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International Islamic University, Islamabad

Faculty of Engineering and Technology


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Lab Manual

ME-313 Lab
Manufacturing Processes Lab

Engineer Muhammad Naeem Khan


Lab Engineer

International Islamic University, Islamabad


Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

List of Experiments Manufacturing Processes Lab

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Experiment No.1 To make wood pattern for sand mold casting and to prepare sand mold.

To perform Aluminium casting.


Experiment No.2
To perform Sheet rolling operation using rolling machine.
Experiment No.3
To perform V-bending of sheet metal using bending machine.
Experiment No.4

Experiment No.5 To make a cone of thin sheet metal by riveting operation.


To perform blanking and punching operations on thin sheet metal using power press
Experiment No.6 machine.

To make a single point cutting tool on Pedestal Grinding machine.


Experiment No.7
To perform conventional face and partial face milling operations on vertical milling
Experiment No.8 machine.

To perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine


Experiment No.9
End and Profile Milling operation

To perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine


Experiment No.10
Pocket and Surface Contouring Milling operation

To perform the following operations on Universal Milling machine


Experiment No.11
Slab and Slot Milling operation

To perform the following operations on Universal Milling machine


Experiment No.12
Side and Straddle Milling operation

To perform drilling and centring operations on Radial drill/Drill Press


Experiment No.13
To perform V-groove and square groove operations on shaper machine
Experiment No.14
Engr. Muhammad Naeem Khan
Lab Engineer

PREFACE

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

It is well known that hands-on experience is the best way to learn. This lab manual is
designed to give the student hands-on laboratory experience to better reinforce their
knowledge about certain basic machines and their operations used for manufacturing.
Each experiment begins with a detailed discussion that provides all the information
needed to understand that lab. The discussion section is followed by a detailed stepby-
step procedure. Figures are provided as and where required. Each experiment
concludes with a detailed exercise to help the student interpret the results. It will be
highly appreciated receiving feedback for revisions from the instructors and students.

Engr. Muhammad Naeem Khan


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Course Title: Manufacturing Process LAB

Course Code: ME-313 L

Pre-requisite(s): None

Credit Hours: 01

Course Objective:
This course is imperative for the Engineering undergrads to accrue their knowledge domain and to develop their
understanding regarding different Machines used for manufacturing as well as to develop their hands-on
experience on various tools and machines with ensuring safety measures. The course focuses and targets to
enhance their cognitive and psychomotor skills. At the end of this course, students will be able and understand to
use Machine Shop facility in their Engineering Projects.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)

At the end of course, student will:


Domain
Sr.No CLOs Statements Level PLO

Explain foundry, Shaper Machine, Milling Machine, basic operations of C2 01 Cognitive


1 power press, bending machine, roller machine and rivet gun.

P3 04 Psychomotor

2 Copy basic foundry, Shaper Machine, Milling Machine, basic operations of


power press, bending machine, roller machine and rivet gun.

Sr.No CLOs
Lab Experiments
CLO-1 CLO-2

1 To make wood pattern for sand mold casting and to prepare sand √ √
mold.

2 To perform Aluminium casting. √ √

3 To perform Sheet rolling operation using rolling machine. √ √

4 To perform V-bending of sheet metal using bending machine. √ √

5 √ √
To make a cone of thin sheet metal by riveting operation.

6 To perform blanking and punching operations on thin sheet metal √ √


using power press machine.

7 To make a single point cutting tool on Pedestal Grinding machine. √ √

8 To perform conventional face and partial face milling operations on √ √


vertical milling machine.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

9 To perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine √ √

End and Profile Milling operation

10 To perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine √ √

Pocket and Surface Contouring Milling operation

11 To perform the following operations on Universal Milling machine √ √

Slab and Slot Milling operation

12 To perform the following operations on Universal Milling machine √ √

Side and Straddle Milling operation

13 To perform drilling and centring operations on Radial drill/Drill √ √


Press

14 To perform V-groove and square groove operations on shaper √ √


machine

Student Learning Outcome:


Students who pass the course will gain the knowledge about Workshop equipment’s.

CLOs Marks CLO-1 CLO-2


Assessment Modules Distribution
Rubrics Marks during Lab 40 √ √
Viva Voce Exam 20 √ √
Final Exam 40 √ √
Total Marks Distributions 100 50 50
Total Marks 100

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 01

To make wood pattern for sand mold casting and to prepare sand mold.

Experiment No. 01
Aim:-
To make wood pattern for sand mold casting and
To prepare sand mold so that pattern’s shape could be imprinted on it to form a mold cavity.

Material and Equipments:


1. T-square
2. Compass
3. Wood saw
4. File (Rasp File)

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

5. Wood

Procedure:
1. First of all 13cm wood piece was cut from the sock with the help of a saw. The dimensions of the wood
pattern were kept slightly high due to the fact that metal shrinks when they cool down to room temperature.
If this fact was not kept in mind then the casted part would not have the desired dimensions.
2. With the help of T-square, the required dimensions were marked onto the wood work piece. In accordance
to those dimensions, the wood piece was cut so that it may be transferred from its basic form to final desired
shape.
3. The using rasp file, final finishing touches were given and measurement again done to ensure that proper
dimensions are achieved.
4. The for sand mold first sand was placed on a matt on which, binder was added in it. The binder was added
on that the sand particles may bind with one another to make a rigid structure. With the help of shovel the
sand was mixed properly till the time sand was hard enough and could retain shape.
5. The sand was then dumped into a mold box and it was totally filled with properly stamping tools the sand
was set properly so that no air is present inside the sand which can effect the shape of the mold cavity.
Another purpose of stamping was to force the sand to form a rigid structure. Then with the help of wood
piece the sand was properly levelled.
6. For sometimes, the sand was left so that it may properly set. Once the whole arrangement became rigid, the
wood pattern which was created in the previous experiment was placed into the sand so that the shape could
be imprinted on it. Nails were attached with the pattern so that to ensure proper removal of the pattern from
the mold box, leaving behind the cavity.

