images of metallic samples will be measured.

Saltykov (1) In the model according to Saltykov and Schwartz, the grain size is deter-

Saltykov (100%) mined under the assumption that the grains have a round cross section. The

two variants of the models Saltykov (1) and Saltykov 100% are only different

in the standardization. Saltykov (1) is standardized to a standard circle with

a diameter of 1; Saltykov (100%) uses a standard circle with the standard-

ized diameter of 100%.

G The G model makes the calculation of the lengths of intercept lines into grain

size in accordance to the definition in DIN 50 601.

Classification tab

The Classification tab enables you to set the way in which the measurement

results are to be interpreted. The aim of Classification is to produce a dia-

gram of the distribution of intercept lengths.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

Define Refer- Click the Define Reference Point and Line button to interactively determine

ence Point and the measurement regulations for the Distance Reference Line and Distance

Line Reference Point options. The behaviors of your image analysis program de-

pends on which options were selected from the Distance... list.

Hint The Define Reference Point and Line button is only available if the intercept

points have been found. If necessary, click the Execute Intercept Counting

button to start the procedure.

Setting Reference Line If you click the Define Reference Point and Line button, the pointer jumps

into the image document and a straight line is fixed to it. Move the pointer

and the line to any point in the image document and click the left mouse but-

ton once. The pointer changes into a double headed arrow. Move the mouse

to enable the line to rotate. The center point of the rotation is the point which

you clicked before. Click the right mouse button once to fix the line.

By clicking the left mouse button again, you go back to the movement mode

which enables you to move the line again.

Hint The reference line is only fixed and adopted if you rightclick during the rota-

tion mode. You interrupt the procedure if you rightclick in the movement

mode, without setting a reference line.

Setting Reference Point If you click the Define Reference Point and Line button, the pointer jumps

into the image document. Move the mouse until the pointer is on the desired

reference point and click once. The reference point is marked by a circle with

a cross hair. You can then click on another position to adopt it as a reference

22

point. Once you are satisfied with the reference point, rightclick to fix the

point and to finish the procedure.

Distance... Select a distance you would like to measure from the Distance... list. It will

be used as the basis for the classification.

Distance reference line Select the Distance reference line entry to measure the distance of each

found intercept point to the interactively set reference line. Click the Define

Reference Point and Line to plot the reference line in the image.

Distance reference Select the Distance reference point entry to measure the distance of each

point found intercept point to the interactively defined reference point. Click the

Define Reference Point and Line button to plot the reference point in the im-

age.

Distance intercepts Select the Distance intercepts entry to evaluate the distance between two

intercept points along the measuring line. If you have selected the Distance

intercepts entry, the Define Reference Point and Line button is no longer ac-

tive.

Classification scheme The Classification scheme group enables you to determine if the measure-

ment results are to be automatically classified or if a classification scheme

manually defined by yourself is to be used.

Define intercept counting

Automatic Select the Automatic check box if the classification is to be automatically cal-

culated based on the measured values. In doing so, it will be guaranteed that

all of the measurement values are detected. Each class has the same size.

Classes Enter the number of classes into the Classes field. This field is only active if

the Automatic check box has been selected. The Classes value can range

from 1 to 99. The size of a class is determined by the following formula:

( MAX – MIN ) ⁄ N

MAX is the largest and MIN is the smallest measured distance between the

two intercept points. N stands for the number of classes.

Classification scheme The classification schemes recognized by the system are offered in a pick-

list. The list encompasses all the defined classification schemes which work

together with the "Lengths" dimension.

Define classifi- Click the Define Classification to create a new classification. The Define

cation Classification dialog box is opened.

Defining a Classification

You will need to use the Define Classification dialog box to define a classifi-

cation.

2) Enter the name for your classification into the New classification field.

3) Click the Compute... button.

" The Compute Classification dialog box is opened.

4) Enter the number of classes into the Bins field of which your classifica-

tion is to be composed.

