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The previous chapter reviewed existing methods for ECG signal and image classifica-

tion. In this chapter, methods for ECG signal pre-processing, feature extraction and

Network (AANN), Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) are the models used for classifi-

cation. Section 3.2 explains the method for feature extraction of ECG signal. Section

3.2.1 explains the procedure for ECG signal preprocessing. Section 3.2.2 describes

the Morphological feature extraction, Section 3.2.3 and Section 3.2.4 describes LPC

and MFCC computation respectively. Modeling techniques used for classification are

presented in Section 3.3. Section 3.4 presents the performance measures used in the

Section 3.5.1. Section 3.5.2 discusses the experimental results for disease classification.

3.1 Introduction

Feature extraction plays an important role in any classification task. It is the process of

finding the most informative and yet compact set of features, so that the effectiveness

of machine learning task can be enhanced. The main objective of the ECG feature

extraction process is to derive a set of parameters that best characterizes the ECG

signal. These parameters should contain maximum information about the ECG signal.

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Hence the selection of these parameters is an important criterion to be considered for

of several characteristic features of the ECG signal [128]. More importantly, the most

common and appropriate ways of representing data for any classification and regression

In this work the normal and abnormal ECG classification is made in which three

major issues have been focused for abnormal category. They are Arrhythmia, Myocar-

dial Infarction and Conduction Blocks in which each disease is further classified into

infarction of Myocardial infarction, Atrio ventricular blocks, Left bundle branch blocks

Morphological features in an ECG are the essential features for diagnosing various

cardiac diseases. Morphological analysis of ECG signal adopts various signal processing

strategies over the past two decades [62]. Linear prediction technique is one of the most

powerful signal analysis technique for encoding good quality signals at a low bit rate,

and widely used in a variety of fields such as medical signals, speech and audio signal

the most significant stage introduced at each preprocessing stage. After pre-processing,

the second stage towards classification is to extract features from the signals. ECG

being a non-stationary signal, the irregularities may not be periodic and may show

of signals is an important task. Wavelet transform has been proven as a useful tool

for ECG [6] signal analysis and it is widely used in biomedical signal processing and

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In the proposed work three types of features are used for ECG signal classification.

They are Morphological features of ECG, Linear Prediction Coefficients (LPC) and

Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC). In preprocessing stage the noise and

artifacts in the signal are removed using DWT. This chapter addresses preprocessing,

3.2.1 Preprocessing

The ECG recording retrieved from the databases may consist of various kind of noise

Hence the signal should be pre-processed to remove these kinds of artifacts from the

signal for further processing. ECG signals are preprocessed using the filtering process.

In this work, the Daubechies filter of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for

denoising and Morphological feature extraction of the ECG signal. Throughout this

work, a sampling rate of 360 Hz, 16 bit monophonic, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

An ECG signal changes over the time marker with respect to heartbeat events. The

Wavelet transform may use long sampling intervals where low-frequency information is

analysis for event localisation with respect to all frequency components in data over

time to space. Thus, wavelet analysis is capable of revealing aspects of data that other

signal analysis techniques miss, such as breakdown points, and discontinuities in higher

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derivatives [129].

Daubechies wavelets are compactly orthonormal wavelets that make discrete wavelet

analysis practicable [129]. The Daubechies wavelet is conceptually more complex but,

it picks up detail that is missed by the Haar wavelet algorithm [130]. Choosing a

wavelet function which closely matches the signal to be processed is of extreme impor-

tance in wavelet applications [131]. It is used to obtain the characteristic waves of the

ECG signal from which a set of features are derived. The 8 level wavelet decompo-

sition based on Daubechies 6 wavelet functions are considered here. The Daubechies

6 wavelets are chosen based on their shape and their ability to analyze the signal in

the shape of QRS complex and their energy spectrum are concentrated around low

coding. The two basic wavelet processes are decomposition and reconstruction. It

decomposes a signal into a set of basis functions called wavelets. Signal decomposition

using DWT is shown in Fig. 3.1. LoD and HiD are low pass and high pass decompo-

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sition filters respectively. 2 ↓ 1 or 1 ↓ 2 represents down sampling by 2. cA and cD