Safety Precautions:
1. Care must be taken while cutting the wood piece from the wood stock as teeth’s of the saw are shape
and may cause injury if it is mishandled.
2. As rasp file also has sharp points hence it should be used with care attention.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 02

To perform Aluminium casting.

EXPERIMENT No.02
AIM:-
To perform Aluminium casting.

Induction Furnace:
A type of furnace that uses alternating current that passes through a coil due to which a magnetic field is created
in the metal. This results in induced current that causes rapid heating and melting of the metal. Also the
electromagnetic force field causes a mixing action to occur in the liquid metal.

Material and Equipments:


1. Aluminium scarp
2. Induction furnace
3. Mold
4. Apron and gloves

Procedure:
1. Scrap of aluminium was added in the induction furnace and then it was switched on. It was left for
sometime so that the furnace could acquire the respective temperature to melt aluminium. Water pump
was also switched on so that the coils through which current was passing could be cooled down.
2. In the mean time, gating system and sprue were made in the sand mold so that the molten metal maybe
guided to the mold cavity where it will cool and solidify into the shape of the cavity.
3. One sufficient melt was accumulated in the furnace, the mold box was brought. The furnace was filled
allowing the molten metal to flow from the crucible to the sprue from where it started to flow into the
mold cavity.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

4. Once the mold cavity was filled, it was left for sometime so that it may cool and solidify.
5. Once the metal was cooled enough, the mold was broken and the casting was removed. The additional
material other than the molded shape was cut out and proper finishing of the casting was done.

Safety Precautions:
1. When the furnace was switched on and sufficient molten melt was accumulated, safe distance during
paring of the metal should be kept. On contact it can cause a serious injury.
2. People who are operating the furnace should wear gloves and apron while the spectators should maintain a
safe distance.
3. Tilling of the furnace should be done slowly to avoid spattering of molten metal.
4. Avoid the contact of sand with eyes. If contact does take place, properly rinse it with cold water.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 03
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

To perform Sheet rolling operation using rolling machine.

EXPERIMENT No. 3

AIM:
To perform Sheet Rolling Operation on Rolling Machine.

Material and Equipments:


1. Sheet Rolling machine
2. Sheet metal
3. Sheet cutter
4. Steel tape
5. Scriber (for making)

Procedure:
1. First of all get all the tool and equipment required.
2. Mark the sheet metal according to dimensions with the help of steel tape and scriber.
3. Cut the work piece in dimensions as required with the help of cutter.
4. According to drawing roll the work piece by inserting it between the two rollers.
5. Sheet Rolling is done.

Precautions:
1. Mark the sheet plate carefully.
2. When inserting the Metal Sheet, keep your hands away from Rollers.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 04

To perform V-bending of sheet metal using bending machine.

AIM:
To perform V-bending of sheet metal.

Material and Equipments:


1. V-Bending machine
2. Sheet metal
3. Sheet cutter
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

4. Steel tape
5. Scriber (for making)

Procedure:
1. First of all get all the tool and equipment required.
2. Mark the sheet metal according to dimensions with the help of steel tape and scriber. 3. Cut the
work piece in dimensions 13”*4” with the help of cutter.
4. According to drawing bend the work piece at 90° from four lines already marked.
5. V-Bending is done.

Precautions:
1. Mark the sheet plate carefully.
2. When making bend, keep your hands away from press.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 06

To perform blanking and punching operations on thin sheet metal using power press machine.

Experiment No. 6
Power Press

A power press is preferable to a hand drill when the location and orientation of the hole must be controlled
accurately. A power press is composed of a base that supports a column; the column in turn supports a table. Work
can be supported on the table with a vise or hold down clamps, or the table can be swiveled out of the way to allow
tall work to be supported directly on the base. Height of the table can be adjusted with a table lift crank than locked
in place with a table lock. The column also supports a head containing a motor. The motor turns the spindle at a

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

speed controlled by a variable speed control dial. The spindle holds a drill chuck to hold the cutting tools (drill bits,
center drills, deburring tools, etc.).The quill is moved up and down with a lever on the side.

Fig: power Press

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 07

To make a single point cutting tool on Pedestal Grinding machine.

