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HANDOUT

A1000 S12
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

Edition : 06

770 00924 0120–VHBE i BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


The Bell Education Centre put in a great effort to give you this document. In case you have
any remarks, do not hesitate to send us your comments.

Our Training Directory describes all training programmes and modules this document (and
others) is used in.

This document was especially written for use during class instruction.
The contents of this document is generic. It deals with concepts and principles, rather than
with the latest releases of and modifications to the product delivered to the customers.

International audiences use this document. It is therefore written in a clear, concise and
above all, consistent language.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE ii 770 00924 0120–VHBE


PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. A1000 S12 OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Exchange structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.1 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.3 Equipment practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Configurations and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 Supplementary Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.1 Centrex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4.2 Business Communication Group (BCG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5 Operation, Administration & Maintenance (OA&M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2. A1000 S12 HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1 The Digital Switching Network (DSN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.2 Digital Switching Element (Multiport) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.3 Switching in the Multiport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.4 Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.5 Network addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.1.6 Blocked Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.1.7 Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2 Generic structure of a module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.2.1 Terminal Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.2.2 Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.2.3 Physical implementation of the Control Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.2.4 The On Board Controller (OBC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.3 Description of the different hardware modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.3.1 The Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.3.2 Digital Trunk Module (DTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.3.3 High–performance Common Channel Module (HCCM) . . . . . . . 83
2.3.4 Service Circuit Module (SCM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
2.3.5 Trunk Testing Module (TTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.3.6 Clock & Tone Module (CTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.3.7 Digital Integrated Announcement Module (DIAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2.3.8 Peripheral & Load Module (P&L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2.3.9 ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.3.10 Mixed Subscriber Module (MSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.3.11 ISDN Trunk Module (ITM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.3.12 The Data Link Module (DLM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.3.13 EPM: Extended Peripheral Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.3.14 ISDN Remote Subscriber Unit (IRSU)
ISDN RSU Interface Module (IRIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2.4 Remote Terminal Sub Unit (RTSU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3. A1000 S12 SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
3.1 Functional subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

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3.2 Software concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
3.2.1 Finite Message Machine (FMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
3.2.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
3.2.3 System Support Machine (SSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
3.3 Communication between processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3.3.1 Communication within the same CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
3.3.2 Communication over a virtual path (VP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
3.3.3 Communication over a user controlled path (UCP) . . . . . . . . . . . 168
3.3.4 Communication with the internal packet protocol (IPP) . . . . . . . 171
3.4 Software modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
3.4.1 Logical grouping of the Call Handling software into call control planes . . . . . . . .
174
3.4.2 Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
3.4.3 Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
3.4.4 Device handler FMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
3.4.5 Signalling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
3.4.6 Call Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
3.4.7 Auxiliary Resources TCE Allocator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
3.4.8 Analysis of the Called Party Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
3.4.9 Subscriber analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
3.4.10 Trunk Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
3.4.11 Device Interworking Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
3.4.12 Private Access Resource Management (PARM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
3.4.13 Physical mapping of the software onto control elements . . . . . . 223
4. A1000 S12 EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
4.1 Input/Output exchange devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
4.2 Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.2.1 Control element configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.2.2 Terminal Control Elements (TCEs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
4.2.3 System Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
4.2.4 Auxiliary Control Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
4.3 Software principles and organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.3.1 Programs and data on mass storage media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.3.2 Memory organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.3.3 CE logical and physical identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
4.4 J–Rack family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.5 Training Exchange (TREX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.5.1 Rack alarm gathering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
5. CALL HANDLING OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
5.1 dtuaPossible accesses to an exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
5.2 Overview of the call types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
5.3 Call handling blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
5.3.1 Terminating or Local Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
5.3.2 Transit or Outgoing Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.3.3 Hunting to lines/trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

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5.4 Overview of the call phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
5.4.1 Originating exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
5.4.2 Incoming exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
5.5 Generic call scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
5.5.1 Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
5.5.2 Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
5.5.3 Release (Local Call only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
6. CALL HANDLING EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
6.1 Local call with analogue subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
6.1.1 Seize A–party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
6.1.2 Start scanning for digits / Send dial tone to A–party . . . . . . . . . . 281
6.1.3 Activate call control / Perform A–party analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
6.1.4 Receive prefix digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
6.1.5 Perform prefix analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
6.1.6 Receive remaining digits / Release receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
6.1.7 Perform B–party analysis / Request DID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
6.1.8 Seize B–party / Start ringing phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
6.1.9 Activate charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
6.1.10 Pass to stable state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
6.1.11 Detect ring trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
6.1.12 Stop charging / Release A–party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
6.1.13 Release B–party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
6.2 Local call with ISDN subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
6.2.1 Example of an ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
6.2.2 Overview of the ISDN protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
6.2.3 Layer three: the network layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
6.2.4 Layer two: the data link layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
6.2.5 Layer one: the physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
6.2.6 Terms and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
6.2.7 Handling of a Q.931 message in S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
6.2.8 Local ISDN call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
6.2.9 Local ISDN call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
6.3 Outgoing / incoming call with CCS N7 signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
6.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
6.3.2 CCS N7 overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
6.3.3 Outgoing / incoming N7 call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
6.3.4 Outgoing / incoming N7 call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
6.4 Transit N7 call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
6.5 Outgoing / incoming call with CAS/R2 signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
6.5.1 CAS line signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
6.5.2 R2 register signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
6.5.3 Outgoing / incoming R2 call overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
6.5.4 Outgoing / incoming R2 call in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
7. FACILITY HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
7.1 Overview of some of the supplementary services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

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7.2 Facility handling model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
7.2.1 General structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
7.2.2 Call and Facility Control System (CFCS) architecture . . . . . . . . 380
7.3 Supplementary service data structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
7.3.1 Semi permanent data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
7.3.2 Dynamic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.4 Triggers to activate supplementary services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
7.4.1 Trigger from the Originating profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
7.4.2 Trigger from the Prefix Analysis result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
7.4.3 Trigger from the terminating profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
7.4.4 Recall pulse from the subscriber received. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
7.4.5 Trigger from received signalling events (Event monitoring). . . . 388
7.4.6 Busy/free changes of a subscriber line (Monitor Access). . . . . . 390
7.5 Facility handling examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
7.5.1 Subscriber Control (SC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
7.5.2 Call Completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.5.3 Malicious Call Identification (MCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
8. CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
8.1 Charging functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
8.2 Different ways to charge calls... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
8.2.1 Bulk billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
8.2.2 Detailed billing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
8.2.3 Detailed billing observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
8.2.4 Toll ticketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
8.2.5 Automatic Message Accounting (AMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
8.2.6 Division of revenue (accounting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
8.2.7 Charging statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
8.2.8 Limit of credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
8.2.9 Advice of charge (AOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
8.2.10 Facility charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
8.3 Charging methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
8.3.1 Unit charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
8.3.2 Continuous charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
8.4 Charging analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
8.4.1 Charging analysis with MMC commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
8.4.2 Charging parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
8.4.3 Software involved with charging analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
8.5 Charging generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
8.6 Charge scale change–over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
8.7 Charging collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
8.7.1 Bulk billing collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
8.7.2 Detailed billing collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
8.7.3 Division of revenue collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
8.8 Charging output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
8.8.1 Bulk billing output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

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8.8.2 Detailed billing output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
8.8.3 Division of revenue output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
9. MAINTAINING AN A1000 S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
9.1 System and microprocessor initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
9.1.1 CE initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
9.1.2 System initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
9.1.3 OBC initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
9.2 Introduction to maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
9.3 Hardware and software used in maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
9.4 Maintenance concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
9.4.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
9.4.2 Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
9.4.3 Security block states and state transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
9.4.4 SBL management on CE Level (SBL=CTLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
9.4.5 Automatic error handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
9.4.6 Corrective maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
9.4.7 Alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
9.4.8 Preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
9.4.9 Summary report for all scheduled routine tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
10. OPERATING AN A1000 S12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
10.1 IOS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
10.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
10.1.2 IOS functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
10.1.3 Overall structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
10.2 Hardware configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
10.3 File–oriented interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
10.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
10.3.2 Logical file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
10.3.3 Logical device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
10.3.4 Physical and virtual devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
10.4 The MMC interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
10.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
10.4.2 MMC–dialogue–interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
10.4.3 MMC–monologue–interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
10.4.4 Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
10.5 Exchange administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
11. ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
11.2 Traffic measurements collection and supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
11.2.1 Measurements based on statistical counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
11.2.2 Call observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
11.2.3 Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
11.3 Exchange management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
11.3.1 Analogue and ISDN subscriber line administration . . . . . . . . . . . 514

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11.3.2 Routing administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
11.3.3 Prefix administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
11.3.4 Charging administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
11.4 Network management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
11.4.1 Destination controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
11.4.2 Routing controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
11.4.3 Machine congestion analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
11.5 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532


                                        




                                         

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1.