Wavelet transform theory uses two major concepts: scaling and shifting. Scal-

ing, through dilation or compression, provides the capability to analyse a signal over

different windows (sampling periods) in the data, while shifting, through delay or

advancement, provides translation of the wavelet kernal over the entire signal. The

wavelet transform is based on the principle of linear series expansion of a signal using

a set of orthonormal basis function. Through linear series expansion, a signal f(t) can

n

X

f (t) = ak ϕn (t) (3.1)

where n is an integer index with n ∈ Z (Z is a set of all integers), ak are weights and

and high-pass filters. The output of the low-pass filter gives the Approximation (A)

coefficients, while the high pass filter gives the Detail (D) coefficients. The A and

D coefficients can be used to reconstruct the signal absolutely while run through the

mirror reconstruction filters of the wavelet family. Daubechies-6 wavelet family is used

for filtering the noise. The output of the filter is the down sampled version of the 8th

level coefficients and it is reconstructed to find the R Peak in which 8th level has larger

variations obviously. Minor variations are visible in the lower level itself. So the other

the ECG features, the characteristic points P, Q, R, S and T are obtained at different

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3.2.2 Morphological Feature Extraction

In this work Morphological features such as R peak count, QRS interval, PR interval,

R-peak has the highest amplitude in an ECG signal. R-peak is detected by using

the Daubechies 8th level reconstructed coefficients. The heart rate for each patient is

calculated by finding the distance between two R peaks (R-R). The other peaks are

identified by traversing the windowing function on either side of R peak. The Q and

S peaks are found by traversing on the left and right side of the R peak within the

specified window and locating the minimum or negative peak values. By traversing

the left side of the Q peak the maximum value is found to be the P peak. Similarly

by traversing the right side of the S peak, the maximum value is found to be the T

peak. The onset and offset of all points are calculated. Depending upon these data

points the Morphological features are extracted. The steps in wavelet decomposition

D5 using adaptive threshold value. The values greater than threshold is taken

as R peak

25 samples from the left side of R-peak (before R-peak) by combining detail

• P peak: P peak is detected obtained within next 5 samples from left side of Q

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• S Peak: S peak is detected, as local minimum point obtained within next 5 sam-

ples from right side of R- peak (after R-peak) by combining detail components

Based on all peak values obtained the wavelet domain parameters of ECG have been

1. P-P interval (IP P ) is the mean of P-P interval durations. The P-P interval is

obtained by

2. R-R interval (IRR ) is the mean of R-R interval durations. The R-R interval is

obtained by

3. P-R interval (IP R ) is the time duration between successive P and R waves in

IP R = R − Pon−set (3.5)

4. QRS Duration (IQRS ) is the time duration from the beginning of the Q wave to

IQRS = TS − TQ (3.6)

5. QT Interval (IQT ) Duration is the time from the beginning of the Q-wave to the

55

6. T-T interval (IT T ) is the mean of T-T interval durations, obtained by

7. ST interval (IST ) is

The heart rate is calculated from the RR interval time series is given by (3.10)

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HR = (3.10)

R − R interval (seconds)

Linear Predictive Coefficients (LPC) analysis is one of the most powerful tools in signal

processing, especially speech signals which is able to extract the dominant features of

speech signal. The capability of precise estimation of signal parameters and high speed

to use these coefficients in evaluation of ECG signal changes [53]. A pth order LP

the past p samples, where p represents the order of prediction [47], [48]. If s(n) is the

p

X

ŝ(n) = − ak s(n − k) (3.11)

k=1

The LPC are obtained using Levinson-Durbin recursive algorithm. This is known

as LPC analysis. The difference between the actual and the predicted sample value is

p

X

e(n) = s(n) − ŝ(n) = s(n) + ak s(n − k) (3.12)

k=1

p

X

= ak s(n − k), a0 = 1 (3.13)

k=0

56

For an ECG frame of size m samples, the mean square of prediction error over the

" p

#2

X X X

E= e2 (m) = s(m) − ak s(m − k) (3.14)

m m k=1

Optimal predictor coefficients will minimize this mean square error. At minimum value

of E,

∂E

= 0, k = 1, 2, . . . p (3.15)

∂ak

Differentiating using (3.14) and equating to zero we get,

Ra = r (3.16)

r(0) r(1) ··· r(p − 1)

r(1) r(0) ··· r(p − 2)

R= .

