You are on page 1of 1



ABSTRACT: Coconut Shell are obtained from nearby stores where they are treated as waste materials for grated coconut. To minimize the productions of
waste materials, these coconut shell can be used to stabilize Laterite Soil as a subgrade material for road construction. To find the possibility of using
Crushed Coconut Shell as an additives material in road construction, a series of laboratory geotechnical testing which includes Particle Size Distribution,
Hydrometer, Standard Proctor Test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test for Laterite soil sample has been performed at the Laboratory of Geotechnics
in Faculty of Civil Engineering UiTM Penang. This research highlighting that improvement of CBR with the use of Crushed Coconut Shells with a variation
content of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of soil as a stabilizer material for Laterite Soil and the result has indicates that the additive chosen was suitable for
improving California Bearing Ratio (CBR) for subgrade material. The highest CBR value = 27.5% where recorded at 4% of Crushed Coconut Shell being
added as compared to initial CBR value = 9.06%. However, the soil strength tends to be weaker when more amount of Crushed Coconut Shell added into
the soil. Therefore, it can be concluded that Crushed Coconut Shells can be effectively used for strength improvement of Laterite Soil when being added
at certain amount.

• Road pavement problem in Malaysia due to a poorly stabilised subgrade RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
soil being used has been contributing to pavement settlement This costs
high maintenance needed to be carried out and road accidents among CRUSHED COCONUT SHELLS AS AN ADDITIVE FOR STABILIZATION TREATMENT OF
user rapidly occurs. SUBGRADE MATERIALS
• Some stabilizing agents that have being used from previous study
causing an environmental issues when disposed in such great amount to Sample Collection

Preliminary Testing • Wet and Dry Sieving Soil Compaction Properties
• To determine the soil properties of Laterite Soil and usage of Crushed (Identify Soil • Hydrometer Testing • Standard Proctor Testing – Maximum Dry
Coconut Shells as an additive. Classification) • Cone Penetrometer Density and Optimum Moisture Content
• To determine the soaked and unsoaked Laterite Soil of California • Specific Gravity (Liquid Limit) of Laterite Soil obtained.
Bearing Ratio (CBR) value with different percentage of Crushed Coconut (Particle Density) • Plastic Limit
• To compare percentage of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% inclusion of Crushed
Coconut Shells into Laterite Soil in order to achieve maximum soil Soil Strength Properties
strength. • California Bearing Ratio (CBR) – Highest value
at certain percentage tested.
LITERATURE REVIEW • Both Unsoaked and Soaked Soil condition.
No Method Finding/Outcome Reference
1 Laterite Soil + • BA improved the CBR value when compacted Results & Analysis
Baggage Ash at maximum dry density and optimum moisture
and Ochepo
(BA) content; 62% recorded at 8% BA (highest CBR (2015)
recorded) Conclusion
2 Laterite Soil + • CBR of the Laterite Soil increased continuously
Coconut Husk with an addition of CHA ranged from 14%-36%.
Ash (CHA) • CHA unsuitable for stabilizing soil with Oluremi (2012)
extremely high liquid limit.

3 Laterite Soil + • If generated and disposed in large quantities

Cassava Peel resulting in environmental issue. Edeh, Tyav and
Ash (CPA) • Gradation of CPA stabilised Laterite Soil Osinubi (2014)
improved with higher CPA content.
4 Laterite Soil + • CCS were distributed in layered manner; tested
Shabana, Laterite Soil sample obtained from Crushed Coconut Shells with range size
Crushed on single layer and double layer.
Anshi, Mengkuang Titi, Penang of 0.65cm – 1.00cm
Coconut Shell • More improvement obtained with double layer,
Shyamili, Sruthi
(CCS) but considering percentage improvement per and Suhaira
unit material consumption in single layer cost (2014) DISCUSSION
• From the classification, it can be indicated that Laterite Soil can be a
RESULT & ANALYSIS good subgrade material but need to be further improved before it can be
used as road pavement subgrade.
• Particle Size Distribution shows that it is a Slightly Sandy Silt of High
Plasticity (MHS) using BS1377:1990 having a LL=51.1%, PL=35.4% • CBR improved with additions of CCS in much cases. At 4% Crushed
and PI=15.7%. The Particle Density=2.5 Mg/m3 with 47.3% soil particles Coconut Shell addition, it is indicated that unsoaked CBR value have
passing 63 µm sieve. improved 203.53% from initial soil condition. However, adding 8%
• MDD and OMC obtained from Standard Proctor Testing for Laterite Soil Crushed Coconut Shell has resulted the CBR value to be deteriorate with
are 1.76 Mg/m3 and 17.5%, respectively. a value of 5.25 compared to initial soil condition, CBR=9.06. While for
soaked, CBR=24.13 is obtained on 4% CCS Inclusion.

• Soil properties were satisfied accordingly to previous studies from
• The additions of Crushed Coconut Shell have greatly improved the soil
strength with the increment increase of CBR value. Laterite Soil + 4%
Crushed Coconut Shell was the optimum mix as it has recorded the peak
value of CBR value.
• For recommendation, assessment of the effectiveness of largest
percentage of Crushed Coconut Shell on Laterite Soil should be
CCS CBR (%) Improvement (%) Grading Characteristics evaluated.
(%) Unsoaked Soaked Unsoaked Soaked % Gravel 25.4
0 9.06 7.38 - - % Sand 31.6
Author would like to take this opportunity to express his gratitude and most
2 11.81 - 30.35 - % Silt 41.5 sincere thanks to Mdm. Faizah Kamarudin for her guidance and advices
% Clay 1.5 throughout this study. Also, many thanks to Mr. Muhamad Azrul Aswad and
4 27.5 24.13 203.53 326.96 Mr. Salahuddin Abdullah for their help in laboratory exercise in the
6 10.75 - 18.65 - Cu 182 completion of this project. Not to forget to all author friends that helping in
8 5.25 - - 42.05 - Cg 0.1848 preparing for sample throughout completion of this project.