Experiment No. 7
Description:

Grinding is the process of removing material by the cutting action of the countless hard and sharp abrasive particles
of a revolving grinding wheel as they come in contact with the surface to be ground. Grinding machines are made
in a variety of types and sizes, depending upon the class of work for which they are to be used. The grinding wheels
are held between two flanged disks. A roughing or coarse grained wheel is usually mounted on one end of the
spindle and a fine wheel on the other. A tool rest is provided for each wheel so that tools may be held or steadied
while being ground.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Grinding wheels are made up of abrasive particles that are held together by a glue-like material called the bond.
Almost all grinding wheels made for pedestal grinders are made with artificial abrasives, namely silicon carbide
and aluminum oxide. Artificial abrasives have replaced natural materials, such as emery and corundum, because of
their superior hardness and durability.
Grinding wheels are made by mixing the abrasive grains with the bond, and molding this mixture into forms of
various shapes and sizes. The wheels are then baked in ovens or kilns to cause the bond to harden and cure. The
grinding wheels are then bushed with lead, plastic to reduce the hole size to the shaft. Lastly, the wheels are
accurately trued, balanced, and inspected prior to shipment.
Procedure:

1. Examine the grinder to see that the tool rest is set at the required height, is within 1/8 of an inch to the face
of the wheel, and is securely fastened in this position.
2. Adjust safety glass shields on the grinder to permit clear vision of the part to be ground and still protect the
operator from flying particles.
3. Start the grinder.
4. Hold the work in one hand, and steady it with the other. Place the work on the tool rest; then guide it
against the face of the revolving wheel and apply enough pressure to grind, depending upon the hardness
of the material and the wheel itself.
5. Cool work in a water pot as it becomes heated from grinding, especially the small hardened tools which
would lose their temper if overheated. Twist drills should not be cooled by dipping in water, as it may
cause cracking.
6. Grind the job to the required shape or size by moving the work back and forth across the face of the wheel.
This will prevent wearing a groove into the wheel and will result in a flatter surface on the work.
7. Stop grinder.

Safety:
Always wear safety glasses when using a grinder.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Stand to one side of the wheel when operating the grinder.


Keep fingers away from the revolving wheel, especially when grinding small pieces. Also make sure that the tool
rest is close enough to the wheel to prevent the work from slipping into the space between the two.

Milling Machine
Introduction
Milling machine is one of the important machining operations. In this operation the workpiece is fed against a
rotating cylindrical tool. The rotating tool consists of multiple cutting edges (multipoint cutting tool). Normally
axis of rotation of feed given to the workpiece. Milling operation is distinguished from other machining
operations on the basis of orientation between the tool axis and the feed direction, however, in other operations
like drilling, turning, etc. the tool is fed in the direction parallel to axis of rotation.
The cutting tool used in milling operation is called milling cutter, which consists of multiple edges called teeth.
The machine tool that performs the milling operations by producing required relative motion between workpiece
and tool is called milling machine. It provides the required relative motion under very controlled conditions.
These conditions will be discussed later in this unit as milling speed, feed rate and depth of cut.
Types of Milling Machines
Milling machines can be classified into different categories depending upon their construction, specification and
operations. The choice of any particular machine is primarily determined by nature of the work to be done, its
size, geometry and operations to be performed. The typical classification of milling machines on the basis of its
construction is given below.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

• Column and Knee Type Milling Machine


• Fixed Bed Type Milling Machine
• Special Type Milling Machine

 Column and Knee Type Milling Machine


Main shape of column knee type of milling machine is shown in Figure 1.3. This milling machine consists of a
base having different control mechanisms housed there in. The base consists of a vertical column at one of its end.
There is one more base above the main base and attached to the column that serves as worktable equipped with
different attachments to hold the workpiece. This base having worktable is identified as “knee” of the milling
machine.

 Fixed Bed Type Milling Machine


It is also known as manufacturing type milling machine. Its table is mounted directly on the ways of fixed bed.
Table movement is restricted to reciprocation only. Cutter is mounted on the spindle head which can move
vertically on the column. Duplex milling machine has double spindle heads, one on each side of the table. Triplex
milling machine has three spindle heads one each side of the table and third one is mounted on the cross rail.

 Special Type Milling Machines


These are the special purpose milling machines, entirely different in design and construction from the
conventional milling machines. In case of rotary table milling machine face milling cutters are mounted on two or
more vertical spindles and a number of workpieces are clamped on the horizontal surface of a circular table which
rotates about a vertical axis. Different milling cutters are mounted at different heights. Loading and unloading are
possible while milling is in progress. In case of drum milling machine the worktable rotates about a horizontal
axis and is called drum. In a planetary milling machine, the work is held stationary while the revolving cutters in
a planetary path. It is used to finish cylindrical surface of a workpiece internally or externally or both. Pantograph
milling machine reproduced the workpiece at any desired scale of pre-decided model. Profiling machine
duplicates full size of the template attached to the machine. Tracer milling machine can produce any pre-decided
irregular or complex shapes of dies, moulds by synchronizing movements of the cutter and tracing elements.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 8, 9 & 10

To perform conventional face and partial face milling operations on vertical milling machine. To

perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine

1. End and Profile Milling operation


2. Pocket and Surface Contouring Milling operation

Experiment No. 8,9 & 10


AIM:

To perform conventional face and partial face milling operations on vertical milling machine.