(3.17)

.. .. .. ..

. . .

r(p − 1) ··· ··· r(0)

using (3.16) can be solved for predictor coefficients using Durbin’s algorithm as follows:

PL−1

r[i] − j=1 αji−1 · r[|i − j|]

ki = 1≤i≤p (3.19)

E (i−1)

αii = ki (3.20)

(i−1) (i−1)

αji = αj − ki · αi−j (3.21)

The above set of equations is solved recursively for i = 1, 2 . . . , p. The final solution is

given by

(p)

am = αm 1≤m≤p (3.23)

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where, am ’s are Linear prediction coefficients. In this work, 14th order LP coeffi-

cients are extracted. As previously mentioned, linear predictive coefficients are used

varying nature of the signal, coefficients must be calculated from short segments [132].

of QRS complex, 14 LPC coefficients are determined and these coefficients are used as

Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are short-term spectral features and are

widely used in the area of audio and speech processing. The mel frequency cepstrum

has proven to be highly effective in recognizing the structure of audio signals and in

modeling the subjective pitch and frequency content of audio signals. The MFCCs

have been applied in a range of audio mining tasks, and have shown good performance

methods. Although MFCCs have been used in music identification, there is very few

work done for heart sound analysis using MFCCs. In this work the MFCC features

MFCC filters are spaced linearly at low frequencies and logarithmically at high

the ECG signals are segmented and windowed into frames of 10 seconds. Fig. 3.2

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Fig. 3.2: Block diagram of MFCC computation

frames using FFT and converted into a set of mel scale filter bank outputs.

highly correlated and hence, the use of a cepstral transformation in this case is

general form of this filterbank. As can be seen, the filters used are triangular

and they are equally spaced along the mel-scale which is defined by

f

Mel(f ) = 2595 log10 (1 + ) (3.24)

700

Fourier transform and the magnitude is taken. The magnitude coefficients are

then binned by correlating them with each triangular filter. Here binning means

gain and the results are accumulated. Thus, each bin holds a weighted sum

Normally the triangular filters are spread over the whole frequency range from

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zero upto the Nyquist frequency. However, band-limiting is often useful to

which there is no useful signal energy. For filterbank analysis, lower and upper

frequency cut-offs can be set. When low and high pass cut-offs are set in this

way, the specified number of filterbank channels are distributed equally on the

freq

m1 mj mP

Energy in

... ...

Each Band

MELSPEC

• Cepstrum: Logarithm is then applied to the the filter bank outputs followed

by discrete cosine transformation to obtain the MFCCs. Because the mel spec-

trum coefficients are real numbers (and so are their logarithms), they may be

converted to the time domain using the DCT. In practice the last step of taking

In the proposed work 360 values are reduced to 8 dimensional Morphological features,

SVM, AANN and GMM classifiers are the models used in this work for classifying the

ECG data based on Morphological features, LPC and MFCC extracted from the ECG

60

signal.

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistic machine learning technique that has been

successfully applied in the pattern recognition area and is based on the principle of

Structural risk minimization [73], [74], [134], [135]. Fig. 3.4 shows the architecture of

the SVM. SVM constructs a linear model to estimate the decision function using non-

Fig. 3.4: Architecture of the SVM (Ns is the number of support vectors).

linear class boundaries based on support vectors. If the data are linearly separated,

SVM trains linear machines for an optimal hyperplane that separates the data without

error and into the maximum distance between the hyperplane and the closest training

points. The training points that are closest to the optimal separating hyperplane are

SVM maps the input patterns into a higher dimensional feature space through

some nonlinear mapping chosen a priori. A linear decision surface is then constructed

in this high dimensional feature space. Thus, SVM is a linear classifier in the parameter

the space of the input patterns into the high dimensional feature space.

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Fig. 3.5: An example for SVM kernel function Φ(x) maps 2-dimensional input space to

higher 3-dimensional feature space. (a) Nonlinear problem. (b) Linear problem.

