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You are on page 1of 1

m1v 1 – m1u1 m v – m 2u 2

book, its reaction will be the force applied by the book = – 2 2 m1v1 – m1u1

t t

on the table. Weight W is the force applied by the earth

on the book, its reaction will be the force applied by the = –m2v2 + m2u2

book on the earth. or m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

So, although N and W are equal and opposite, they do

not form an action–reaction pair. or Initial momentum = Final momentum

PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM with each other and immediately become entangled.

One has a mass of 120 kg and is travelling at 2 m/s,

By Newton’s second law, the rate of change of while the other has a mass of 80 kg and is travelling at

momentum is equal to the applied force. 4 m/s towards the first player at what speed do they

travel after they become entangled?

Change in momentum

= Force Sol. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

time

120 × 2 – 80 × 4 = (120 + 80)

Change in momentum = F × t

240 – 320 = 200 V

If F = 0 then,

– 80 = 200 V

Change in momentum = 0

2

V=– m/s

If the force applied on the body is zero then its 5

momentum will be conserved, this law is also

applicable on the system. If in a system the momentum SOME ILLUSTRATION ON CONSERVATION

of the objects present in the system are P1, P2, P3........... OF MOMENTUM

and external force on the system is zero, then–

P1 + P2 + P3 +................. = Constant (a) Recoil of Gun :

A loaded gun (rifle) having bullet inside it forming one

NOTE : If only internal forces are acting on the system system is initially at rest. The system has zero

then its linear momentum will be conserved. initial momentum.

(a) The Law of Conservation of Linear

Momentum by Third Law of Motion : v

V

Suppose A and B are two objects of masses m1 and

m2 are moving in the same direction with velocity u1

and u2 respectively (u1 > u2). Object A collides with object

B and after time t both move in their original direction

with velocity v1 and v2 respectively. When the trigger (T) is pressed, the bullet is fired due to

internal force of explosion of powder in cartidge inside.

The change in momentum of object A = m1v1 – m1u1

The bullet moves forward with a high velocity and the gun

m1 m2 move behind (recoils) with a lesser velocity.

u1 u2 Let the bullet and the gun have masses m and M

before collision (u1 > u2) respectively. Let the bullet move forward with velocity v

and the gun recoils with velocity V.

Change in momentum Then final momentum of the gun and bullet is MV + mv

The force on B by A is F1 =

time By the law of conservation of momentum–

Initial momentum of the system = Final momentum of

m1v 1 – m1u1

F1 = .............(1) the system.

t

0 = MV + mv

The change in momentum of object B = m2v2 – m2u2

mv

or V = –

Change in momentum M

The force on A by B is F2 =

time

mv

Hence the recoil velocity of gun =

m 2 v 2 – m 2u 2 M

= .............(2)

t

mv

m1 m2 and the velocity of the gun is = –

v1 v2 M

after collision

PHYSICS_IJSO_PAGE #99

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