To perform the following operations on Vertical Milling machine

3. End and Profile Milling operation


4. Pocket and Surface Contouring Milling operation

Tools and equipments:


1. Vertical milling machine
2. End mill cutter
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

3. T-slot cutter
4. Work piece

Procedure:
1. First of all get all the tools and equipments.
2. Hold the work piece in machine vice.
3. Mark the piece according to dimensions.
4. Make slot in the piece using end mill cutter to a specified depth.
5. Insert T-slot cutter in the machine.
6. Make T-slot in the machine.
7. Work piece is ready for finished work.
8. Then for pocket milling First get all the tools and equipment required for pocket milling.
9. Mark the work piece according to drawing.
10. Set the work piece in the holding machine vice.
11. Set the end mill cutter.
12. Give depth of cut
13. Give feed in X-direction and Y-direction of table in order to mark pocket inside the work piece.
14. Work piece is ready, pocket milling is done.

Precautions:
1. Give feed slowly so that cutter may not over heat.
2. Do not give too much depth of cut.
3. Give proper depth of cut.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 11 & 12

To perform the following operations on Universal Milling Machine

Slab and Slot Milling operation

And
To perform the following operations on Universal Milling machine

Side and Straddle Milling operation

Experiment No. 11 & 12

Principal Parts of a Milling Machine

Generally columns and knee type milling machine is considered as typical milling machine. Principal parts of a
typical milling machine are described as below.

Base
It provides rest for all parts of milling machine including column. It is made of grey iron by casting.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Column
It is a type of rigid vertical long box. It houses driving mechanism of spindle, table knee is also fixed to the guide
ways of column.

Knee
Knee can be adjusted at a height on the column. It houses the feed mechanism of the table and other controls.

Saddle
Saddle is placed at the top of the knee. Saddle provides guide ways for the movement of the table.

Table
Table rests on the saddle. It consists of „T‟ shaped slots for clamping the workpiece. Movements of the table
(feed motions) are given in very controlled manner be lead screw.

Overhanging Arm
Overhanging arm is mounted on the column and serves a bearing support for the arbor. This arm is adjustable so
that the bearing support may be provided near to the milling cutter. There can be more than one bearing supports
to the arbor.

Arbor
It holds rotating milling cutters rigidly and mounted on the spindle. Sometimes arbor is supported at maximum
distance from support of overhanging arm like a cantilever, it is called stub arbor. Locking provisions are
provided in the arbor assembly to ensure its reliability.
Milling Front Brace
Front base is used to adjust the relative position of knee and overhanging arm. It is also an extra support fixed
between the knee and overhanging arm for rigidity.
Spindle
Spindle is projected from the column face and provided with a tapered hole to accommodate the arbor.
Performance of a milling machine depends on the accuracy, strength and rigidity of the spindle. Spindle also
transfer the motive power to arbor through belt or gear from column.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Milling Cutting Tools:


Milling cutters are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centres to perform milling
operations.
Types of Milling Cutters:
End mill cutter:
End mills (middle row in image) are those tools which have cutting teeth at one end, as well as on the sides.

Ball nose cutter:


Ball nose cutters are similar to slot drills, but the end of the cutters are hemispherical.

Slab milling cutter:


Slab mills are used either by themselves or in gang milling operations on manual horizontal or universal milling
machines to machine large broad surfaces quickly.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Involute gear cutter:


The image shows a Number 4 cutter from an involute gear cutting set. There are 7 cutters (excluding the rare half
sizes) that will cut gears from 12 teeth through to a rack (infinite diameter). The cutter shown has markings that
show it is a

• 10 DP (diametrical pitch) cutter


• That it is No. 4 in the set
• that it cuts gears from 26 through to 34 teeth
• It has a 14.5 degree pressure angle

Hobbing cutter:
These cutters are a type of form tool and are used in hobbing machines to generate gears. A cross section of the
cutters tooth will generate the required shape on the workpiece, once set to the appropriate conditions (blank
size). A hobbing machine is a specialized milling machine.

Face mill cutter (indexable carbide insert):


A face mill consists of a cutter body (with the appropriate machine taper) that is designed to hold multiple
disposable carbide or ceramic tips or inserts, often golden in color.

Hollow mill cutter:


Hollow milling cutters, more often called simply hollow mills, are essentially "inside-out endmills". They are
shaped like a piece of pipe (but with thicker walls), with their cutting edges on the inside surface. They are used on
turret lathes and screw machines as an alternative to turning with a box tool, or on milling machines or drill presses
to finish a cylindrical boss

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fly cutter:
A fly cutter is composed of a body into which one or two tool bits are inserted. As the entire unit rotates, the tool
bits take broad, shallow facing cuts

Woodruff cutter:
Woodruff cutters make the seat for woodruff keys. These keys retain pulleys on shafts and are shaped as shown in
the image.

Center Punch for Drilling:


This is used to make a small dimple in metal before drilling a hole. Without a starting indentation, drill bits have a
tendency to "walk" slightly away from their intended mark.

Slot drill:
Slot drills are generally two (occasionally three or four) fluted cutters that are designed to drill straight down into
the material.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Internal Grinding Tool:


ID grinding is grinding occurring on the inside of an object. The grinding wheel is always smaller than the width
of the object. The object is held in place by a collet, which also rotates the object in place.

Knurling Tool:
A knurling tool is used to press a pattern onto a round section. The pattern is normally used as a grip for a handle.