For linearly separable data, SVM finds a separating hyperplane which separates

the data with the largest margin. For linearly inseparable data, it maps the data in the

input space into a high dimension space x ∈ RI 7→ Φ(x) ∈ RH with kernel function

Φ(x), to find the separating hyperplane. An example for SVM kernel function Φ(x)

Fig. 3.5. SVM was originally developed for two class classification problems. The N

class classification problem can be solved using N SVMs. Each SVM separates a single

SVM generally applies to linear boundaries. In the case where a linear boundary is

inappropriate SVM can map the input vector into a high dimensional feature space. By

in this higher dimensional space as shown in Fig. 3.5. The function K is defined as the

kernel function for generating the inner products to construct machines with different

The kernel function may be any of the symmetric functions that satisfy the Mercer’s

62

Table 3.1: Types of SVM inner product kernels.

Polynomial (xT xi + 1)p Where x is input patterns,

xi is support vectors,

" 2 #

T

x −x i

Gaussian exp − 2σ2

σ 2 is variance, 1 ≤ i ≤ Ns ,

Sigmoidal tanh β0 (xT xi ) + β1 β0 , β1 are constant values.

p is degree of the polynomial

conditions. There are several SVM kernel functions as given in Table 3.1. The dimen-

sion of the feature space vector Φ(x) for the polynomial kernel of degree p and for the

(p + d)!

(3.26)

p! d!

For sigmoidal kernel and Gaussian kernel, the dimension of feature space vectors is

shown to be infinite. Finding a suitable kernel for a given task is an open research

are trained. Each SVM is trained to distinguish between one category and all other

categories in the training set. During testing, the class label l of an ECG x can be

n, if dn (x) + t > 0

l= (3.27)

0, if dn (x) + t ≤ 0

i=1 , and di (x) is the distance from x to the SVM hyperplane

63

3.3.2 Autoassociative Neural Network Model

The five layer Autoassociative Neural Network (AANN) model is used to capture the

distribution of the ECG feature vectors. The general topology of AANN is discussed

in this section. In this network, the second and fourth layers have more units than

the input layer. The third layer has fewer units than the first or fifth. The processing

units in the first and third hidden layer are non-linear, and the units in the second

backpropagation algorithm [84], [136]. As the error between the actual and the desired

output vectors is minimized, the cluster of points in the input space determines the

shape of the hypersurface obtained by the projection onto the lower dimensional space.

Fig. 3.6(b) shows the space spanned by the one dimensional compression layer for the

2 dimensional data shown in Fig. 3.6(a) for the network structure 2L 10N 1N 10N 2L,

where L denotes a linear unit and N denotes a non-linear unit. The non-linear units

use tanh(s) as the activation function, where s is the activation value of the unit. The

integer value indicates the number of units used in that layer. The backpropagation

learning algorithm is used to adjust the weights of the network to minimize the mean

square error for each feature vector. The solid lines shown in Fig. 3.6(b) indicate

mapping of the given input points due to the one dimensional compression layer. Thus,

one can say that the AANN captures the distribution of the input data depending on

In order to visualize the distribution better, one can plot the error for each input

data point in the form of some probability surface as shown in Fig. 3.6(c). The error

Ei for the data point i in the input space is plotted as pi = exp(−Ei /α) , where α is a

constant. Note that pi is not strictly a probability density function, but the resulting

surface is called probability surface. The plot of the probability surface shows a large

64

0.1 0.1

10 10

0.05 0.05

0 5 0 5

−4 −4

−2 0 −2 0

0 0

2 −5 2 −5

4 4

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 3.6: Distribution capturing ability of AANN model. From [1]. (a) Artifi-

cial 2 dimensional data. (b) 2 dimensional output of AANN model with the struc-

ture 2L 10N 1N 10N 2L. (c) Probability surfaces realized by the network structure

2L 10N 1N 10N 2L.

amplitude for smaller error Ei , indicating better match of the network for that data

point. The constraints imposed by the network can be seen by the shape the error

surface takes in both the cases. One can use the probability surface to study the

characteristics of the distribution of the input data captured by the network. Ideally,

one would like to achieve the best probability surface, best defined in terms of some

During AANN training, the weights of the network are adjusted to minimize the

mean square error obtained for each feature vector. If the adjustment of weights is done

for all feature vectors once, then the network is said to be trained for one epoch. For

successive epochs, the mean square error is averaged over all feature vectors. During

testing phase, the features extracted from the test data are given to the trained AANN

65

model to obtain the average error.