5) Enter the value 0 into the Minimum field.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

" The Minimum and Maximum fields enable you to determine the

lengths which are to be considered for classification. For a carefully

executed measurement, the Minimum can remain 0. No generaliza-

tions can be made for Maximum. This value depends on the re-

spective samples.

7) Select Linear or Logarithmic from the Mode list, depending on how the

values are distributed.

" The logarithmic mode is recommended if there are decisively more

entries in the first class than in the other classes.

8) Click the OK button to close the Compute Classification dialog box and

click the OK button once again to close the Define Classification dialog

window.

" The measurement values will be classified once again with these

settings. The result is displayed in the diagram of the Define Inter-

cept Counting dialog box.

Display tab

You can set various display options in the Display tab.

Autoupdate Select the Autoupdate check box so that the intercept counting is re-execut-

ed when one or more parameters are changed.

24

Enter the time in seconds into s field which is supposed to pass after the

change of a parameter before the autoupdate can occur. The s field is only

active if the Autoupdate check box has been selected.

Line color The Line color and Intercept color lists give you the possibility to choose the

Intercept color colors which the intercept points and intercept lines are to be displayed in

the image document. A picklist with 16 colors opens when you click on the

arrow buttons next to one of the fields. Click once on a color of your choice

to use it to display the intercept points and/or intercept lines for the display.

Show intercepts and Select the Show intercepts and lines check box to show not only the mea-

lines surement path, but also the located intercept points in the image document.

Release the check box when you only want to show the measurement path.

This mode is helpful if you want to precisely set the measurement pattern.

Display area

There is a display area located below the Define Intercept Counting dialog

box's tab which directly shows the important measurement results.

Define intercept counting

The upper part of the display area containing the measurement results is al-

ways shown. You can hide the diagram in the lower part by simply clicking

on the arrow button in the upper right corner of the display area. Click the

arrow button anew to show the diagram again.

Number of intercepts The total intercept points found will be displayed in the Number of intercepts

field.

Mean intercept length The sum of all the distances between two intercept points divided by the

number of intercept points minus 1 is shown in the Mean intercept length

field. The distance between two intercept points is determined along the in-

tercept lines for each one.

Model The Model field shows the selected model for grain size determination on

the Model tab and the resulting mean grain size.

Grain size number The G-value, in accordance to the ASTM-standard E112, is shown in the

Grain size number field. The G-model describes only a closed value range.

The entry for the Grain size number can thus be "invalid" when using this

model.

Phase... You can select the phase whose results are to be shown in the display area

from the Phase... list. This list is only active more than one phase has been

defined with the Define thresholds command.

Setting thresh- Click the Define Thresholds button to define threshold values to be used for

olds intercept counting.

Buttons 25

The Define Intercept Counting dialog box has its own button bar.

Load/Save Click the Load/Save Configuration button if you want to save all the settings

Configuration done in the Define Intercept Counting dialog box, or to load an already saved

version of the settings. The File In/Output dialog box is opened.

Load configuration Select an already defined configuration from the File list and click the Load

button to load an already existing configuration file.

Save configuration Enter a name for the configuration file into the File field. Click the Close but-

ton to save the current configuration under another name.

Execute Inter- Click the Execute Intercept Counting button to execute the intercept count-

cept Counting ing on the active image using the current settings. Select the Autoupdate

check box located on the tab's display to automatically execute an intercept

counting after having changed the parameters.

Related topics

Intercept length 4

G 21

Setting thresholds 19

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

Write Results Click the Write Results to Sheet to write the current results of the intercept

to Sheet counting to one or more sheets. Click the arrow button to the right of the

Write Results to Sheet button in order to open a menu and to select the cre-

ated sheets from it. You can create three different types of sheets: Inter-

cepts, Classification and Rawdata.

Intercept Counting A sheet with the name Intercepts is created. The name of the current pat-

tern, for example Cycloids, is located in the sheet's header. The first column

in the sheet contains the number of identified intercept points and the sec-

ond column contains the entire length of the measurement path.