PREFACE
Alcatel 1000 System 12 (A1000 S12) offers the main advantage of having fully distributed
control. As a consequence, the hardware and software are structured in separate modules,
each module interacting with others by means of well defined interfaces. Because of this
modular structure it is possible to study each module separately.

The System Overview was the basis to gather fundamental information about System 12.
Only general topics of every domain were treated.

The main objective of the ’Functional Description’ is not only to give the reader more
information about every module (hardware and software), but first of all to link all these
modules together. These links are explained by describing a local and an outgoing
telephone call in more detail.

The intention is that after this course, a trainee understands exactly which hardware and
software parts are involved in a telephone call. From each part he will posses the functional
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

knowledge.

It is certainly not the purpose of this course that detailed information is given by the trainer.
Detailed material is explained in separate courses, that follow the Functional Description. At
certain points in the text, references to the detailed courses are made.

To arrive to those objectives, a good knowledge and understanding of the following items is
necessary before getting started :

- General knowledge of digital telephony and data communication

- System Overview: 770 00435 6560–VHBE

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1. A1000 S12 OVERVIEW

1.1 Introduction

During the first years of this century the role of the telephone industry was that of providing a
worldwide network dedicated, above all, to voice communication. For that purpose,
Analogue and mechanical nodes and transmission means were developed.

However, the appearance of new technologies, such as the computer and the capacity for
the large scale integration of circuits, has led to great changes. These changes are, on the
one hand, the automation of the telephone networks through the incorporation of stored
program switching nodes and digital transmission mechanisms; and on the other, the
emergence of needs for non–voice communication: data, images, etc., which in turn impacts
the design and development of communication networks.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Therefore, at present a series of alternative networks are being created. These new
networks must by means of international standards and strategies, in order to create a single
integrated service network. In this context A1000 S12 presents itself as a switching system
that is applicable to almost all existing networks and adaptable to future needs and services.

A1000 S12 is designed mainly for use in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN),
providing access to Analogue subscribers, ISDN, mobiles, private branch exchanges,
remote units, etc. Furthermore, the system can be incorporated into the Packet Switching
Network (PSN), Broadband ISDN, Intelligent Networks, Telecommunication Management
Network, Alcatel MAN, etc.

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Figure 1 : A1000 S12 environment

Public
Remote Subscriber Switched
Unit (RSU) Telephone
Private Exchange Network
(PBX)

Packet
Switching
Network

Broad Band
Network Service Centre A1000 S12
Network
(NSC)
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Cellular
Network

Analogue Subscriber ISDN Subscriber

From a user point of view, access to A1000 S12 is provided by a set of I/O interfaces in
order to use its services and control its operation.

Telephonic interfaces allow telecommunication network users to connect each other to


exchange information (voice and data). The most basic interface is the two wireloop,
although there are also more powerful ways of access by using high quality carrier systems.
Thus, digital exchanges are connected to each other by means of multiplexed lines (digital
trunks). This means that several conversations are transmitted by just one physical cable. In
addition, data links are used to gain access to O&M remote centres or data processing
centres.

The simplest known interface is obviously the subscriber loop. This subscriber loop is made
up of a couple of wires used for full duplex transmission. It goes without saying that the line
features allow the transmission of Analogue signals within the band from 300 to 3400 Hz.
Subscribers’ telephone sets employ either decadic or multifrequency dialling. This sort of line
is used for voice communication as well as for data communication by means of modems.

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Figure 2 : Analogue subscribers


Analogue telephone set

A1000 S12
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Power
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ freq.
Modem ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
300 3400

Another interface, defined according to the same type of physical connection, is the set of
basic accesses to ISDN. As we already know, sophisticated digital transmission and
reception equipments can use a couple of wires for the emission of two 64 Kb/s channels
(voice or data) and additionally one 16 Kb/s channel used for signalling.

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Figure 3 : ISDN subscribers


ISDN telephone set

NT

A1000 S12
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B1: 64 Kbps

B1 B2 D B2: 64 Kbps
PC
D : 16 Kbps

An upper level is the access to the telephonic network from Private Branch Exchanges.
These PBXs are connected to the host exchange through different types of interfaces.

The most basic interface consists of a set of lines (couples of wires) in charge of distributing
the outgoing calls, with the host exchange handling the incoming calls directed to the
subscriber’s line. Another method is to use high–quality lines (PCM Links). This allows
advanced control access by using a signalling channel (usually #16). Finally, PBXs can be
connected to ISDN exchanges by means of the PRA interface (Primary Rate Access) whose
structure is similar to PCM but which uses a different signalling protocol.

In order to provide global telephone service, all the telephone network exchanges are
connected to each other by means of trunks. Usually digital, these trunks forward the
information through 2048 Kb/s PCM frames supported on coaxial cables, radiolinks, or
optical fiber.

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Figure 4 : ISDN PABX


ISDN telephone set
NT
ISDN PABX

30 B D

Coaxial Cable

B1 B2 D
PC
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B1: 64 Kbps
B2: 64 Kbps
D : 16 Kbps
A1000 S12

Finally, let us consider the access to network management centres. The most commonly
used systems are the N7 signalling and X.25 data protocols. The O&M and Taxation users
(OMUP and TAXUP respectively) are usually connected to the Network Service Centre
(NSC) through the N7 signalling network. The X.25 protocol is used as link between the
exchange and some data processing centres (EDPC).

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Figure 5 : Exchange interconnection

Remote Exchange
Remote Exchange

PCM format

30 +1+1

Coaxial Cable
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Coaxial Cable

A1000 S12

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Figure 6 : Management centres


NETWORK
SERVICE
N7 CENTRE

NETWORK
N7
N7 X.25

X.25
PSN

A1000 S12
X.25
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X.25

ELECTRONIC
DATA PROCESSING
CENTRE

1.2 Exchange structure

The A1000 S12 exchanges are characterized by two essential properties: digital technology
and distributed control.

First, A1000 S12 is said to use digital technology because its control and functions are
performed by programs that are executed on microprocessors, and the information internal
handling (switching and transmission) is carried out by fully digital techniques. These
features make the system capable of handling any piece of information, whatever its nature
(speech, data, text, etc.), as long as it is digitized, thus ensuring a better quality thanks to the
actual advantages of digital transmission and the absence of moving or mechanical parts.

Secondly distributed control means that the functions carried out by the system, from a
global point of view, are divided into sets of tasks which are grouped in a homogeneous way
and assigned to specific and specialized control elements. This idea allows to obtain of a
very reliable system for failures of control elements do not entail a meaningful impact on the
system. Furthermore, the way in which the different functions are organized allows new ones
to be added without having to redesign the system and, therefore, permits the easy
adaptation to new needs and services as they arise in the market.

The implementation of a system with these characteristics is achieved with the design of an
internal digital switching network that interconnects the different system modules to transmit

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internal control information as well as user data over the same paths. This internal network
can be easily extended by the addition of new modules. Furthermore, the network switching
control is of the gradual type (non–centralized) which simplifies its use. Another factor
contributing to the reliability of the System is that the network allows to link two modules
through multiple paths in order to ensure minimum blocking probability.

Another significant advantage is the use of customized integrated circuits (CLSI – Custom
Large Scale Integration –), which allows the optimization of the number of functions
performed by each printed circuit board, making possible the building of extremely compact
and reduced equipment.

1.2.1 Hardware

The A1000 S12 functional structure is remarkably simple; it consists of an internal switching
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

network to which a variety of terminal modules are connected according to the size of the
exchange and the services and facilities offered.

The A1000 S12 functional diagram has, therefore, a spider look (’Spider Diagram’) where
the nucleus is the internal switching network and the extremities are the modules. These
modules are connected to the network through transmission PCM links modified for their
adaptation to the functions required by the system interior.

The internal switching network (DSN –Digital Switching Network–) is formed by a set of
basic switching elements arranged under a folded topology. Given that the DSN’s number of
stages and planes can be increased with great easiness, there are two potential ways of
expansion: the number of inlets (terminals connected), and the possibility of alternative
paths (traffic flow capacity).

On the other hand, all the modules are connected to the network through two modified PCM
links presenting a single input and output protocol irrespective of the module. All the
modules contain a common part called Control Element or CE , composed of a
microprocessor and its memory, and a standard interface circuit towards the switching
network. These CEs are classified into two groups: Terminal Control Elements or TCEs, and
Auxiliary Control Elements or ACEs .

