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Lecture 1 & 2: Introduction and bacterial structure:

1- Polymers of N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid


are found in which of the following chemical structure:
a- Tiechoic acid
b- Peptidoglycan
c- Glycocalyx
d- Lipopolysaccharide
e- Endospore
2- What is the major chemical component that gives the bacterial
cells protection from osmotic damage?
a- Phospholipid-protein
b- Peptidoglycan
c- Phospholipids
d- Polysaccharide
e- Protein
3- Which of the following components are found in the cell walls
of Gram-positive bacteria, but not Gram-negative bacteria?
a- Cytoplasmic membrane
b- Lipopolysaccharide
c- Outer membrane
d- Peptidoglycan
e- Tiechoic acid
4- L-forms of bacteria:
a- May develop due to inhibition of cytoplasmic membrane formation
b- Are very sensitive to antibiotic therapy
c- Develop only in hypotonic medium
d- Can produce relapses of overt infections
e- None of the above
5- Concerning pili, all of the following are true Except:
a- They mediate bacterial adherence
b- They may be involved in bacterial conjugation
c- Their antigen is called H antigen
d- They are important virulence factors
Lecture 3: Bacterial Growth and Physiology:

1- Capnophilic bacteria:
i. Require low concentration of O2
ii. Require high concentration of O2
iii. Require high concentration of CO2
iv. Require low concentration of CO2
v. Require alkaline pH
2- Bacterial cell death is balanced by the formation of new cells
in:
i. Lag phase
ii. Exponential phase
iii. Stationary phase
iv. Decline phase
3- Treatment of bacterial culture with gentamycin, an inhibitor of
protein synthesis, would have maximal effect on:
i. Lag phase
ii. Log phase
iii. Stationary phase
iv. Decline phase

Lecture 4, 5 & 6: Bacteriophage, Bacterial genetics,


Bacterial variation & Gene cloning:

1- Lysogenic conversion is caused by:


i. Plasmids
ii. Prophage DNA
iii. Transposons
iv. Bacterial DNA
v. Lytic bacteriophage
2- Genetic information in bacteria is carried on the following
Except:
i. Ribosomes
ii. Chromosome
iii. Transposons
iv. Plasmid
v. Prophage
3- All of the following about plasmids are true Except:
i. Double stranded DNA molecules
ii. Replicate dependably on the bacterial
chromosome
iii. Their length is about 1:50 of bacterial chromosome
iv. They are generally dispensable
v. Usually exist extra-chromosomally
4- Relaxed replicating plasmids have the following characters
Except:
i. Small in size
ii. Present in 30-50 copies per cell
iii. Present in 1-5 copies per cell
iv. Ideal cloning vectors
v. Replicate in absence of protein synthesis
5- Genotypic variation can occur via all of the following Except:
i. Conjugation
ii. Sporulation
iii. Transduction
iv. Transformation
v. Mutation
6- Gene transfer by bacteriophages is called:
i. Transformation
ii. Conjugation
iii. Transduction
iv. Transcription
v. Transposition

Lecture 7: Antimicrobial chemotherapy:


7- Inhibition of bacterial DNA synthesis occurs by:
i. Penicillin
ii. Polymyxin
iii. Quinolones
iv. Chloraniphenicol
v. Cephalosporins
8- MIC:
i. Is the highest concentration of the drug preventing
bacterial growth
ii. Is the concentration of the drug achieved in serum with
optimal dose
iii. Is the lowest concentration of the drug preventing
bacterial growth
iv. Is the lowest concentration of the drug allowing growth
of the organism
v. Can be determined by using monoclonal antibodies
9- Selective toxicity of an antibiotic:
i. Depends on presence of a receptor for the drug in hosts
not in organisms
ii. Is the ability of the drug to inhibit growth of a wide range
of bacteria
iii. Depends on inhibition of a biochemical event not
essential for the organism
iv. Is the ability of the drug to harm the organism without
harming the host
v. Is one of the complications of antibiotic therapy
10- Complications of chemotherapy include the following:
i. Superinfection
ii. Emergence of resistant mutant strains
iii. Toxicity and allergy
iv. All of the above
v. None of the above
11- Complications of chemotherapy include the following
Except:
i. Selective toxicity
ii. Emergence of resistant mutant strains
iii. Allergy
iv. Superinfection
v. None of the above