Milling Machine Safety


1. Clean and dry the table before setting up.
2. Select the right kind of cutter for the job.
3. Check to make sure that the machine is turned off before inserting the cutter.
4. Make sure that the arbor, cutter, and collars are clean before mounting them in the spindle.
5. Handle sharp cutters with a rag.
6. Securely set the work piece in the vise with a rubber hammer or mallet.
7. Be certain that the holding device clears the arbor and the over-arm supports.
8. Select the proper cutting speed, rpm, and rate of feed for the job.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF MILLING MACHINE

Working of a milling machine is based on the fact that milling cutter is fed against workpiece. This is achieved by
developing relative motion with precise control between workpiece and rotating milling cutter. Feed motion is
generally given to the workpiece through its holding device. Cutting mechanism of the workpiece in milling
operations is same as that in turning operation on lathe. This cutting takes place due to plastic deformation of
metal by the cutting tool. Milling machine can also hold more than one cutter at a time. The holding device is
supported by mechanism that can offer a selective portion of the workpiece to milling cutter for its processing.
Indexing is one of the examples of this type of processing.
CUTTING PARAMETERS
There are three major cutting parameters to be controlled in any milling operation. These three parameters are
cutting, speed, feed rate and depth of cut. These parameters are described below.
Cutting Speed
Cutting speed of a milling cutter is its peripheral linear speed resulting from operation. It is expressed in
meters per minute. The cutting speed can be derived from the above formula. V=πd n/1000
where d = Diameter of milling cutter in mm, V =
Cutting speed (linear) in meter per minute, and n
= Cutter speed in revolution per minute.
Spindle speed of a milling machine is selected to give the desired peripheral speed of cutter.

Feed Rate
It is the rate with which the workpiece under process advances under the revolving milling cutter. It is known
that revolving cutter remains stationary and feed is given to the workpiece through worktable. Generally feed is
expressed in three ways. Feed per Tooth
It is the distance traveled by the workpiece (its advance) between engagement by the two successive teeth. It is
expressed as mm/tooth (ft).

Feed per Revolution


Travel of workpiece during one revolution of milling cutter. It is expressed as mm/rev. and denoted by f(rev).

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Feed per Unit of Time


Feed can also be expressed as feed/minute or feed/sec. It is the distance advances by the workpiece in unit time
(fm).
Above described three feed rates are mutually convertible.
fm= n* frev where n = rpm of cutter. It can
be extended further as Fm= z*n*ft where z
= Number of teeth in milling cutter.

Depth of Cut
Depth of cut in milling operation is the measure of penetration of cutter into the workpiece. It is thickness of the
material removed in one pairs of cutter under process. One pairs of cutter means when cutter completes the
milling operation from one end of the workpiece to another end. In other words, it is the perpendicular distance
measured between the original and final surface of workpiece. It is measured in mm.
MILLING MACHINE OPERATIONS
Milling operations described earlier were based on major categorization of milling. These were differentiated on
the basis of relative position of milling cutter and workpiece. Their detailed description is given below. Following
different operations can be performed on a milling machine :
1. Plain milling operation
2. Face milling operation
3. Side milling operation
4. Straddle milling operation
5. Helical milling operation

6. Cam milling operation

7. Thread milling operation

1. Plain Milling Operation


This is also called slab milling. This operation produces flat surfaces on the workpiece. Feed and depth of cut are
selected, rotating milling cutter is moved from one end of the workpiece to other end to complete the one pairs of
plain milling operation.
2. Face Milling Operation
This operation produces flat surface at the face o the workpiece. This surface is perpendicular to the surface
prepared in plain milling operation. This operation is performed by face milling cutter mounted on stub arbor of
milling machine. Depth of cut is set according to the need and cross feed is given to the work table.
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

3. Side Milling Operation


This operation produces flat and vertical surfaces at the sides of the workpiece. In this operation depth of cut is
adjusted by adjusting vertical feed screw of the workpiece.

4. Straddle Milling Operation


This is similar to the side milling operation. Two side milling cutters are mounted on the same arbor. Distance
between them is so adjusted that both sides of the workpiece can be milled simultaneously. Hexagonal bolt can be
produced by this operation by rotating the workpiece only two times as this operation produces two parallel faces
of bolt simultaneously.

5. Helical Milling Operation


Helical milling produces helical flutes or grooves on the periphery of a cylindrical or conical workpiece. This is
performed by swiveling the table to the required helix angle, then rotating and feeding the workpiece against
revolving cutting edges of milling cutter. Helical gears and drills and reamers are made by this operation.
6. Cam Milling Operation
The operation cam milling is used to produce the cam on milling machine. In this operation cam blank is mounted
at the end of the dividing head spindle and the end mill is held in the vertical milling attachment.

7. Thread Milling Operation


The operation thread milling produces threads using thread milling centres. This operation needs three
simultaneous movements revolving movement of cutter, simultaneous longitudinal movement of cutter, feed
movement to the workpiece through table. For each thread, the revolving cutter is fed longitudinal by a distance
equal to pitch of the thread. Depth of cut is normally adjusted equal to the full depth of threads.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Universal milling machine:


A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. They range in size from small, benchmounted
devices to room-sized machines. Diverse machining operations can be performed on milling machines due to its
flexibility in terms of axes in which it can work, tools mounting and rotations. Milling machines may be manually
operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC). Milling machines
are classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refer to the orientation of the main spindle.