The TCEs are those control elements that are connected to a cluster or circuitry associated
with the specific module functions, for example line circuits, trunk circuits, etc.. The interface
towards the cluster circuits is also standard. However, there are other control elements
which are exclusively dedicated to performing support functions for the TCEs. They carry out
specific tasks such as error handling, prefix analysis, local subscriber identification, etc.,
without including any cluster or circuitry aside from the actual CE. These control elements
are called ACEs.

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Figure 7 : System diagram


AUXILIARY CONTROL
ELEMENTS
SUBSCRIBER MODULES
TRUNK MODULES
ACE Analogue
TRUNK TCE
TCE CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS

DIGITAL SIGNALLING
C&T
HANDLING MODULES TCE
CIRCUITS
DIGITAL Digital
SIGNALLING TCE Switching
CIRCUITS
Network CLOCK & TONE MODULES
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SERVICE P&L
CIRCUITS
TCE TCE CIRCUITS

PERIPHERAL &
SERVICE MODULES LOAD MODULES

Some of the major A1000 S12 modules are briefly described below:

- Analogue Subscriber Module:

Composed of a control element and a set of line circuits that provide access to
Analogue subscribers. The different types of Analogue subscribers (regular, public
coinbox, priority class, etc.) are all supported through the same type of line circuit.

There are other similar modules for access to ISDN subscribers, mobile subscribers,
etc.

- Digital Trunk Module:

Consists of a CE and the digital trunk circuits required to provide access to external
systems (telephone exchanges, private automatic branch exchanges, remote
subscriber units, etc.) through a standard PCM link. The same piece of equipment is
able to handle different signalling types (MF or digital) that can be supported by
specialized signalling modules (Services Circuit Modules and Digital Signalling
Handling Modules).

- Peripheral & Load Module:

This module performs functions to access pieces of equipment such as peripherals


(Man Machine Communication terminals, printers, tapes, disks, etc.) and panels
and alarm lamps.

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- Clock & Tone Module:

Provides the system synchronization signal and generates the necessary telephonic
tones.

- ACE :

They perform auxiliary functions depending on the associated set of programs and
data. These programs define the name given to the ACEs.

These and other modules will be described in detail later in this document.

The singular structure described above allows the original design to be maintained for the
whole range of A1000 S12 applications.

1.2.2 Software
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The software is organized under the support of an operating system and a data base that
are specific to the system and over which a set of application programs or software modules
are arranged.

The operating system is made up of a series of software functions that allow for the
management of all the system resources (CPU time scheduling, memory management,
communication through the network, etc.). This software subsystem is distributed over the
system microprocessors.

The data base consists of the information it contains in the form of tables or relations
(relational data base), and the programs to manage and access the data contained. These
two elements, the data and the programs, are also distributed over the system, yet all the
information can be accessed by any microprocessor.

The programs in charge of performing the actual system functions, such as signalling,
switching, charging, etc., are designed as independent modules. These modules reside in
the control element or elements where they must carry out their tasks. The exchange of data
between different software modules, whether they reside in the same CE or not, is
coordinated making use of the services provided by the operating system and carried out by
means of data units called Messages .

1.2.3 Equipment practice

The A1000 S12 digital exchanges are extremely compact and can be installed in regular
commercial buildings.

As regards the equipment’s physical appearance, the System consists of printed circuit
assemblies, panels, subframes (also called ’shelves’) and racks.

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As mentioned before, the use of the customized circuit manufacturing technique (CLSI)
allows the integration of a great number of functions in a single printed board. These
small–sized boards are inserted into slots, inside subframes laid in racks, which are
accessible from the front as well as from the back. These racks are arranged in rows that
appropriately interconnected form the exchange floor over a small area.

Each module is composed of one or more PBAs, which may be equipped in different
locations of several racks. This means that the rack equipment layout is variable.

Furthermore a set of DC/DC converters are provided to supply different voltages to the
circuits (5V, 12V,...)

Figure 8 : A1000 S12 Exchange floor


RACK
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SYSTEM 12

SUBRACK

ROW

PBA
EXCHANGE FLOOR

1.3 Configurations and applications

The A1000 S12 modular structure accommodates a wide range of different configurations
using the same basic elements and similar equipment structures.

All possible configurations, from small remote units to large local exchanges, are covered.
Furthermore, the system can be set to offer the most advanced user facilities whatever the
configuration.

A brief list of the A1000 S12 product range is outlined on the following page:

- Local, transit (toll) and combined exchanges


From 512 to 256 000 lines
Up to 60 000 trunks

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- International exchanges

- Small capacity exchanges:


SSA (Small Stand Alone)
From 256 to 3 840 lines
VSSA (Very SSA)
From 16 to 768 lines.

- Remote applications
Remote Subscriber Units
Up to 976 Analogue lines

- Other configurations
Network Service Centre
SSP in intelligent networks

1.4 Supplementary Services


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From a subscriber point of view, A1000 S12 offers a wide range of supplementary services.
Some of these supplementary telephone services, such as the following ones, are common
to Analogue and ISDN subscribers:

- Fixed Destination call:

The exchange provides a preprogrammed number without digits send.

- Abbreviated dialing:

Using a short number the user can establish calls to public subscribers.

- Do not disturb:

If active, the exchange considers the user as being busy, and every terminating call to
the user is released.

- Call forwarding on no reply:

Calls to the user are forwarded only on no reply after a time–out.

- Completion of calls to busy subscriber:

The exchange manages the calls to the user holding the incoming call until the
terminating subscriber is free.

- Malicious call identification

Information about terminating calls to the user is stored in case a defined signal is
incoming from the called subscriber.

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- etc.

Other facilities, as those outlined below, are exclusively for ISDN subscribers:

- Advise of charge:

The user is informed about charging throughout the call duration or/and at the end of
the call. The information is shown on the display of the telephone set.

- User–to–user signalling:

ISDN users are able to send their own information through the ISDN using the
particular features of the N7 signalling system.

- etc.

Also, we can mention here some services like Centrex ., Wide Area Centrex (WAC), and
Business Communication Group (BCG).
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1.4.1 Centrex

First of all, Centrex is an implementation of a private telecommunication network


exchange that is not located on the premises of the private network operator but which is
part of a public local exchange. The users of a Centrex have the impression of being
connected to one homogeneous private telecommunication network, which is invisible to
them. The Centrex service is able to provide supplementary services inside the Centrex
Group. However, a Centrex subscribers must be connected to the same local exchange.

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Figure 9 : Centrex Structure

Subscriber 1
A1000 S12
PBX 1

Subscriber N CENTREX

PBX P
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Centrex user 1

Centrex user M

The Wide Area Centrex service improves the basic Centrex to support extensions connected
to different exchanges. The main limitation of WAC is that it has a private numbering plan
which is completely associated with the public numbering plan.

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Figure 10 : Wide Area Centrex

Centrex B subscribers

EXCH B

EXCH C
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EXCH A

Centrex C subscribers

Centrex A subscribers

1.4.2 Business Communication Group (BCG)

To solve the above problems, A1000 S12 supports also the Business Communication Group
service. Business Communication is a service that allows business user belonging to
different exchanges to have a virtual private telecommunication network. ISDN and
Analogue subscribers belonging to Centrex, and private exchanges, can be connected by
this service. Using a private numbering plan, BC users establish calls for voice or data
purposes in the Business Communication Group. Of course, using the public numbering
plan, users can reach any subscriber outside the group. This private numbering plan can
have a different structure compared to the public numbering plan.

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Figure 11 : Business Communication Group

Centrex B subscribers
PBX

PBX

PBX

PBX EXCH B

EXCH C
EXCH A
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Centrex C subscribers

Centrex A subscribers

1.5 Operation, Administration & Maintenance (OA&M)

The administration of the A1000 S12 is made easier with the creation of a powerful
man–machine communication system. This communication mechanism supplies the
operator with simple and easy access to all the information related to subscribers, trunks,
etc., and, of course, provides all the necessary output messages regarding operating
troubles or other events that should be notified. The only requirements for the use of this
system are a series of input–output devices (specific VDU, PC with emulator, printers, etc.)
that permit the introduction of action–to–take orders in the form of operation commands, and
the output of messages in the form of text lists either on screen or on the printer.

All the commands that can be executed by the system are arranged in different specialized
areas related to subscribers, trunks, charging, etc.

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1.

2. A1000 S12 HARDWARE

2.1 The Digital Switching Network (DSN)

2.1.1 Introduction

The key element in the distributed control possible is the Digital Switching Network. This
network is a device that carries out space–time switching, i.e., it transfers the contents of an
incoming PCM channel to another channel time of a different PCM link .

Figure 12 : Space–time switching


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LINK 1
LINK 1
CHANNEL 5
LINK 2
LINK 2

LINK 8 LINK 8
CHANNEL 12

The network is used to switch PCM channels that carry speech samples from the terminal
circuits as well as messages between control elements.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 19 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 13 : Communication between processors


TCE TCE

SPEECH
SWITCH SAMPLES

SWITCH

ÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ
SWITCH

ÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ
TCE

ÏÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ TCE

ÏÏÏÏÏ ÏÏÏÏ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NETWORK

CONTROL CONTROL
DATA DATA

The network presents a folded structure, that is, all the modules are connected to the same
side of the network and the procedure used to access a module from any other module is
always the same irrespective of the modules involved.