Lecture 8 & 9 Sterilization & Disinfection:


1- Critical items include:
vi. Endoscopes
vii. Bed linen
viii. Stethoscope
ix. Thermometers
x. Vascular catheters
2- Moist heat kills microorganisms by:
i. Coagulation
ii. Oxidation
iii. Ionizing radiation
iv. Incineration
v. Condensation
3- The most effective method of sterilization by heat is:
i. Hot air
ii. Boiling
iii. Steaming
iv. Steam under pressure
v. Pasteurization

Answer key of General bacteriology:

Lecture 1 & 2:

1 b
2 b
3 e
4 d
5 c

Lecture 3:

1 c
2 c
3 b

Lecture 4, 5 &6:
1 b
2 a
3 b
4 c
5 b
6 c

Lecture 7:

1 c
2 c
3 d
4 d
5 a

Lecture 8 & 9:

1 e
2 a
3 d
Lecture 11 & 12 overview of immune system:

1- The site of T cell development in mammals is:


i. The bone marrow
ii. The bursa of Fabricus
iii. The thymus
iv. The lymph nodes
v. The spleen
2- All of the following statements regarding B cells are true
Except:
i. They mature in bursa of fabricious or bursal equivalent
ii. They are found in the germinal centers of lymph nodes
and spleen
iii. They are progenitors of plasma cells
iv. They are involved in humoral immunity
3- Which statement about the clonal selection theory is correct:
i. Every naїve lymphocyte has many types of receptors
ii. Only lymphocytes which meet antigens they recognize
are activated
iii. Lymphocytes having receptors for self-molecules are
harmless
iv. A clone of cells can recognize many antigens

4- Vaccination:
i. Is a form of antigen specific-immunostimulation
ii. Is a form of antigen-non-specific-immunostimulation
iii. Does not produce immunity
iv. Aims to increase innate immunity
Lecture 13: Innate immunity & Antigens:
1- Phagocytic cells are characterized by the following Except:
i. Play an important defensive role against established viral
infections
ii. Contain digestive enzymes in lysosomes
iii. Have Fc receptors
iv. Produce hydrogen peroxide to kill phagocytosed
organisms
v. Are attracted to site of infection by chemotactic factors
2- Microbicidal substances present in the body fluids as a part of
the innate humoral defence mechanism include all the
following Except:
i. Lysozyme
ii. Complement
iii. Acute phase proteins
iv. Type I interferon
v. Type II interferon
3- A characteristic of the adaptive immune response but not of
the innate response is:
i. Physical barriers
ii. Chemical barriers
iii. Clonal expansion of the effector cells
iv. Inflammatory mediators
v. Phagocytosis
4- Natural Killer cells:
i. Are important phagocytic cells
ii. Are important APCs
iii. Need antigen-specific MHC activation to kill abnormal
cells
iv. Are important in the late stages of viral infection
v. Have Fc receptors
5- A substance that can evoke an immune response is termed a
(an):
i. Immunogen
ii. Hapten
iii. Epitope
iv. Paratope
v. Adjuvant
6- A hapten:
i. Is usually a high molecular weight substance
ii. Acts as an antigen if coupled to a protein molecule
iii. Is a non-specific potentiator of the immune response
iv. Is capable of inducing immune response alone
v. Determines specificity of an antigen

Lecture 11 & 12:


1 a
2 b
3 b
4 a

Lecture 13:
1 a
2 e
3 c
4 e
5 a
6 b
Lecture 14 & 15 T-cell mediated immunity:

1- Peptides arising in the vesicular system are presented to:


vi. Cytotoxic T cells
vii. Helper T cells
viii. Both
ix. Neither
2- Which statement about the primary immune response is not
true:
i. Requires two signals for activation of T cells
ii. Produces effector T cells
iii. Produces memory T cells
iv. Produces naїve T cells
3- The following molecule(s) is/are present on all T-cells:
i. CD3
ii. CD4
iii. CD8
iv. CD40L
v. All of the above
4- One of the following is a co-stimulatory molecule:
i. CD40L
ii. CD28
iii. CD3
iv. CD4
v. TCR
5- As regard peptides arising in the cytosol or in the vesicular
system:
i. Cytosol peptides are carried on MHC I molecules
ii. Vesicular peptides are carried on MHC I molecules
iii. Vesicular peptides are carried on both MHC I and MHC II
molecules
iv. Cytosol peptides are presented to helper T cells
v. Vesicular peptides are presented to cytotoxic T cells
6- One of the following is a professional antigen presenting cell:
i. T cytotoxic cell
ii. B cell
iii. T helper cell
iv. Naïve T cell
v. Th1 cell
7- Which one of the following is true about the T-cell receptor
(TCR)?
i. It has a hinge region that gives it flexibility
ii. It is bivalent
iii. It is associated with the CD3 protein complex in the
membrane
iv. It is present in low numbers on T-helper lymphocytes
v. It is readily secreted from the cell
8- The correct sequence of events in activation of T cells is:
i. Activation, differentiation, proliferation
ii. Differentiation, proliferation, activation
iii. Maturation, differentiation, activation
iv. Activation, proliferation, differentiation
9- Superantigens bind to:
i. Alpha and beta chains of TCR
ii. Alpha chain of TCR + MHC I
iii. Alpha chain of TCR + MHC II
iv. Beta chain of TCR + MHC I
v. Beta chain of TCR + MHC II
10- Superantigens:
i. Are processed inside antigen presenting cells
ii. Lead to development of memory T cells
iii. Stimulate an acquired immune response
iv. Lead to release of huge amount of non-beneficial
cytokines
11- An important defence function of Tc cells in viral
infection is to:
i. Lyse virus infected cells
ii. Produce cytokines
iii. Neutralize free virus particles
iv. Block cell respiration
v. Lyse viral capsids

KEY
1 B
2 D
3 A
4 B
5 A
6 B
7 C
8 D
9 E
10 D
11 A
Lecture 11 & 12 overview of immune system:

1- The site of T cell development in mammals is:


x. The bone marrow
xi. The bursa of Fabricus
xii. The thymus
xiii. The lymph nodes
xiv. The spleen
2- All of the following statements regarding B cells are true
Except:
i. They mature in bursa of fabricious or bursal equivalent
ii. They are found in the germinal centers of lymph nodes
and spleen
iii. They are progenitors of plasma cells
iv. They are involved in humoral immunity
3- Which statement about the clonal selection theory is correct:
i. Every naїve lymphocyte has many types of receptors
ii. Only lymphocytes which meet antigens they recognize
are activated
iii. Lymphocytes having receptors for self-molecules are
harmless
iv. A clone of cells can recognize many antigens

4- Vaccination:
i. Is a form of antigen specific-immunostimulation
ii. Is a form of antigen-non-specific-immunostimulation
iii. Does not produce immunity
iv. Aims to increase innate immunity
Lecture 13: Innate immunity & Antigens:
5- Phagocytic cells are characterized by the following Except:
i. Play an important defensive role against established viral
infections
ii. Contain digestive enzymes in lysosomes
iii. Have Fc receptors
iv. Produce hydrogen peroxide to kill phagocytosed
organisms
v. Are attracted to site of infection by chemotactic factors
6- Microbicidal substances present in the body fluids as a part of
the innate humoral defence mechanism include all the
following Except:
i. Lysozyme
ii. Complement
iii. Acute phase proteins
iv. Type I interferon
v. Type II interferon
7- A characteristic of the adaptive immune response but not of
the innate response is:
i. Physical barriers
ii. Chemical barriers
iii. Clonal expansion of the effector cells
iv. Inflammatory mediators
v. Phagocytosis
8- Natural Killer cells:
i. Are important phagocytic cells
ii. Are important APCs
iii. Need antigen-specific MHC activation to kill abnormal
cells
iv. Are important in the late stages of viral infection
v. Have Fc receptors
9- A substance that can evoke an immune response is termed a
(an):
i. Immunogen
ii. Hapten
iii. Epitope
iv. Paratope
v. Adjuvant
10- A hapten:
i. Is usually a high molecular weight substance
ii. Acts as an antigen if coupled to a protein molecule
iii. Is a non-specific potentiator of the immune response
iv. Is capable of inducing immune response alone
v. Determines specificity of an antigen