Fig: Milling Machine (Vertical)

Types of Milling Machines

Milling machines are among the most versatile and useful machine tools due to their capabilities to perform a
variety of operations. They can be broadly classified into the following types:

1. Column and knee type of milling machines


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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

2. Ram type milling machine

3. Bed type

4. Rotary table

5. Tracer controlled

1. Column & Knee type Milling Machines

These are so named because of these two main structural elements- a column shaped main frame and a knee shaped
projection ,Used for general purpose milling operations, column and knee type milling machines are the most
common milling machines. The spindle to which the milling cutter is attached may be horizontal (slab milling) or
vertical (face and end milling).

a) Vertical Milling Machine: Vertical knee type milling machines have a vertical spindle. They may be either
of the fixed head, sliding head, swivel head type or it may be combination of last two. The vertical milling
machine is capable of performing milling, drilling, boring, and reaming operations. It differs from the
horizontal mill in that the spindle is normally in a vertical position. The spindle head swivels 90 deg. left or
right for machining at any angle. The ram, on which it is mounted, can be adjusted in and out.

b) Horizontal Milling Machine: The primary difference between vertical and the horizontal knee type milling
machine is the spindle is horizontal and in the same plane as the table. They are classified as plain horizontal
milling machine and universal horizontal milling machine depending on whether or not the table can be
swiveled in a horizontal plane. The table on universal milling machine can swivel up to 45 degree to the
right or left, making possible angular and helical milling

Ram-Type Milling Machine

The ram-type milling machine is characterized by a spindle mounted to a movable housing on the column to
permit positioning the milling cutter forward or rearward in a horizontal plane parallel to the saddle movement

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

3. Bed Type Machines

In bed type machines, the work table is mounted directly on the bed, which replaces the knee, and can move only
longitudinally. These machines have high stiffness and are used for high production work.

4. Planer Type Milling Machines

These machines are so called because of their structural resemblance to a planer. These are usually equipped with
one or two cutting heads on the overhead cross-rail. The overhead units can be positioned for angular cuts. Two
horizontal spindle heads one on each of the columns, move vertically on the columns. The table carrying the
workpiece moves back and forth between the columns.

Tracer Controlled Machines


Tracer controlled machines reproduce parts from a master model. They are used in the automotive and aerospace
industries for machining complex parts and dies. The tracer- controlled milling machine has a hydraulic or electrical
circuit designed to automatically control the relative position of the cutter and the work piece by a tracer stylus
riding on a cam, template, or model.

Parts of Milling Machine


1. The Base gives support and rigidity to the machine and also acts as a receiver for the cutting fluids.

2. Overarm in horizontal machines, which is adjustable to accommodate different arbor lengths.

3. Head, which contains the spindle and cutter holders. In vertical machines the head may be fixed or
vertically adjustable.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

4. The Column is a precision-machined and scraped section used to support and guide the knee when it is
moved vertically. It contain the spindle and its driving mechanism.

5. The Knee is attached to the column face and may be moved vertically on the column face either manually or
automatically. It houses the feed mechanism.

6. The Saddle is fitted on top of the knee and may be moved in or out manually by means of the cross feed
hand wheel or automatically by cross feed engaging lever.

7. The Swivel Table Housing, fastened to the saddle on a universal milling machine, enables the table to be
swivel 45 degree to either side of the centerline.

8. The Table rests on guide ways in the saddle and travels longitudinally in a horizontal plane. It supports the
vice and the work.
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

9. The Cross Feed Hand Wheel is used to move the table toward or away from the column.

10. The Table HandWheel is used to move the table horizontally back and forth in front of the column.

11. The Feed Dial is used to regulate the table feeds.

12. The Spindle provides the drive for arbors, cutters, and attachments used on a milling machine.
13. The Spindle Speed Dial is set by a crank that is turned to regulate the spindle speed. On some milling
machines the spindle speed changes are made by means of two levers.

Indexing or Dividing Head

The indexing or dividing head is one of the most important attachments for the milling machine. It is used to divide
the circumference of a workpiece into equally spaced divisions when milling gears, splines, squares, and hexagons.
It may also be used to rotate the workpiece at a
predetermined ratio to the table feed rate to produce cams
and helical grooves on gears, drills, reamers, and other
parts.

Most units are made with a 40:1 reduction in the worm, such that 40 turns of the crank will rotate the spindle through
one full turn. The indexing plate (the disk with concentric circles of equally spaced holes behind the crank) provides
a handy positive index for positioning the crank at 1/n turns of the crank, where n equals the number of holes in the
disk. The plunger can be positioned along the arm of the crank to select which circle of holes you wish the indexing
pin to engage. These indexing plates are usually interchangeable to provide a wide variety of choices for n, so that
one turn of the spindle can be divided into a great variety of equal parts.
The crank is outfitted with a pair of sector arms which can be adjusted to indicate the correct number of holes for
any partial turn of the crank you must make. This eliminates the need to count holes on every subsequent advance

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

of the spindle.

Dividing a circle into 40 equal parts is pretty straight forward since the worm wheel has 40 teeth - one full turn of
the crank equals one fortieth of a circle at the spindle. To divide a circle into 20 parts: two turns of the crank would
equal two 40ths, or one 20th of a circle. One fourth of a crank turn (or 6 holes in a 24 hole index circle) would equal
one 160th of a circle at the spindle. Here is the formula:

Indexing or Crank turns = 40 / N

Where N = the desired number of equal divisions on the workpiece.