The channels supporting every communication progress through the network up to a


reflection point before they reach their destination.

This structure allows the use of the same basic design for all applications and facilitates
future extensions.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 20 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 14 : Communication progress through the network

ÌÌÌÌÌ
SOURCE

ÌÌÌÌÌ
CH X

ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
REFLECTION
POINT

ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
DESTINATION

ÌÌÌÌÌ CH Z
ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ
2.1.2 Digital Switching Element (Multiport)

The network is made up of a series of identical units called Digital Switching Elements or
Multiports. The Multiports are interconnected by 32–channel PCM links.

The multiport has the ability to carry out space–time switching between the channels of 16
incoming PCM links and those of 16 outgoing PCM links. Each incoming PCM link ends at
one of the 16 receiver ports in the multiport, and each outgoing PCM link starts at one of the
16 transmitter ports.

Physically, the multiport is made up of 1 LSI mounted onto a printed circuit board. This LSI
contains 16 receiver and 16 transmitter ports, and is called SWEL.

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1.

Figure 15 : Multiport structure

line adaptation (Amplifiers)

ports

PCM link 0 8
. .
SWEL . .
7 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

communication
bus

To facilitate the representation of the network, a multiport is depicted with the ports
numbered 0 to 7 on its left and those from 8 to 15 on its right, without implying any functional
change. Ports 8 to 11 are named ’Low Ports’, and ports 12 to 15 ’High Ports’.

Figure 16 : Multiport representation

0 8 low numbered
ports
1 9

2 10
3 11

4 12 high numbered
ports
5 13

6 14

7 15

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1.

2.1.3 Switching in the Multiport

The content of each channel is stored, upon arrival, in a memory when it arrives. At the
appropriate moment it is read to be transmitted towards the correct destination. In this way
the switching network has progressive control.

The first two of the 16 bits in each channel are the protocol bits. If a channel is not to be
switched, the protocol is 00 (CLEAR); on the other hand, if switching is to be initiated
through a channel, these two bits is 01: SELECT command. The remaining bits are used for
different purposes.

There are several types of SELECT command. The first is called “SELECT Fixed Port, Fixed
Channel”. Here, the remaining bits indicate the outgoing port and the outgoing channel. This
data relating the input with the output is stored in a special memory. Once the SELECT has
appeared, the switching step has already bee carried out through the storage in the memory,
using a common bus mainly composed of: four destination port number lines, five
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

destination channel number lines, and sixteen data lines.

The figure shows a multiport switching scheme. The channel X content is saved in an input
memory. At the time of its creation, the stored protocol is compared against the previous
channel state. If the state is IDLE and the protocol is clear, nothing happens and the state
remains the same. If the state is IDLE, but the protocol is SELECT, the saved channel and
port destination identities are stored in the state memory, and the channel state changes to
BUSY.

On the other hand, if the channel is already BUSY, and the protocol different from CLEAR,
the saved channel content is sent to the addressed transmitter to be stored there in its
output memory (into the word addressed by the destination channel identity). To do this, the
lines of the common bus are used. The channel state remains BUSY.

The arrival of two consecutive CLEAR idles the channel state.

Protocol overview:

- 00 : IDLE protocol

- 01 : SELECT protocol

- 10 : ESCAPE protocol

- 11 : SPATA protocol

770 00924 0120–VHBE 23 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 17 : Multiport switching


BUS
RECEIVE PORT

CH X 0 0
1 1
4 TRANSMIT PORT
2 2
OUTPUT MEMORY
DEST.
IDENTITY 0
PORT
VERIFY 1
5
2
DEST.
CHANN. ADDRESS
16 CH Y

31 31
INPUT STATE DATA
MEMORY MEMORY

ÌÌÌÌ
31
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DEST. DEST.
STATE
PORT CHANN.

The speech samples representing analogue signals are bytes that are sent as successive
contents of the same channel. The messages between microprocessors are transmitted as
bytes (in some cases 12 bits are used), and sent in the same way. The following consecutive
contents of the same channel will come with a protocol 11 (SPATA) if they are speech
samples, or 10 (ESCAPE) if they are data (message between Ps).

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 24 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 18 : Communication between processors


MULTIPORT

TCE
CX CX MULTIPORT

MEMORY
CY CY TCE

CZ CZ
µP

ÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌ
MEMORY
8 BITS
10
ÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌ
ESCAPE
µP

16 BITS
MESSAGE TRANSMISION

MULTIPORT

TCE
MULTIPORT
A/D CX CY
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TCE
CZ

CI CX

ÌÌÌÌ
µP D/A

8 BITS
11
ÌÌÌÌ
SPATA
µP

SPEECH TRANSMISSION

However, another possibility is the arrival of other SELECTs that are addressed to multiports
located deeper in the network. These SELECTs will be handled as SPATA or ESCAPE. The
multiport will handle all of them the same way, driving the channel contents through the
outgoing channel pointed out in the memory. The situation will continue as described until it
is “cleared” with the arrival of two consecutive CLEAR (00) protocols which will release the
association between the incoming and the outgoing channels.

The selection indicating the output port and channel is too strict and for this reason other
types of SELECT commands are used more often. These other SELECTs may indicate only
the outgoing port, allowing the actual transmitter to choose a channel from those it has free.
This SELECT command is called “SELECT Fixed Port Any channel”.
In the most extreme case, neither the port nor the channel is indicated. For this latter case,
the receiver has stored in its memory the identity of the ports that have at least one free
channel. When one of these SELECT types is used, the transmit port is requested to provide
the identity of the channel that will be used.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 25 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 19 : Port memory with free transmit port channels

CHOOSE ONE
RECEIVE PORT CHANNEL TRANS. PORT 8

INPUT STATE
MEMORY MEMORY

0 0
1 1 LOGIC
2 2

SELECTED
CHANNEL

31 31
0 1 8 15
1 TRANS. PORT 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PORTS WITH FREE CHANNELS


EVERY TRANSM.
PORT WRITES
PERIODICALLY INTO
THIS MEMORY
1 = AT LEAST ONE FREE CHANNEL
0 = NO FREE CHANNELS

This SELECT command is called “SELECT Any port, any channel”. This command chooses
any channel of a port in the set 8–to–15. This allows the progression of the incoming
channel deeper through the network (right side on the drawings). There are other SELECTs
that are used for a very particular case of progression through the network which will be
seen later. These commands are the SELECT “Any Low port, any channel” (any channel of
the port 8, 9, 10 or 11), and SELECT “Port P or P+4, any channel”.

In order to allow for the proper operation of everything seen thus far, every incoming PCM
link contains an alignment pattern in all its zero channels to allow the recognition of the
start of each frame.

The transmitter ports emit this pattern through their zero channels.

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1.

Figure 20 : Patterns emitted by the transmit port


0 0
Rx Tx
p q
Tx Rx
0 31 0

Multiport A Multiport B

Pattern Alignement

2.1.4 Network Structure


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The switching network is made up of a set of multiports that are connected in such a way
that there is full accessibility between the terminals and the probability of internal blocking is
minimal.

First, we will study the connection of the modules to the network and then, the
interconnection of the multiports.

a. Connection of the modules to the network

The modules are connected through a pair of multiports called Access Switches (AS).
Each PCM link outgoing from the TI is connected to the first port in each AS.
Depending on the traffic carried by the modules, eight or four of them are connected to
two multiports making up a structure called TSU (Terminal Sub–Unit).

In this example, if the modules are subscriber modules, a TSU can contain a maximum
of 1024 subscriber lines.

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1.

Figure 21 : TSU structure for subscriber modules


0 8
TO GROUP
MODULE 0 9
SWITCHES
1 10
ACCESS 11
SWITCH 12

13

14
7 15
MODULE 1

0 8
9 TO GROUP
SWITCHES
10
1
ACCESS 11
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SWITCH 12

13
MODULE 7 14
7 15

In order to allow the interconnection of modules belonging to different TSUs, ports 8 of


the eight access switches are linked together, using the first eight ports (0–7) of a
multiport as shown in the figure below. This multiport is called Group Switch (GS).This
structure is called TU (Terminal Unit).

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1.

