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Experiment No: 10

Problem Statement:
The beam shown in the accompanying figure is a wide-flange W 18 x 35, with a cross-sectional area of
10.3 in2 and a depth of 17.7 in. The second moment of area is 510 in4. The beam is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load of 2000 lb/ft. The modulus of elasticity of the beam is E = 29 X 106lb/in2. Determine the
vertical displacement at node 3 and the rotations at nodes 2 and3. Also, compute the reaction forces at nodes
1 and 2 and reaction moment at node 1.

Figure 1: Beam

The main objective of this experiment is to develop understanding about Ansys and how to use it for the
calculation of vertical displacement, Slope (rotations) at different nodes in each member of Beam and
support reactions.

Given Data:
Modulus of elasticity=E= 29 X 106lb/in2
Poisson ratio=0.3 ; Breadth = 200 mm, Height = 300 mm

Basic Steps in FEA:

There are three basic steps in FEA
i. Pre-Processing
ii. Solution
iii. Post-Processing

10.1 Mechanical APDL ANSYS 15.0 Procedure:

10.1.1 Preferences:

a) Selecting a Job name:

Clicked file option to select “change job name”. Wrote the job name in appeared window.
b) Selecting analysis type:
In this step, the type of structural element was identified after defining the job name. For that purpose,
following steps were followed:

 Main Menu and then to the Preferences; select STRUCTURAL and h method OK

10.1.2 Preprocessor:

a) Defining Element Type:

In this step, element type is identified which is shown in the figure. For that purpose, go to Element
Type – Add/Edit/Delete – Add – Beam, 2node 188 – Ok – close.

b) Defining Element Real Constant:

There is no need of defining real constants in case of beams.

c) Defining Material Properties:
Material properties are Elastic (Isotropic) ignoring the friction with a modulus of elasticity i.e. E = 29×106
lb/in2 and poison ratio 0.3 – ok – close.

d) Defining Sections:
After materials properties sectioning of beam was done. For this following step were followed: Sections –
Beam – Common Section – select Subtype and entre values of W1, W2, W3, t1, t2, t3 for W18×35 beam by
considering the table given – Preview-Ok.

 Right clicked and selected replot to hide the cross-section.

e) Modelling:
In modelling following steps were followed:

 Modelling- Create-Nodes-In Active CS-Node Number 1, Location in active CS X = 0, Apply- Node

Number 2, Location in active CS X = 168, Apply- Node Number 3, Location in active CS X = 252,

f) Defining the elements between the Nodes:

 For picking nodes: Modeling- Create-Elements- Auto Numbered-Thru Nodes-Pick Node 1 and 2 Ok
(Element 1 is created). Pick Node 2 and 3 Ok (Element 2 is created.

 For plotting size and shape the following step were followed.
 Display was come to be like this

g) Defining Loads:
For loads calculation selected the option Loads-Define Loads- Apply-Structural- Displacement-On
Nodes-Pick node 1-Ok Dofs to be constrained-ALL DOF- OK.

 For Node 2, Loads-Define Loads- Apply-Structural- Displacement-On Nodes-Pick node 2-Ok Dofs
to be constrained-UY- OK.
 And then, Loads-Define Loads- Apply-Structural-Pressure- On Beams- Checked the Box Option-
Select the beam-Ok-Load key = 2, Pressure value at Node I = 166.6, Pressure value at Node J = 166.6
– Ok. (A uniformly distributed load of 20000 lb/ft will be applied between Nodes 1 and 3.

10.1.3 Solution Phase:

a) Solving the system:

 For the Solution of the given problem, the steps we followed are: Solve-Current-Current LS-OK
(Solution done is displayed) – Close.

10.1.4 Post-processing phase:

To check deformed shape following steps were followed:

 General Postprc-Plot Results-Deformed Shapes-Selected “Def + Undeformed” – OK

 Clicked on Isometric view- PlotCtrls-Style-Size and Shapes-Display of Elements based on the real
constant description “On” – OK.

 For Vertical displacement calculation on each node List Results-Nodal Solution-Displacement vector
sum- (displacement in x, y and z direction was displayed with Node Number).

 For the graphical visualization of displacement on each node: Plot Results- Contour Plot-Nodal
Solution-DOF Solution- displacement vector sum-OK.
 For Slope (Rotations) calculation on each node List Results-Nodal Solution-Displacement vector sum-
(Rotation along x, y and z direction was displayed with Node Number).

 For the graphical visualization of Rotations on each node: Plot Results- Contour Plot-Nodal Solution-
DOF Solution- Rotation vector sum-OK.

 For reactions calculation of each element the followed steps are: List Results- Reaction
Solution-All items - OK (Values of reactions were displayed).
10.2 Observation and calculations:

10.2.1 Vertical Displacement:

Node Displacement vector sum Reactions Reaction Moments

No (in) Forces
Rotation vector sum (rad) Fx Fy (lb) Fz (lb) Fz (lb) MX (lb- MY (lb-in)
(lb) in)
1 0.00 0.00 0.000 7764.3 -0.5100 -0.5100 -0.57187 -0.13009
×10-34 ×10-34 ×10-8 ×10-9
2 0.96797 0.24243 0.00 34237 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
×10-24 ×10-1
3 4.6628 0.79766×10-1

 Maximum Vertical displacement value is at Node 3 (4.6628 in)
 Maximum Rotations value is at Node 3 (0.79766×10-1 rad)
 Maximum Reaction value is at Node 1 (7764.3 lb)
 Maximum Reaction Moment value is at Node 1 (-0.45964×106)
 As vertical displacement vector sum and Rotation Vector sum is max at node 3, we can replace
that element if this bridge is being used in sensitive application