The standard backpropagation neural network training algorithm is used to adjust the

weights in AANN. All the initial weights are randomly chosen by the backpropagation

parametric methods. Models which assume the shape of probability density func-

are made regarding the probability distribution of feature vectors. The potential of

Gaussian components, in which the spectral shape of the ECG class is parameterized

by the mean vector and the covariance matrix, is significant. Also, these models have

sities in the absence of other information [137]. With Gaussian mixture models, each

ECG is modeled as a mixture of several Gaussian clusters in the feature space. The

basis for using GMM is that the distribution of feature vectors extracted from a class

dimensional feature vector x, the mixture density function for category s is defined as

M

p(x/λs ) = αsi fis (x)

P

i=1

modal Gaussian densities fis (.). Each Gaussian density function fis (.) is parameterized

by the mean vector µsi and the covariance matrix Σsi using

1

fis (x) = √ exp(− 12 (x − µsi )T (Σsi )−1 (x − µsi )),

(2π)d |Σsi |

66

Fig. 3.7: Gaussian mixture models

where (Σsi )−1 and |Σsi | denote the inverse and determinant of the covariance matrix

M

Σsi , respectively. The mixture weights (αs1 , αs2 , ..., αsM ) satisfy the constraint αsi =

P

i=1

s s

1. Collectively, the parameters of the model λ are denoted as λ = {αi ,µsi , Σsi },

s

data set. The parameters of GMM are estimated using the iterative expectation-

The motivation for using Gaussian densities as the representation of ECG features

Gaussian components in which the spectral shape of the ECG class is parameterized

by the mean vector and the covariance matrix. Also, GMMs have the ability to form

of other information [137]. With GMMs, each ECG is modeled as a mixture of several

67

3.4 Performance Measures

ficity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also

Sensitivity:

Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall in some fields) measures

the proportion of positives that are correctly identified as such. It refers to the test’s

ability to correctly detect patients who do have the condition. Mathematically, this

Sensitivity = (3.28)

No. of T rue P ositives + No. of F alse Negatives

Specificity:

Specificity (also called the true negative rate) measures the proportion of negatives

that are correctly identified as such. It relates to the test’s ability to correctly detect

Specif icity = (3.29)

No. of T rue Negatives + No. of F alse P ositives

Precision:

In a classification task, the precision for a class is the number of true positives (i.e.

the number of items correctly labeled as belonging to the positive class) divided by

the total number of elements labeled as belonging to the positive class (i.e. the sum

of true positives and false positives, which are items incorrectly labeled as belonging

to the class).

T rue P ositives

P recision = (3.30)

T rue P ositives + F alse P ositives

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Recall:

Recall is defined as the number of true positives divided by the total number of elements

that actually belong to the positive class (i.e. the sum of true positives and false

negatives, which are items which were not labeled as belonging to the positive class

T rue P ositives

Recall = (3.31)

T rue P ositives + F alse Negatives

F- Measure:

F-Measure is a measure of a test’s accuracy that considers both the precision and the

P recision ∗ Recall

F − Measure = 2 (3.32)

P recision + Recall

Accuracy:

The accuracy of a measurement system is a level of measurement that yields true (no

Accuracy = (3.33)

T otal No. of Samples

Experiments are carried out using different features in signal and image processing but

features like morphological, LPC and MFCC has given better performance compared

determine the peak, onset and offset of the ECG waves, validation of the ECG feature

69

detection algorithms must be done using databases with manual annotations. The

basic idea here is to compare manually annotated results of the clinical features of a

The experiments are conducted for the ECG wav data collected from different

Physiobank databases with different age groups of both men (1186) and women (814).

The total duration of the ECG signal is from 30 minutes to 1 hour, which is sampled

at 360 hertz and encoded by 16-bit, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) format. The ECG

signal of 10 seconds duration is taken from each for experimentation. 2000 ECG clips

of all categories are taken for conducting experiments. For each disease 200 ECG clips

are considered in which 150 are given for training and 50 are given for testing. The ratio

of training and testing data in terms of accuracy is shown in Table 3.4. The dataset

collected from different sources are given in Table 3.2, 3.3. Along with the Physiobank

dataset, the realtime dataset collected from Raja Muthaiah Medical College Hospital

(MGMCH), Pondicherry are also taken for conducting experiments. The reason for

using the database and dataset from hospitals is to evaluate our proposed algorithms on

standard 12-lead ECG for various disease categories to demonstrate their effectiveness.