Figure 22 : TU structure

ÌÌ ÌÌÌ GS

ÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌ ÌÌÌ
0 8 0
1

ÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
2

ÌÌ TI
ÓÓÓ 1 8
3
4

ÓÓÓ
5
6

ÑÑÑ 7

ÑÑÑ 2 ONLY ONE MULTIPORT

ÑÑÑ
1st TSU 8
IN FIRST STAGE

Ï ÏÏÏ
ÑÑÑ
Ï ÌÌ ÏÏÏ
Ï ÏÏÏ
3 8

Ï ÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
Ï ÌÌ ÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TI
ÌÌ ÌÌÌ 4 8

ÌÌ TI
ÌÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
4th TSU
ÓÓÓ 5 8

ÓÓÓ
ÑÑÑ
ÓÓÓ
ÑÑÑ
Ï ÑÑÑ
6 8

Ï ÏÏÏ
ÑÑÑ
Ï ÏÏÏ
Ï ÏÏÏ 7 8

ÏTI ÏÏÏ
Thus, four TSUs form a Terminal Unit (TU). The eight access switches are numbered
from 0 to 7 and connected to the same port number in the GS. AS 0 and 4 belong to
the first TSU, 1 and 5 to the second one, 2 and 6 to the third one and, 3 and 7 to the
fourth one.

b. Interconnection of Group Switches

If there is more than one TU, it will be necessary to interconnect them. This is achieved
with multiports in a second network stage.

Up to eight TUs are connected under a structure named SECTION . A Section is


established by connecting the eight GS in the first stage with another eight multiports in
the second stage, using a multipath–topology.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 29 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 23 : Section structure


0 8 0 8
9 1
FROM 1st
TU 0 0
7 15 7 15

0 8 0 8
9 1
FROM 2nd
TU 1 1
7 15 7 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

0 8 0 8
9 1
FROM 8th
TU 7 7
7 15 7 15

1st STAGE 2nd STAGE


SECTION
The algorithm that defines the connection between the 1st and 2nd stages is as
follows:

1st stage multiport no. = 2nd stage port no.


1st stage port no. – 8 = 2nd stage multiport no.

If there is more than one section, up to 16, it will be necessary to interconnect all of
them through a third stage. This third stage must be the last stage, thus all ports are
oriented to the sections. The third stage is made up of groups. Each group is formed by
eight multiports, each of them connected to all sections via one PCM link.

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1.

Figure 24 : Network structure


ACCESS 1st STAGE 3rd STAGE
2nd STAGE
SWITCHES

8 0 8 0 8
0 0
0 0 0
1 8
TI 0
7 15 7 15
15
2 8

3 8

4 8

TI 7 5 8

6 8

7 8
0 8 0 8
0
7 7 7

7 15 7 15
15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

GROUP 0
SECTION 0

0 8 0 8 0
0 0 0

7 15 7 15 15

0 8 0 8 0
7 7 7

7 15 7 15 15

GROUP 7
SECTION 15

The interconnection of the 2nd and 3rd stages is defined by the following equations:

2nd stage port no. – 8 = 3rd stage group no.


2nd stage multiport no. = 3rd stage multiport no.
2nd stage section no. = 3rd stage port no.

Although one group interconnects all the sections, a maximum of eight groups may be
implemented in order to increase the number of possible paths and minimise the
internal blocking.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 31 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

The set of sections and groups is called PLANE . As mentioned before, the access
switches of each TU are connected to the plane through port 8. If, due to traffic needs,
more paths must be provided, up to three more planes can be connected to ports 9, 10
and 11 of the access switches (at least two planes are equipped). Ports 12 to 15 are
used to connect the ACEs (ACEs are also connected to ports 4 to 7 for low traffic
TSUs), the Clock & Tone modules and the Peripheral and Load modules.

Figure 25 : Network structure with four planes


SECTION 15 GROUP 7

7 7 7

0 0 0

SECTION 0 GROUP 0
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

7 7 7

7 15 7 15 15

0 0 0

8 0 8 0 8 0
STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3
PLANE 1
9
PLANE 2
10
PLANE 3

11 PLANE 4

TERMINAL
ACCESS
INTERFACE
SWITCHES

The exchange sizing up rules define the number of group switches per plane necessary
for a given number of terminals, while the value of the expected traffic flow gives the
number of planes, bearing in mind that the equipment is identical in all planes and that
two planes are always equipped for security purposes.

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1.

Figure 26 : Network growth

1 STAGE 2 STAGES 3 STAGES


TRAFFIC

4 PLANES

3 PLANES

2 PLANES
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NUMBER OF
TERMINALS

2.1.5 Network addresses

A network path will be established with consecutive SELECT commands that a control
element will emit through one of the channels that link it to the access switches. This way,
the path will be established gradually, advancing towards the interior of the network up to the
reflection point in order to reach the destination module.

This path will be the shortest possible one, in such a way that, for modules of the same TSU,
the reflection will take place at the access switch, for modules of the same TU at the 1st
stage, for modules of the same section at the 2nd stage and, at the 3rd stage when they
belong to different sections. This means that the number of SELECT commands used will be
1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 33 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

The following figure shows an example of a path established between the CEs A and B, with
a single SELECT command, that is, the reflection point is at the access switch. The
command used is the following one (on this figure and on the following ones, only the first
plane is represented):

Step (1) – SELECT PORT 4, ANY CHANNEL.

Figure 27 : Reflection at the Access Switch


2
1st STAGE 2nd STAGE 3rd STAGE

TI 0 (1)
0 8 0 8 0 8 0

4
0 0 0 0
4
15 7 15 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CE A 0 8
4
4
TI 3

8
0 8 0

7 7 7
15 7 15 15
CE B

SECTION 0 GROUP 0

0 0 8 0

0 0
0
15 7 15 15

8 0 8 0

7
7 15
15
15 7 15

SECTION 15 GROUP 7

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 34 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

The following figure shows a path set with 3 SELECT commands, that is, the reflection point
is located in the first stage. The commands used are:

(1) SELECT LOW PORT, ANY CHANNEL


(2) SELECT PORT 2/2+4, ANY CHANNEL
(3) SELECT PORT 2, ANY CHANNEL

Figure 28 : Reflection at the first stage


1st STAGE

(1) (2) 2nd STAGE


3rd STAGE
TI 0

0 8
0 8 0 8 0
2 0 0
0 4 0

6 15
7 15 15

CE A
0 8
4
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TI 2

8 0 8 0
2 8 7 7 7
2
15 7 15 15

GROUP 0
(3) SECTION 0

CE B

2 8
6
8 0 8 0

0 0 0

15 7 15 15

1 8 0 8 0

7 7 7

5 15 7 15 15

GROUP 7
SECTION 15

770 00924 0120–VHBE 35 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

The following figure shows a path established with 7 SELECT commands, that is, the
reflection point is located at the third stage. The commands used are:

(1) SELECT LOW PORT, ANY CHANNEL.


(2) SELECT ANY PORT, ANY CHANNEL
(3) SELECT ANY PORT, ANY CHANNEL
(4) SELECT PORT 15, ANY CHANNEL
(5) SELECT PORT 7, ANY CHANNEL.
(6) SELECT PORT 1/1+4, ANY CHANNEL
(7) SELECT PORT 2, ANY CHANNEL

Figure 29 : Reflection at the third stage


(1) (2) 1st STAGE 2nd STAGE 3rd STAGE
TI 0

0 8 8 0 8 0
2
2 0 0 0

6 15 7 15 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

(3)

CE A 0 8
6

(4)

8 0 8 0

7
7 7
7 15 15
15

SECTION 0 GROUP 0

8 0 8
0
0 0
0
15 7 15
15

(7)
(5)
TI 2

2 8 1 8 0 8 0
(6)
1 7 7 7

5 15 7 15 15

GROUP 7
CE B SECTION 15
2 8
5

In order to be able to connect two modules through a path, it is necessary that each module
is unequivocally defined. This is achieved with the coordinates of network addresses,
indicated with the codes ZYXW or DCBA :

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1.

Z: Indicates the section number (0–15).


Y: 1st stage multiport number to which its TU is connected (0–7).
X: Lowest access switch number to which its TSU is connected (0–3).
W: Control element number within its TSU (0–7 and 12–15).

Another view of coordinates is related in the following figure:

Figure 30 : Meaning of the coordinates

15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

15

8
0 0
15
7 15

ACCESS
TI 2 SWITCH

2 8 1 8 8
1 7 7

5 15
7 15
15
GROUP 7
SECTION 15
CE B
2 8
5

COORDINATE W COORDINATE X COORDINATE Y COORDINATE Z

Input ports to Input ports to Input ports to Input ports to


Access Switch 1st Stage 2nd Stage 3rd Stage

2.1.6 Blocked Paths

As we have seen, the path establishment process is progressive through the network and, to
a large extent, random since the exact path that is going to be selected is not known
beforehand.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 37 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

When a SELECT command is executed in a multiport, the transmitter port involved sends an
acknowledgement signal to the receiver, provided that the switching can be carried out.
Thus, when executing the SELECT “port P, any channel”, if the transmitter port P has no free
channels it will not send the acknowledgement signal, whereby the incoming channel passes
to the “not acknowledged” state (NACK) , which is memorized at the receiver.