Lecture 11 & 12:


1 a
2 b
3 b
4 a

Lecture 13:
1 a
2 e
3 c
4 e
5 a
6 b
Lecture 14 & 15 T-cell mediated immunity:

1- Peptides arising in the vesicular system are presented to:


i. Cytotoxic T cells
ii. Helper T cells
iii. Both
iv. Neither
2- Which statement about the primary immune response is not
true:
i. Requires two signals for activation of T cells
ii. Produces effector T cells
iii. Produces memory T cells
iv. Produces naїve T cells
3- The following molecule(s) is/are present on all T-cells:
i. CD3
ii. CD4
iii. CD8
iv. CD40L
v. All of the above
4- One of the following is a co-stimulatory molecule:
i. CD40L
ii. CD28
iii. CD3
iv. CD4
v. TCR
5- As regard peptides arising in the cytosol or in the vesicular
system:
i. Cytosol peptides are carried on MHC I molecules
ii. Vesicular peptides are carried on MHC I molecules
iii. Vesicular peptides are carried on both MHC I and MHC II
molecules
iv. Cytosol peptides are presented to helper T cells
v. Vesicular peptides are presented to cytotoxic T cells
6- One of the following is a professional antigen presenting cell:
i. T cytotoxic cell
ii. B cell
iii. T helper cell
iv. Naïve T cell
v. Th1 cell
7- Which one of the following is true about the T-cell receptor
(TCR)?
i. It has a hinge region that gives it flexibility
ii. It is bivalent
iii. It is associated with the CD3 protein complex in the
membrane
iv. It is present in low numbers on T-helper lymphocytes
v. It is readily secreted from the cell
8- The correct sequence of events in activation of T cells is:
i. Activation, differentiation, proliferation
ii. Differentiation, proliferation, activation
iii. Maturation, differentiation, activation
iv. Activation, proliferation, differentiation
9- Superantigens bind to:
i. Alpha and beta chains of TCR
ii. Alpha chain of TCR + MHC I
iii. Alpha chain of TCR + MHC II
iv. Beta chain of TCR + MHC I
v. Beta chain of TCR + MHC II
10- Superantigens:
i. Are processed inside antigen presenting cells
ii. Lead to development of memory T cells
iii. Stimulate an acquired immune response
iv. Lead to release of huge amount of non-beneficial
cytokines
11- An important defence function of Tc cells in viral
infection is to:
i. Lyse virus infected cells
ii. Produce cytokines
iii. Neutralize free virus particles
iv. Block cell respiration
v. Lyse viral capsids

KEY
1 B
2 D
3 A
4 B
5 A
6 B
7 C
8 D
9 E
10 D
11 A

Lecture 16 Cytokines:
1- Type I interferon leads to better killing of virus-infected cells
due to:
i. Increased expression of MHC I molecules
ii. Increased activity of NK cells
iii. Both
iv. Neither
2- Interferon inhibits viral growth primarily by affecting:
i. Host cytokine production
ii. Host protein synthesis
iii. Viral protein synthesis
iv. Viral transcription process
v. Viral assembly and release
3- A product of macrophages that induces an antiviral state in
neighboring cells:
i. Complement
ii. Properdin
iii. Lysozyme
iv. Interferon (IFN)-alpha
v. Interferon (IFN)-gamma
4- Development of Th1 cells is promoted by:
i. IL-12
ii. IL-4
iii. Large doses of antigen
iv. a & c
v. b & c
5- Development of Th2 cells is promoted by:
i. IL-4
ii. Small doses of antigen
iii. Both of the above
iv. Neither of the above
6- The actions of IL-5 are mainly related to:
i. Macrophages
ii. Tc cells
iii. Th cells
iv. Eosinophils
7- The primary role of Th-2 cells is to:
i. Function as T killer cells
ii. Activate macrophages
iii. Activate NK cells
iv. Function as antigen-presenting cells
v. Activate B cells
8- Activation of naïve mature B cells requires the following
Except:
i. Surface antibody contact with antigen
ii. T cell cytokine stimulation
iii. B cell CD40 interaction with T cell CD40L
iv. Expression of IgM and IgD
v. Antigen presentation to T cell via class I MHC
9- For full activation, naïve B cells must receive the following
signal(s):
i. Signal derived from antigen binding to BCR
ii. Signal derived from activated cytotoxic T cells
iii. Signal derived from activated helper T cells
iv. a & b
v. a & c