The ECG signal is preprocessed and the features namely Morphological features, Linear

Prediction Coefficients (LPC) and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are

1 hour duration is taken for experimentation. The sampling rate is 360 Hertz and the

Initially the Morphological features with 8 dimensions, LPC features with 14 di-

mensions and MFCC features with 13 dimensions are trained using SVM. N SVMs

70

Table 3.2: Dataset I

1 Atrial Fibrillation

database (incartdb), MIT-BIH Supra

Supra Ventricular

2 database (svdb), MIT-BIH Arrhythmia

Tachycardia

database and Hospitals

CU Ventricular Tacyarrhythmia

3 Ventricular Tachycardia Database (cudb), MIT-BIH Arrhythmia

4 Antero Septal Infarction

Database (ptbdb), European St-T Database

and Hospitals

5 Anterior Infarction

European St-T Database and Hospitals

6 Inferior Infarction

European St-T Database and Hospitals

AtrioVentricular

7 database (incartdb), MIT-BIH Arrhythmia

blocks

Database and Hospitals

71

Table 3.3: Dataset II

Left Bundle Branch

8 database (incartdb), MIT-BIH Arrhythmia

Blocks

database and Hospitals

Right Bundle Branch

9 database (incartdb),MIT-BIH Arrhythmia

Blocks

database and Hospitals

70 : 30 97.40%

80 : 20 98.60%

60 : 40 96.00%

are created for each feature of ECG samples. For training, 1000 ECG samples are

considered which includes normal and nine abnormal categories. 100 feature vectors

from each category is considered for Morphological, LPC and MFCC features. The

training process analyzes ECG training data to find an optimal way to classify ECG

The derived support vectors are used to classify sub categories of the disease from

ECG data. For testing, 1000 ECG samples were considered. During testing, 8 dimen-

are given as input to SVM model and the distance between each of the feature vectors

72

and the SVM hyperplane is obtained.

The average distance is calculated for each model. The disease corresponding to

the ECG is decided based on the maximum distance. The same process is repeated for

all the sub categories of the diseases, and the performance is studied. The performance

of ECG classification for Polynomial, Gaussian and Sigmoidal kernels is studied. From

the analysis, Gaussian kernel function in SVM using MFCC features provides improve-

ment in performance for three levels of classification. Hence Gaussian kernal is applied

The distribution of the Morphological, LPC and MFCC feature vectors in the

feature space is captured using an AANN model. Separate AANN models are used to

capture the distribution of feature vectors of each class, and the network is trained for

400 epochs. One epoch of training is a single presentation of all the training vectors

to the network. For evaluating the performance of the system, the feature vector is

given as input to each of the models. The output of the model is compared with the

||y−o||2

The normalized squared error (E) for the feature vector y is given by, E = ||y||2

where o is the output vector given by the model. The error (E) is transformed into a

confidence score (C) using C = exp(−E). The average confidence score is calculated

73

for each model. The class is decided based on the highest confidence score. The perfor-

mance of the system is evaluated, and the method achieves about 98.80% classification

rate using MFCC for normal/abnormal classification. The structure of AANN model

plays an important role in capturing the distribution of the feature vectors. After the

trial and error, the network structure obtained for three features is shown in Table

3.6. The structure seems to give good performance in terms of classification accuracy.

For testing, the feature vectors extracted from the various classes are given as input

to the model, and the corresponding class has the maximum confidence score.

The number of units in the third layer (compression layer) determines the number

of components captured by the network. The AANN model projects the input vectors

onto the subspace spanned by the number of units (Nc ) in the compression layer. If

there are Nc units in the compression layer, then the ECG feature vectors are projected

onto the subspace spanned by Nc components to realize them at the output layer. The

The performance of the system decreases because there may not be a boundary

between the components representing the disease information and the training ECG

samples may not be sufficient for capturing the distribution of the feature vectors.