Reduce this fraction to its simplest form. Use any whole number to represent complete turns, and use the
denominator to determine the index plate to use. First a very simple example: we want to mill four flats on the side
of a shaft to make a square end to match the square hole in a garden hose Fawcett handle we found which we would
like to use as a declination clamp on an equatorial mount. So we must divide the circle of the shaft into 4 parts:

40/4 = 10/1 = 10 full turns of the crank per division.

It doesn't matter which hole circle we use on the index plate since we have only complete revolutions of the crank
to make for each advance of the spindle.

We want to divide a circle into 360 equal parts so

40/360 = 4/36 = 1/9.

Now multiply 9 by any whole number to get a number which is equal to the number of holes available on any row
of the index plate. If we have 34,40,54,60 holes of rows on index plate, so by multiplying and dividing 1/9 by 6 we
get 6/54 and 54 hole row is available on our index plate. Set the plunger to 54 hole row of index plate and for every
division advance the crank to 6 holes. Therefore, 6 holes in our 54 hole circle equals one ninth of a crank turn,
which equals one 360th of a circle at the spindle.

If we have to make a gear of 13 teeth. So to cut 13 teeth on the workpiece we have the following calculations.

Crank turns = 40 / 13

= 3 and 1/13.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Or in other words, 3 turn of the crank plus 1/13th of a turn per division. So to proceed, we set the plunger over 39
hole circle (3x13 = 39), Cut the first teeth, unclamp the spindle, turn the crank 3 full turns plus 3 holes in our 39
hole circle, clamp the spindle, cut the second teeth, unclamp, turn the crank 3 turns plus 3 holes, clamp, cut next
teeth, and similarly go on to complete the operation.

Classification of Milling

Peripheral Milling: In peripheral (or slab) milling, the milled surface is generated by teeth located on the
periphery of the cutter body. The axis of cutter rotation is generally in a plane parallel to the work piece surface to
be
machined.

Face Milling: In face milling, the cutter is mounted on a spindle having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the
work piece surface. The milled surface results from the action of cutting edges located on the periphery and face
of
the cutter.

End Milling: The cutter in end milling generally rotates on an axis vertical to the work piece. It can be tilted to
machine tapered surfaces. Cutting teeth are located on both the end face of the cutter and the periphery of the cutter
body.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Methods of Milling

Up Milling: Up milling is also referred to as conventional milling (A type of milling that feeds the cutter against
the cutter rotation. Conventional milling is typically used for
roughing the part). The direction of the cutter rotation opposes the feed motion. For example, if the cutter rotates
clock wise, the work piece is fed to the right in up milling.

Up milling

Down Milling: Down milling is also referred to as climb milling. The direction of cutter rotation is same as the
feed motion. For example, if the cutter rotates clockwise, the work piece is fed to the left in down milling.

Down milling

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Cutting Tools for Milling Machine

General procedure:
Properly installed the required cutter in the milling machine, and then mounted the job. Using the cross feed
adjustment screw and vertical feed adjustment screw; bring the cutter to touch the surface of the job at proper place.
Then switch ON the milling machine. And with the help of the vertical feed adjustment screw, set the depth of the
cut. The cutter will start cutting the job at specified speed.
The Coolant can also be used if we have job that is hard and is made up of high strength material, but can also be
avoided if we are working on a soft job.

Milling Machine Safety Guidelines

1. Work must be clamped securely in a vise and vise clamped tightly to the table or work must be clamped
securely to the table.
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

2. Do not take climb milling cuts on the shop’s mills unless instructed to do so.

3. Make sure cutter is rotating in the proper direction before cutting material.

4. Before running machine the spindle should be rotated by hand to make sure it is clear for cutting.

5. Make sure the power is off before changing cutters.

6. Always use the proper cutting fluid for the material being cut.

7. Never run the machine faster than the correct cutting speed.

8. Make sure that the machine is fully stopped before taking any measurements.

9. Always use cutters which are sharp and in good condition.

10. Don't place anything on the milling machine table such as wrenches, hammers, or tools.

11. Always stay at the machine while it is running.

12. Don't take too heavy a cut or use too rapid a feed.

13. Remove the collet tightening wrench immediately after using it.

14. If at all feasible rig a guard or shield to prevent chips from hitting other people.

15. Use the milling machine spindle brake to stop the spindle after the power has been turned off.

16. Before cleaning the mill remove cutting tools from the spindle to avoid cutting yourself.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


ME-313 L
Manufacturing Process Lab

Experiment # 14

To perform V-groove, square groove, T-slot and dovetail slot operations on shaper machine

Experiment No. 14
AIM:
To perform V-groove, square groove, T-slot and dovetail slot operations on shaper machine

Tools and Equipments:


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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

1. Shaper machine
2. V-shape tool
3. Work piece

Procedure:
1. First of all get all the material equipments and tools required for V and square grooving.
2. Set the work piece in the work holding device.
3. Set the tool in the tool post.
4. Turn on the shaper machine.
5. Set feed and sheep of ram.
6. Cut the material with low feed rate and depth of cut should be adjusted.
7. Make sure that tool cutting edge is safe and working properly.
8. Now for T-slot and dovetail slot First get all the tools and equipments.
9. Hold the work piece in machine vice.
10. Mark the piece according to dimensions.
11. Make slot in the piece using end mill cutter to a specified depth.
12. Insert T-slot cutter in the machine.
13. Make T-slot in the machine.
14. Work piece is ready for finished work.

