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On the Fault Detection Phenomena of Underground Cable

Article · November 2017


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4 authors, including:

Souvik Deb Dwaipayan Biswas

Narula Institute of Technology Indian Statistical Institute


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Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)
(Open Access Quarterly International Journal) Volume 1, Issue 9, Pages 299-302, 2017

On the Fault Detection Phenomena of Underground Cable

Souvik Deb1, Soumya Das2, Dwaipayan Biswas3 and P.S. Majumdar4

Department of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology, India. Email:
Department of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology , India. Email:
Department of Physics, A.P.C. College , Kolkata, India. Email:
Department of Electrical Engineering, A.P.C. college, India. Email:

Article Received: 05 August 2017 Article Accepted: 30 September 2017 Article Published: 09 November 2017


In this paper an indigenous technique has been developed for the detection of fault in an underground transmission line. It is cheap, simple and easily
implemented in domestic as well as industrial purposes. The process of implementation of the technique is also discussed and experimentally
Keywords: Underground cable, arduino, murrays loop, IC4017, buzzer.

Due to fast evolving technology of power system networks, research on transmission of power has reached to an
exceptional extent. With the power loss faced due to overhead transmission, transmission of power through
underground cable (UG) has taken an exceptional position in power system research. Underground cables are
preferred more than overhead cables because it has lesser transmission losses [1] and has the ability absorb
emergency power loads. In spite of having higher installation cost it has got a lower maintenance cost, the leakage
magnetic flux can also be controlled, the band of land required to install UG cable is also less, UG cables are less
susceptible to the impacts of severe weather. But it has got some negative effect too, on the occurrence of fault in
cable it is difficult to locate the fault. While dealing with the underground cabling system detection of fault and
tripping of circuit is an important factor to be considered. These types of technologies are used mainly in smart
cities. Various methods like Murrays loop method, A-Frame, Thumper, Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) [2],
Bridge methods were used but with the advancement of technologies various devices with advanced technologies
are available to find the exact location of the fault. They are mostly automated, based on arduino [3] technology or
microcontroller which are costly and has got an unacceptably larger in size and to a certain extent a bit complicated
to handle due to the use of programming languages. In the present work a fault detecting device has been developed
in which there is no need for microcontrollers [4] and to make it cheaper and user friendly no costly and
complicated components have not been incorporated in it and hence it can be used for domestic purposes. The
developed device works by constantly detecting the frequency of the alternating current. So it consists a long range
antenna. To increase the range the antenna [5] is made of optical fiber.



The present device is so designed to detect any kind of fault that has occurred in underground cable. The circuit has
been charged with an external DC source, after receiving the signal by the antenna the circuit is closed and the
device is made to run. The antenna then transfers the signal to an integrated IC4017.The analog signal are first

299 | P a g e Online ISSN: 2456-883X Impact Factor: 0.825 Website:

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)
(Open Access Quarterly International Journal) Volume 1, Issue 9, Pages 299-302, 2017

converted to digital signal by IC4017. IC4017 is a fault detecting integrated circuit which is used here to detect UG
faults and initiate an output and the output is shown to the user with the help of an LED which when detects faults
blinks. After getting the faulty signal the IC will generate an output which will further lead the LED and the buzzer
to start.



3.2 Tables

Specification of various electronic auxiliary components used in the project model they are listed below

Table 1
SL .No Name Qty Range
1 PCB 1 Small size
2 LED (RED) 1 2 Volt
3 Battery 1 9 Volt
4 Resistor 2 1K
5 Buzzer 1 9 Volt
6 Transistor 1 ___
7 Battery Clip 1 9 Volt


The present technique has been implemented as a device since the current in transmission line is alternating in
nature and alternating current has frequency any fault occurrence will disrupt the frequency.

The change in the frequency will be detected by the receiver antenna which will further forward the signal to
IC4017 which will further proceed to output via LED and buzzer.

Any fault in the transmission line will be detected and informed to the user by the blinking LED and beeping of the

300 | P a g e Online ISSN: 2456-883X Impact Factor: 0.825 Website:

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)
(Open Access Quarterly International Journal) Volume 1, Issue 9, Pages 299-302, 2017


The present device has been experimentally used in a system where manual fault has been created. It is seen that as
soon as the initiation of fault in the system instantly the fault is being detected along with the blinking of LED and
beeping of the buzzer.


We can detect any kind of fault using the device. The device must be close enough for best detection of faults. It can
be used for various transmission lines for detection of faults due to its efficiency, quick response, cheaper in cost
and its cost effectiveness.


Thanks are due to Dr. Sandip Chanda for his fruitful suggestion towards the completion of our work.


[1] Tamara Sheret, Clive Parini, Ben Allen; “Efficient design of a random for minimised transmission loss” ; IET
Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation10 ;1662 – 1666(2016).

[2] Mikel K. Ash, Robert H. Flake, T. R. Viswanathan, “Exponential pulse generator for a time domain
reflectometer” 2015 IEEE Dallas Circuits and Systems Conference (DCAS) 1, (2015).

[3] P. P. Machado, T. P. Abud, M. Z. Fortes, B. S. M. C. Borba “Power factor metering system using Arduino”
2017 IEEE Workshop on Power Electronics and Power Quality Applications (PEPQA), 1 (2017).

301 | P a g e Online ISSN: 2456-883X Impact Factor: 0.825 Website:

Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)
(Open Access Quarterly International Journal) Volume 1, Issue 9, Pages 299-302, 2017

[4] Walter Banks, Jayanti C. Majithia “Microprocessors: Design and applications in digital instrumentation and
control” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 25, 245 (1976).

[5] L. W. Austin “The effect of a parallel condenser in the receiving antenna” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio
Engineers, 2, 131, 1914.


[A] First Author: Souvik Deb was born on 19/04/1997 in Kolkata, West-Bengal. Now he is pursuing
his B.Tech from Narula institute of Technology. He is in Electrical Engineering department 3rd year. He live in
Bally, Howrah. E-mail:

302 | P a g e Online ISSN: 2456-883X Impact Factor: 0.825 Website:

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