74

Table 3.7: Performance in terms of number of units in the compression layer (Nc ) for

normal/abnormal classification (Level-I)

Layer

Table 3.8: Performance in terms of number of units in the expansion layer (Ne ) for

normal/abnormal classification.

Table 3.6 shows the structure of AANN used in this work. The general topology

of AANN is discussed in Fig. 3.6. AANN performs identity mapping and hence input

In GMM the database comprises of ECG samples that leads to fitting of each

accuracy than others. Based on the characteristics of each disease the sub categories

are analysed. Various components in GMM using Morphological, LPC and MFCC

features are analyzed for three levels. The number of Gaussian mixtures is increased

When the number of mixtures is 2, the performance is very low. When the mixtures

75

the number of mixtures varies from 4 to 10, there is no considerable increase in the

increase in the performance when the number of mixtures is above 10. With GMM, the

best performance is achieved with 4 Gaussian mixtures for three levels of classification.

❳❳❳

❳❳

❳❳❳ No. of Mixtures

❳❳❳

❳❳

❳❳❳

2 4 6 8

Performance (in %) ❳❳❳

❳❳

GMM (Level - I)

The classification is carried out in three levels in this work. First level is focused on

classification of ECG samples into normal or abnormal category. The performance for

it is observed that MFCC with AANN classifier provides an optimum result than other

of the normal ECG sample are alone considered and the characteristics of individual

in Fig. 3.8.

76

Table 3.10: Performance of SVM, AANN and GMM for normal/abnormal classifica-

tion

Performance (in %) Spec Sen Acc Spec Sen Acc Spec Sen Acc

Morphological 93.71 97.93 97.55 98.45 98.28 97.90 93.12 95.64 93.10

LPC 93.90 94.73 94.00 95.01 95.90 96.00 81.71 82.40 82.50

MFCC 98.21 97.95 98.50 98.79 98.64 98.80 86.90 83.30 87.60

Fig. 3.8: Performance of SVM, AANN and GMM for normal / abnormal classification

(Level -II)

The second level focusses on classification of three cardiac diseases. The performance

using different classifiers are discussed in this Section. From the analysis it is observed

77

that AANN provides better performance compared to other classifiers is shown in

Table 3.11. The accuracy of AANN for three major cardiac diseases is shown in Fig.

3.9.

Arrhythmia

Myocardial Infarction

Conduction Blocks

and GMM (Level - III)

In third level the sub categories of Arrhythmia (Arr), Myocardial Infarction (MI) and

Conduction Blocks (CB) are considered. Performance of ECG classification for disease

subcategories using techniques namely SVM, AANN, GMM is shown in Figs. 3.10,

3.11 and 3.12. Table 3.11 shows the performance of AANN for level-II classification

where the morphological features for Arrhythmia shows a high precision of 97.50%,

78

Fig. 3.9: Performance of AANN for disease classification

for Myocardial infarction 97.97% and for Conduction blocks 96.50% respectively. In

the literature F-measure and Accuracy are the two main performance measures for

accuracy that considers both the precision and the recall of the test to compute the

P recision ∗ Recall

F − Measure = 2 (3.34)

P recision + Recall

The accuracy of a measurement system is a level of measurement that yields true (no

Accuracy = (3.35)

T otal No. of Samples

In this work hierarchical classification is made. In level I the normal and abnormal

classification is made. In level II the three major cardiac diseases classification is made

namely Arrhythmia, Myocardial Infarction and Conduction blocks and in level III the

79

Fig. 3.10: Performance of Arrhythmia

80

Fig. 3.12: Performance of Conduction Blocks

namely Anteroseptal Infarction, Anterior Infarction and Inferior Infarction and for

branch blocks and right bundle branch blocks are classified respectively.

Novelty of the Work: The novelty of the work is signal is processed using image

processing techniques.

3.6 Summary

This chapter discusses the Morphological, LPC and MFCC feature extraction and

classification of ECG data using SVM, AANN and GMM classifiers. Nine categories

of cardiac diseases is classified in the proposed work. The performance of the system

is studied for all the nine categories. The performance of the system is evaluated on a

81

large dataset collected from the Physiobank database and real time dataset from hos-

pitals for normal and nine types of diseases. Most of the samples are correctly detected

and it is observed that AANN with morphological features gives better performance

82

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