The switching steps that have been established up to the NACK point are then no longer of
any use and the path must be released. For this, the processor that originated the SELECT
command is notified making use of channel 16 of the PCM links parallel to those along
which the path was thus far established.

Figure 31 : NACK sending through the network


2
1
7 SWITCHING
NOT POSSIBLE
TI 4
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

16 0 8
6 3

5 16
1

µP 6
TRANSMISSION NACK BACKWARDS

T5 WITH NO
FREE CHANNELS

(1), (2), (3): The path is set up to the first stage. At this stage switching is not pos-
sible.
(4): Using backward channel 16 the input channel identity (i.e. 4) is sent
back towards the first stage.
(5): The multiport at this first stage sends back the identity of the input
channel with in channel 16, using the connection related data.
(6): The microprocessor reads this identity and is able to make another at-
tempt.

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1.

2.1.7 Tunnels

When a loss of sync occurs at a pair of ports or in the event of a hardware failure, alarm
information is transmitted through channel 0 towards a microprocessor. The arrival of the
alarm is marked by changing the channel 0 protocol from CLEAR to SPATA.

Since this information travels through channel 0 and this channel is not switched using
SELECT commands as for the other channels, switching is performed through preset
hardware switches at every multiport in such a way that the HIGH and LOW ports are linked
together. This association is named Tunnel, meaning that is, whatever reaches receiver port
P at channel 0 time, leaves through transmitter port P+8 also at channel 0 time; and
whatever arrives at receiver port P+8 leaves through transmitter port P. This way, in a totally
equipped network, the alarm information will reach two microprocessors. In these
microprocessors, when channel 0 with SPATA protocol arrives, the channel 0 content is
stored in a specified position of the CE RAM, where the microprocessor can read it.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

In the case of a network that is only partially equipped, the alarm may reach only one
microprocessor. If this is the case, the “tunnel” is called cave . However, in some cases of
partial equipment the alarm may not reach any microprocessor; therefore, it will be
necessary to implement enough HW jumpers or cross–links for these paths to be at least
caves so that the alarms can reach at least one microprocessor.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 39 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 32 : Alarm Information reaching the processors


CONTROL
ELEMENT

0 8
µP CH 0 CH 0
SYNCHRONISATION
LOST IN RECEPTION

CH 0

7 15
6 14
CH 0

ALARM ALARM

0
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CH 0 8

1 9
CONTROL CH 0

ELEMENT
0 8 2 10
CH 0 CH 0

µP

ALARM

CHANNEL ZERO
11 ALIGN. PATTERN

16

SPATA
–SYNCHRONISATION LOST
ALARM
–POINTER: ORIGIN OF THE ALARM

2.2 Generic structure of a module

An A1000 S12 exchange is made up of a set of functional modules linked to each other
through the digital switching network. Each module is formed by a series of circuits that
perform similar functions, whether of a telephonic or non–telephonic type.

Generally, all the modules have the structure shown in the following figure:

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 40 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 33 : Module structure

MODULE TERMINAL

CIRCUITS INTERFACE
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PROCESSOR
&
MEMORY

CONTROL ELEMENT

Two basic parts can be distinguished in the figure: the specific module circuitry which is
specific to each particular case, and the Control Element (CE) . which is common to all
system modules. The latter in turn is formed by a microprocessor with its main memory,
where the main programs that control the module functions are executed, and a device
called Terminal Interface (TI) , which allows the communication between the module and
the other modules in the exchange through the switching network.

There will be modules in the system that have no associated circuitry. These modules are
known as ACEs (Auxiliary Control Elements) and their only relation with the exchange HW
is their connection to the network through the Terminal Interface. Therefore, these modules
will perform support auxiliary functions for the rest of the system. Given their HW
independence, the functions are assigned to these control elements with more flexibility than
to the others, and they may be replaced by others in case of failure. Some examples of
functions that will be carried out by the ACEs are: prefix analysis, charge analysis, trunk
resource allocation, statistics, etc.

We will first study the structure of each of the Control Element parts and then their functions
and the circuits associated with each specific module are discussed.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 41 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

2.2.1 Terminal Interface

The terminal interface is the component that enables the control element to use the
channels of the network PCM links. Thanks to the TI, a control element will be able to
transmit data packets addressed to another TCE, and also to receive data packets coming
from other control elements.

Another important function of the TI is to accept the two PCM links originated at the module
circuitry (line circuits, trunks, etc.) and establish the port and channel switching towards the
network. All these functions are performed under processor control or, in some cases, are
commanded by the channel content in the same way as the switch works.

The TI employs four pairs of receiver/transmitter ports, two pointing towards the network and
two towards the module circuitry, to perform its functions. There is a fifth receiver port
connected to tone distribution in such a way that a tone can be sent to a line circuit. Each
receiver has two software selectable inputs, one of which (except for port 5) is always
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

connected to the pair transmitter port, for test loop purposes. This structure is depicted in the
figure below.

The link that arrives at port 5 from the tone generator carries the samples of each specific
tone along fixed channels. Therefore, the emission of a given tone towards a terminal will
simply consist of port and channel switching under the control of the processor. Port 5
receives two input PCM link, and has no transmitter.

Furthermore, the TI includes a 2 or 4 KWord RAM memory called Packet RAM . The
microprocessor uses it for the transmission and reception of data packets. The packets to be
sent are written into a specific part of the RAM, which contains the Select commands for
setting up the path through the network and the data to be transmitted. The data must be 64
words length or less. On the other hand, the receiving packets are not written into RAM
randomly, instead, discrete areas of 64 consecutive words must be used. The
microprocessor uses two specific words from its memory map for carrying out its orders over
the TI.

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1.

Figure 34 : Terminal Interface basic structure

T1 R2
R1 T2
TO / FROM TO / FROM
NETWORK
CIRCUITS
T3 R4
R3 T4

TONES A
R5 TONES B
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Therefore, the final structure of the TI is as shown in the following figure.

Figure 35 : Terminal Interface structure

T1 R2
ORDERS
R1 AND T2
DATA
PACKETS

T3 R4
R3 T4
2/4

KWORD
R5

MICROPROCESSOR

Before we see how the processor handles the above–mentioned memory, let us enumerate
some of the most important channel states, that is, the possible states of the channels
arriving at the receivers and of those leaving the transmitters. Thus, looking at a receiver, the
incoming channels may be in one of following states:

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1.

- FREE: The channel is not switched, and clear protocols are received in each frame.

- PUT TO RAM: The channel content is written into a specific RAM address each time it is
received:

Figure 36 : ’PUT TO RAM’ state

CH X CH X
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

- CUT THROUGH: The channel is linked to a transmitter outgoing channel:

Figure 37 : ’CUT THROUGH’ state

CH X

CH Y

- RECEIVE PACKET: The channel is receiving a data packet sent by another control
element through the network. Every time this channel time is reached, its content is
loaded into consecutive positions of the RAM starting at a specific initial address:

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1.

Figure 38 : ’RECEIVE PACKET’ state

CH X CH X
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Similarly, the transmit channels may be in one of the following main states:

- IDLE : The channel is not assigned to any channel of any receiver to establish a
switching step with it, nor is it being used by the processor for data transmission. A
channel in this state sends CLEAR protocols.

- LAUNCH : A channel in this state will launch the data contained in a RAM area starting at
a specific initial address provided by the processor:

Figure 39 : ’LAUNCH’ state

CH X CH X

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1.

- FETCH : A transmitter channel in this state will go to RAM to “fetch” (extract) the content
of a single memory position indicated by the processor:

Figure 40 : ’FETCH’ & ’INDIRECT CUT THROUGH’ states

CH X CH X

CH Z CH Z
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Using the FETCH state in combination with the corresponding PUT–TO–RAM of a receiving
channel, it is possible to join both channels. This feature is called
INDIRECT–CUT–THROUGH.

- CUT THROUGH : In this state, the transmitter channel is linked to a receiver channel:

Figure 41 : ’CUT THROUGH’ states

CH X

CH Y

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The COMMANDs procedure is used to modify the behavior of the channels. The
COMMANDs are orders written by the processor into two reserved memory words and read
by the port whose identity is written into a third register.

Figure 42 : Transmission of orders to Ports

T1 4 R2
R1 T2

T3 3 R4

R3 T4

COMMAND WORDS
O
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PORT IDENTITY R5
P P

1 2

ORDER & DIRECTED


PARAMETERS TO PORT P

µ P

1. The micro writes the command code (’o’) and the parameters (’p’) into the com-
mand words.
2. The micro writes the target port id. into a register.
3. Every port periodically scans this register. Only the addressed port is triggered.
4. This port reads the command order (’o’+’p’), and executes it.
With the above–described procedure, the processor will order the transmission of a data
packet addressed to another Control Element:

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Figure 43 : Packet transmission


6

CH X
6

ÌÌÌÌ
PACKET
RAM
5
4
01
ÌÌÌÌ 8

ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
COMMAND WORDS

PORT IDENTITY
16
2 3

1
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

µ P

1. Writing of packet to be sent:

– SELECTs to establish network path

– SOP (Start Of Packet flag)

– Data

– EOP (End Of Packet).