The result of the measurement will be written to the next available line in the

sheet, should a sheet with the name Intercepts already be open. This way

you can carry out measurements on different images and compile the re-

sults in one sheet.

Hint The name of the measurement path is not updated, should a sheet with in-

tercept lines already exist. Do not forget to save the old sheet when chang-

ing the measurement path and to close it so that a new sheet for the new

measurement path can be created.

Classification A sheet entitled Intercept and Classify is created. The sheet shows the clas-

sification of the identified intercept length in addition to the general informa-

tion (name of image, measurement path, intercept point amount, entire

length of the measurement path and length unity).

26

The result of the measurement will be written under the already existing re-

sults with the name Intercept and Classify, should a sheet already be open.

Bin The individual classes to be used for classification are numbered in the Bin

column. The font color is connected to the color of the corresponding bar in

the display area's diagram.

From, To The lower and upper limits of the classes are shown in the From and To col-

umns.

Phase... In the column or columns entitled Phase..., the amount of each identified in-

terception length is shown which are in the Bin. Intercept lengths which lead

from one intercept point to the edge of the intercept line are counted; how-

ever, they only receive the weight 0.5.

Autoupdate 24

Intercept counting

The number of these columns depend on the number of phases which have

been defined with the Image >Define Thresholds... command.

Rawdata A sheet entitled Intercept Rawdata is created. The mean intercept length

and the weight of all of the identified intercept lengths are entered into this

sheet.

The results of the measurement will be attached to this sheet, should a sheet

with the name Intercept Rawdata already be open.

Add intercepts Click the Add intercepts button to add additional intercept points which were

not automatically found after the intercept counting. The pointer will appear

within the image document. A circle with the color of the intercept point dis-

play appears at its tip. Move the pointer to the point you want to add and click

once. Intercept points can only be located along intercept lines. If you do not

click exactly on the intercept line, the intercept point is moved to the next in-

tercept line.

Repeat this procedure until the missing intercept points have been complet-

ed. A rightclick will end the insertion of additional intercept points.

Hint Enlarge the image as much as possible if you want to manually expand the

intercept points with this command. Before adding additional intercept

points, try to incorporate the missing points by altering the parameters of the

intercept counting.

Remove inter- Click the Remove Intercepts button to remove individual intercept points.

cepts The pointer will appear within the image document. Click once on each in-

tercept point which is to be removed. Finish by rightclicking.

Delete all Inter- Click the Delete all Intercepts button to remove all intercept points. The mea-

cepts surement path will still be displayed in the image. Note that the intercept

27

points are automatically reinserted into the image if the Autoupdate check

box has been selected in the Display tab.

OK Click the OK button to close the Define Intercept Counting dialog box. All of

the settings and parameters are saved and will be utilized with the next use

of the Define Intercept Counting command. The created sheets remain open

during intercept counting.

Intercept counting

The Intercept Counting command executes an intercept counting on the ac-

tive image. For this reason, parameters are used which were last set with

the Define Intercept Counting command. The results of the measurement

are transferred to the Intercept Counting sheet.

Hint The Intercept Counting command is only of limited use for interactive work.

It was mainly created for automatic measurements to be done together with

the Automater add-in.

Intercept Counting • Describing the commands

28

Index

A S

Add intercepts 27 Setting 12

Adjust size 16 Setting thresholds 19

Autoupdate 24 Structural boundary 3

B V

Boundary 12 Vertical lines 5

Setting of 9

Boundary tab 18

Buttons 25

W

Write Results to Sheet 26

C

Calibration unit 16

Circles 6

Classification scheme 22

Classification tab 21

Correlation 18

Crossed lines 6

Cycloids 7

D

Define Classification 23

Define Intercept Counting 15

Determining the classification 11, 14

Display area 24

Display tab 24

Distance 22

H

Horizontal lines 5

29

I

Intensity profile 3

Intercept length 4

Intercept point 4

L

Line color 24

Load/Save 25

R

Remove Intercepts 27

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