10- Immunoglobulins:
i. Contain Fc regions derived from both heavy and light
chains
ii. Contain antigen-binding sites derived solely from the
heavy chain
iii. Are produced by both T and B-lymphocytes
iv. When bound to an antigen, may activate proteins of
complement system

Anwers :

1- c
2- c
3- d
4- d
5- c
6- d
7- e
8- e
9- e
10- d
Lecture 17 & 18 Humoral immune response:

1- The primary role of Th-2 cells is to:


v. Function as T killer cells
vi. Activate macrophages
vii. Activate NK cells
viii. Function as antigen-presenting cells
ix. Activate B cells
2- Activation of naïve mature B cells requires the following
Except:
i. Surface antibody contact with antigen
ii. T cell cytokine stimulation
iii. B cell CD40 interaction with T cell CD40L
iv. Expression of IgM and IgD
v. Antigen presentation to T cell via class I MHC
3- For full activation, naïve B cells must receive the following
signal(s):
i. Signal derived from antigen binding to BCR
ii. Signal derived from activated cytotoxic T cells
iii. Signal derived from activated helper T cells
iv. a & b
v. a & c
4- Immunoglobulins:
i. Contain Fc regions derived from both heavy and light
chains
ii. Contain antigen-binding sites derived solely from the
heavy chain
iii. Are produced by both T and B-lymphocytes
iv. When bound to an antigen, may activate proteins of
complement system
5- The following fragments are seen when IgG is split by papain:
i. Two monovalent fractions with antibody activity (Fab)
ii. Two fractions devoid of antibody activity
iii. Fab fragments containing the (V) domains of the H chain
but not the L chain
iv. Fab fragments containing the (V) domains of the L chain
but not the H chain
v. Two Fc fractions and one Fab fraction
6- The portion of the antibody molecule that bind antigenic
epitopes is:
i. Termed the determinant
ii. Composed of variable and constant regions of Ig heavy
and Ig light chains
iii. Composed of the variable regions of Ig heavy and Ig light
chains
iv. The Fc fragment
v. Two Ig light chains
7- IgE binds to:
i. T cells
ii. B cells
iii. Macrophages
iv. Dendritic cells
v. Mast cells

8- IgA is characterized by the following Except:


i. It may exist in monomeric or dimeric form
ii. It provides immunity at mucosal surfaces
iii. It is protected from proteolytic cleavage by secretory
piece
iv. It can cross the placental barrier
v. It is found in mucosal secretions
9- Opsonization depend on the presence of the following
structures on the surface of phagocytic cells:
i. Fc receptors
ii. C3b receptors
iii. BCR
iv. a & b
v. a & c
10- Regarding the primary immune response:
i. There is a very short induction (lag) period
ii. Immunoglobulins produced are mainly of IgM class
iii. Memory cells are the main effector cells
iv. The induced antibody level is very high
v. It is the first response of innate immunity
11- The monoclonal antibody is characterized by the
following Except:
i. Highly specific
ii. Produced by different clones of B cells
iii. Can be artificially produced
iv. Can be used in diagnosis
v. Can be used in therapy
1 E
2 E
3 E
4 D
5 A
6 C
7 E
8 D
9 D
10 b
11 b