2. Writing of command:

– Launch packet through any free channel

– Memory address where the packet is located.

3. Writing of the identity of the port to be used for the launch.

4. All ports read this register.

5. The “called” port reads the command words.

6. The command is executed by writing the words as successive contents of the chosen
channel.

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The packet launched is received, through the network, by the TI of the destination Control
Element. The reception proceeds is as follows:

Figure 44 : Packet reception

SOP

CH X CH X CH X EOP 2 3

4 EVENT

4
PACKET
EVENT CONTENT: FIFO RAM
–PACKET RECEIVED

ÌÌÌÌ
– USED ADDRESS EVENT R. 1

ÌÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FREE
6

5 7

µ P

1 The receiver detects the Start Of Packet indicator, SOP.

2. It looks in a FIFO for the address of a free packet area in the P.RAM.

3. Starting at this address, it writes the successive channel contents (packet).

4. When the receiver detects the EOP, it enters the event into a register:

– Arrival

– Incoming channel

– Address.

5. This situation is recorded in an external register, indicator of ports that have


events. This register is periodically read by the processor.

6. When the processor reads in the register that a receiver has an event, it reads
the event (by executing a command), and finds out that a packet has arrived and
where the packet is in RAM.

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7. Finally, the processor reads the packet and registers the packet address as free
in the FIFO so that it can be used again.

In some A1000 S12 System modules, the module circuitry contains a local processor, the
OBC (On Board Processor) . This processor has the asset of being able to send and receive
messages to/from another OBC or another system Control Element, by establishing a path
in the TI as if it were one more network stage.

Figure 45 : OBC – OBC communication


MULTIPORT

CLUSTER TCE
MULTIPORT
CX
TI

CY
OBC TCE CLUSTER

CZ
TI

OBC

MULTIPORT
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This is possible because the incoming channels of the TI receiver ports accept selection
commands in the same way as multiport ones do. These commands carry out the operation
called TRANSPARENT SELECTION.

2.2.2 Processor

The processor will be the part of the Control Element in charge of coordinating the module
performance. To achieve this, the processor will basically carry out two types of operations
through the Terminal Interface:

- Set up space–time switching between the channels of the different ports.

- Occupy channels in the outgoing PCM links to send data packets (messages) to other
CEs through the network, or to the actual module circuitry.

The information that goes from the TI to the network through the different channels of the
PCM links, will undergo successive space–time switching steps to arrive at the destination
Control Element through the appropriate channel. There, it will be captured by the processor
(in the case of messages) or switched towards the circuitry of the module in question.

For the processor to be able to carry out its functions, it must be provided with a 1, 4 or
8–Mbyte memory, where the different programs to be executed at any given moment will be
stored.

2.2.3 Physical implementation of the Control Element

Originally, the Terminal Interface occupied a whole board known as TERI, while the
processor occupied several boards, one with the actual processor and several with the

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1.

memory. Later, the processor and the memory were integrated into one board called
TCPA/B. Nowadays, the whole control element is contained in a single board of which there
are several different versions:

MCUA : In this particular version, the microprocessor used is the 8086 or a compatible. The
microprocessor is clocked at 8 MHz and addresses 1 Mbyte of memory. In this example the
PBA is used as TCE for subscriber and service circuit modules.

Figure 46 : MCUA structure

TO
TO
NETWORK
CLUSTER
TI
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

C&T

PROM

RAM
8086
1 Mbyte

PROT. RAM
PROG. CLOCK

INTERR. MEMORY
CONTROLLER. BUS

SERIAL OUTPUT

MCUB : The microprocessor used is the 80386 or a compatible. In System 12, a 4 MB, 8
MB and a 16 MB variant of the MCUB are used. The microprocessor is clocked at 16 MHz. It
is used in some modules (i.e. Peripheral and Load TCE, N7 Digital Trunk modules,..), and
for the ACEs. Besides the larger RAM capacity, the memory bus goes out as a “multimaster”
bus, allowing the MCUB RAM access to be shared with an external processor.

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Figure 47 : MCUB structure and RAM sharing

TO
TO
CLUSTER TI NETWORK

C&T

PROM
RAM
80386 up to
16
PROG. CLOCK LOCK RAM
Mbyte
INTERR.
Controller
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

EXTERNAL
SERIAL BUS MULTIMASTER
INTERFACE CONTROL MEMORY
LINES BUS

RAM
80386
MCUB
RQ

BUS shared
CONTROLLER accesses
BUS
GRANT
RQ

OTHER
PROCESSOR

MCUC : The microprocessor used is the 80486DX2–66 or a compatible. In System 12 a 16


MB, a 32 MB and a 64 MB variant are foreseen. The MCUC is primarily used for ACEs,
especially for the SCALSV.

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1.

Figure 48 : MCUC structure

TO
TO
CLUSTER TI NETWORK

C&T

PROM
Cache RAM
8Kb
up to
80486 64 Mbyte
PROG. CLOCK LOCK RAM

INTERR.
Controller
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

EXTERNAL
SERIAL BUS MULTIMASTER
CONTROL MEMORY
INTERFACE
LINES BUS

RAM
80486
MCUB
RQ

BUS shared
CONTROLLER accesses
BUS
GRANT
RQ

OTHER
PROCESSOR

MCUE : due to the unavailability of 8086 and compatible processors, a new board has been
developed, fully compatible with the MCUA, and used to replace the MCUA in new
exchanges or when existing exchanges are extended, and this for modules such as line
modules, improved service circuits modules, high performance common channel signalling
modules, ... .
The microprocessor used on the MCUE is the 32–bit 80386EX, running at a speed of 25
Mhz. In System 12, an 8 MB version is provided, extendable to maximum 16 MB. Compared
to the MCUA, a performance improvement of factor 4 has been noted.

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Note : Although the MCUE has initially been developed to replace the MCUA, and therefore has
been provided with a low speed bus (LSB), the devolpment has been done in such a way that it can
also be used instead of a MCUB. This is valid for modules such as the ISDN Subscriber Module, the
ISDN Remote Interface Module, ...

The following table gives an overview of main characteristics of the existing MCUx’s.

Table 1 : CE Overview

MCUA MCUB MCUC MCUE


8086 80386 80486 80386
8 Mhz 16 Mhz 66 Mhz 25 Mhz
1 Mbyte on board up to 16 Mbyte on up to 64 Mbyte on up to 16 Mbyte on
RAM board RAM board RAM board RAM
Current variants: 2, Current variants: 16, Current variants: 8
4, 8 and 16 Mbyte 32 and 64 Mbyte and 16 Mbyte
serial output serial output serial output serial output
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Multiplexed bus HSB/MMB HSB/MMB LSB (special variant)


LSCB (special HSB presently not
variant)
i ) required
i d ((update
d iis
possible)

Note : The name MCUE given to that new module suggests that there should also be another
module, called MCUD. This is indeed the case : the MCUD is a high–performance Pentium–based
processor–board. It is not mentionned in the previous list, because up to now, it is not used in any
EC7.4 SW release.

All MCUx have three LEDs whose meaning is shown on the figure. The fast test is
performed by a PROM stored program which tests the TI, the memory, and the bootstrap
checksum.

If this fast test is successful, the Bootstrap program is started which requests the CE
downloading. If not one of three possible failures is shown.

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1.

Figure 49 : MCUx LEDs meaning


X = BLINKING
1
1 = LIGTHING
0 = OFF
1
1
0 LOAD REQUEST
1 OK 0

FAST
TEST
RUNNING

0 END OF LOAD
0 INDICATION
0

OK
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

0 Bootstrap–
1
1 Checksum X
1 TI failure
0 failure X ACTIVE
0
1
X
0 RAM failure
1

2.2.4 The On Board Controller (OBC)

In many modules, the module circuitry contains its own resident processor which is in charge
of routine and initialization tasks, relieving the Control Element of these functions. For this
On–Board Processor to work, a standardized interface is located in the module circuitry. This
interface is called OBCI (On–Board Controller Interface) and allows for the OBC–TCE
dialogue and the direct handling of channels by the OBC, and also for the dialogue with
other OBCs/TCEs in the network:

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Figure 50 : OBC communication

MCUx

OBCI
PCM PCM PCM
LINK LINKS LINKS

OTHER TCEs
OR OBCs

OBC µP

Similar to the terminal interface, the OBCI contains some PCM ports. With in channel
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

commands sent to the correct OBCI (using an address because more than one OBCI can be
connected in parallel) connections can be established to send data, ... Also connections
towards the OBC processor are possible (the OBC is connected via a parallel bus using
DMA channels to pass data to and from the OBCI).