Precautions:
1. Do not give too much feed to tool.
2. Do not stand in the front of tool.

SHAPING MACHINE

A photographic view of general configuration of shaping machine is shown in Fig.1. The main functions of
shaping machines are to produce flat surfaces in different planes. Fig.3 shows the basic principle of generation of
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

flat surface by shaping machine.. The cutting motion provided by the linear forward motion of the reciprocating
tool and the intermittent feed motion provided by the slow transverse motion of the job along with the bed result
in producing a flat surface by gradual removal of excess material layer by layer in the form of chips. The vertical
infeed is given either by descending the tool holder or raising the bed or both. Straight grooves of various curved
sections are also made in shaping machines by using specific form tools. The single point straight or form tool is
clamped in the vertical slide which is mounted at the front face of the reciprocating ram whereas the workpiece is
directly or indirectly through a vice is mounted on the bed.

Fig.1 Photographic view of a shaping machine Fig.2 Cutting tool in action

KINEMATIC SYSTEM AND WORKING PRINCIPLES OF

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

SHAPING MACHINE

The usual kinematic system provided in shaping machine for transmitting power and motion from the motor to
the tool and job at desired speeds and feeds is schematically shown in Fig.4.The central large bull gear receives its
rotation from the motor through the belt-pulley, clutch, speed gear box and then the pinion. The rotation of the
crank causes oscillation of the link and thereby reciprocation of the ram and hence the tool in straight path.
Cutting velocity which needs to be varied depending upon the tool-work materials, depends upon
• The stroke length, S mm
• Number of strokes per min., N and s
• The Quick return ratio, QRR (ratio of the durations of the forward stroke and the return
stroke)

As, Vc= 1/1000(S*Ns)(1+1/QRR) m/min


To reduce idle time, return stroke is made faster and hence QRR > 1.0
Since QRR= 2L+S/2L-S
Where, L = length (fixed) of the oscillating lever
And S = stroke length

The benefit of quick return decreases when S becomes less.


The changes in length of stroke and position of the stroke required for different machining are accomplished
respectively by
• Adjusting the crank length by rotating the bevel gear mounted coaxially with the bull gear
• Shifting the nut by rotating the lead screw as shown in Fig.4.

The value of N is varied by operating the speed gear box. s


The main (horizontal) feed motion of the work table is provided at different rate by using the ratchet – Paul
system as shown in Fig. 4. The vertical feed or change in height of the tool tip from the bed can be obtained either
by lowering the tool or raising the bed by rotating the respective wheel as indicated in Fig. 4.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fig. 4. Diagram of a shaping machine.

VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OFSHAPING MACHINE

It is already mentioned that shaping machines are neither productive nor versatile.
However, its limited applications include:
• Machining flat surfaces in different planes. Fig.5 shows how flat surfaces are produced in shaping
machines by single point cutting tools in (a) horizontal, (b) vertical and (c) inclined planes.

(a) Horizontal surface (b) Vertical surface

(c) Inclined surfaces (dovetail slides and guides)

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fig.5 Machining of flat surfaces in shaping machines


• Making features like slots, steps etc. which are also bounded by flat surfaces. Fig. 6 visualizes
the methods of machining (a) slot, (b) pocket (c) T-slot and (d) Vee-block in shaping machine
by single point tools.
• Forming grooves bounded by short width curved surfaces by using single point but form tools.
Fig.7 typically shows how (a) oil grooves and (b) straight tooth of spur gears can be made in
shaping machine
• Some other machining applications of shaping machines are cutting external keyway and splines,
smooth slitting or parting, cutting teeth of rack for repair etc. using simple or form type single
point cutting tools. Some unusual work can also be done, if needed, by developing and using
special attachments.

(a) Slotting (b) Pocketing (c) T-slot cutting

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

(d) Vee-block Fig.6 Machining (a) Slot, (b) Pocket (c) T-slot and (d) Vee-
block in Shaping machine

(a) Grooving (b) straight tooth cutting for spur gears Fig.7
Making grooves and gear teeth cutting in shaping machine by form tools.
However, due to very low productivity, less versatility and poor process capability, shaping machines are not
employed for lot and even batch production. Such low cost primitive machine tools may be reasonably used only
for little or few machining work on one or few pieces required for repair and maintenance work in small machine
shops.

USING SHAPER MACHINE AND STUDYING ITS PARTS

 Shaper machine:

 A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the work piece and a single-
point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path.

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

 Fig: Shaper Machine

 Operation of shaper machine:


 A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the work piece. On
the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece, reducing the cutting action to one
direction only.
 The work piece mounts on a rigid, box-shaped table in front of the machine. The height of the table can be
adjusted to suit this work piece, and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool,
which is mounted on the ram. Table motion may be controlled manually, but is usually advanced by an
automatic feed mechanism acting on the . The ram slides back and forth above the work. At the front end
of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke
axis. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and tool post, from which the tool can be positioned to cut a
straight, flat surface on the top of the work piece. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to
deepen a cut. This adjustability, coupled with the use of specialized cutters and tool holders, enable the
operator to cut internal and external gear tooth profiles, splines, dovetails, and keyways.
 The ram is adjustable for stroke and, due to the geometry of the linkage, it moves faster on the return
(noncutting) stroke than on the forward, cutting stroke. This action is via a slotted link or Whitworth link

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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fig: Parts of Shaper Machine

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