For packet sending between the TCE and the OBC, it is possible to establish temporary
paths. For call connections (e.g: trunks ) it is possible to make fixed connections which exist
until a release command is given.

2.3 Description of the different hardware modules

2.3.1 The Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM)

Each of the A1000 S12 modules is dedicated to a specific task. The Analogue Subscriber
Module provides the line end circuit for the analogue subscribers.

Each module is made up of ALCN boards (Analogue Line Circuit board type N) and
each board handles sixteen analogue subscribers. The module is composed of eight ALCN
boards, thus serving, 128 subscribers. There exists also a RNGF boards for ring current
generation, the TAUC for testing and the RLMC board for alarms (these PBAs only
implemented in some of ASM modules: two TAUC and two RMLC per rack). All these PBAs
are connected to a MCUA/E type control element via two PCM links. Every two control
elements of the subscriber modules are connected in such a way that each has access to
the ALCN boards of both, and all of these sixteen boards may be handled by one of the two
control elements in the case of failure of the other one. In A1000 S12, this connection mode
is known as CROSSOVER (represented as ’X–OVER’).
Note : Besides the ALCN, another board can be used : the ALCP, which makes also uses of the
latest CLSI techniques, but only provides connections to maximum 8 subscribers. This board was

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1.

developed in such a way that it is compatible with ELC technology, and can therefore be used as
replacement of the older ALCB on the E–Rack family. In the following text, we will only refer to the
ALCN. The reader should be aware that the text is also valid for an ALCP.

Figure 51 : Analogue Subscriber Module structure


4

1
0 MCUA/E
A
ALCN
15 B TO THE
NETWORK
16 x 4 = 64
64 x 2 = 128 LINES
8

5
0
A
ALCN
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

B
15
ASM ’A’

TAUC/RLMC

8 RNGF ASM ’B’

5 MCUA/E
0 A
ALCN TO THE
B
15 NETWORK

16 x 4 = 64
64 x 2 = 128 LINES
4

1
0 PCM LINKS
A 4 Mb/s
ALCN
B
15

The following functional blocks are found in each ALCN board:

1. Input resistance and relay contacts to the test (TAU) and ring (RING) buses, in general:
Input interface.

2. Transmission interface (one per line).

3. Digital signal processing block (analogue to digital conversion). (One block per every four
lines.)

4. MCUA/E interface block. One per board.

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Figure 52 : ALCN functional blocks


12,15
4 x 4 = 16 LINES 8,11
4,7
0,3

0 TRANSM.
INTERFACE

INTERFACE
1 WITH THE

CE (MCUA/E)
DIGITAL

SIGNAL
PROCESS. DPTC
2
PCM LINKS
TO MCUA/E
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TAU RING
BUS BUS ALCN

The main functions of every block are:

- Input interface

– High Voltage protection (=line protection)

– Relays to connect the line, send ringing current, execute in/outward tests,...

– Resistors to detect off hook and on hook

– Overcurrent protection.

- Transmission Interface

– Couples voice band signals to the line

– Supplies DC current to the subscriber (48/60V)

– 2 to 4 wire conversion.

- Digital Signal Processing

– A/D and D/A converters: conversion of the analogue speech signal into an 8–bit
logarithmic sample and vice versa

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– digital and analogue filters

– gain control: switching an attenuation / amplification network into the subscriber


terminal circuit in order to maintain a specified transmission level

– echo cancellation.

- DPTC (Dual Processor Terminal Controller)

– Interface between subscriber terminals and even/odd TCEs

– Control of the line functions upon reception of TCE commands

– Informing the TCEs about HW events (errors, off hook, ...).

The PCM inputs and outputs of the four digital processing blocks are joined and connected
to the processor interface (DPTC) . There, they enter into channel switches that, according
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

to the appropriate control, associate the fixed channel of each line with one of the channels
of the two PCM links that go towards the two MCUA/Es (X–OVER).

The controls are performed by the control element based on the transmission of messages
through channel 16, which is reserved for this use. The messages are delimited with the
SOP–EOP (Start and End of Packet) flags. After the SOP, a DPTC address byte is used to
drive the message towards a particular DPTC. The data bytes contain codes that are used
to read or write from/into different control registers contained in the DPTC and, significantly,
the bytes of a memory composed of 16 sets of eight bytes each (one set per line), also
contained in the DPTC. Each bit of the bytes in these sets handles a certain control of the
line associated with this set. In order to send the different controls, the bits are transmitted
serial, periodically sweeping the memory, towards the four digital processing blocks and,
from each of these, to the four transmission interfaces. Each line will take only the controls
that are addressed to it.

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Figure 53 : Control Paths


X_OVER

DIGITAL
SIGNAL PCM
PROCESSING 4 Mb.

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ ONLY
CHAN. 16
TO / FROM
MCUA/E

0
LINE 1
SERIAL CONTROL OUTPUT
7
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

REGISTERS
0
LINE 16
7
SERIAL EVEN RECEPTION CONTROL MEMORY

INTERFACE WITH PROCESSOR (DPTC)

- Working principle:

The DPTC contains some registers and 16 maps with data (one map/subscriber). Whenever
something happens (subscriber on hook, ...) it is stored in the correct map (a bit toggle).
Then it is up to the DPTC to inform the TCE. This is done by sending a CH0 alarm which is
received in the Packet RAM of the terminal interface. The SW reads this location regularly to
detect the CH0 alarm in time. Upon detection, the SW sends commands towards the DPTCs
(the CH0 alarm doesn’t explain ’what’ has happened and doesn’t explain ’which’ DPTC
generated the alarm).

When the DPTCs receive this polling command, they will report the events (e.g: DPTC of the
2nd ALCN, the 3th subscriber lifted the handset) This information is also called a mismatch.
All DPTCs have the opportunity to report their events one by one (a cyclic., timed
multiplexed algorithm).

It is also possible to send information towards the hardware. E.g: to switch the relays (to
send ringing current), the SW launches commands towards the correct DPTC to change
data in the map of the correct subscriber (1..16). After that the DPTC sends this information
to a decoder to drive the relays.

Remember:

– The HW informs the TCE about events by sending a CH0 alarm (subscriber
mismatch, HW error or SW error)

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– The TCE SW can send commands to the HW and/or retrieve information from the
HW by sending and/or receiving information via CH16.

- The module is completed with a RNGF board for ring current generation. The function of
this board is to generate the ringing signal to send through any of the lines. To perform
this function, the board contains two current generators from which two pairs of wires go
out, each covering 64 subscribers. In each of these boards the ring current is applied or
cut with the adequate cadence, by closing the appropriate relay. For more information
about the ringing, see the chapter of the local call in PART II.

- Rack layout

Given the high integration of each board, up to twelve line modules may be located in a
single rack , connecting the control elements of every two modules according to the
X–OVER method.

Figure 54 : ASM location


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

X_OVER

RACK TYPE
AIR BAFFLE JA00

Ì Ì
1 2 8 1 2 8

Ì Ì
ALCN

MCUA/E RNGF MCUA/E RNGF

One module occupies only ten of the sixteen slots in each subframe side, leaving six free
slots for other boards and converters. One rack contains two measuring boards, TAUC (one
per side), that depend upon the two control elements of two concrete modules. Each of
these boards sends a measurement bus, that covers all the modules on one side (right or
left).

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Figure 55 : Measurement bus distribution

Ì Ì
Ì Ì
Ì Ì
Ì
Ì
Ì
MCUA/E

AIR BAFFLE
Ì TAUC

Ì Ì
ALCN

Ì Ì
Ì Ì
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PCM LINK
(X_OVER)

METERING
BUS

The two RLMC PBAs are connected in a similar way, .

- TAUC description

Each TAUC board, used to carry out measurements, is formed by two distinct parts: one that
physically takes the measurement and another one that processes it.

For the physical measurement, the TAUC contains a series of measuring devices and
generators connected to the test bus by relays. The contacts are closed, assigning one
device or another, according to what is written in the interface with the control element
similar to that used in the ALCN boards (DPTCs). To connect the test bus to the subscriber
line, a command is sent towards the correct ALCN to close the relays.The TAUC executes
the measurement and evaluates the result (Digital Signal Processing part). Test results can
be sent to the TCE via a dedicated channel and further on to the maintenance.

Thus a measuring circuit is used to observe the line voltage, for a fixed measurement range,
and to send it, converted to digital, to the control element through the assigned channel. The
measurement will be carried out over the terminating resistance previously arranged for it.
This circuit will serve as an encoder for the transmission of audio signal samples, by closing
the loop with the adequate impedance and fixing the precise range.

In the outgoing direction, the circuit will be able to feed the measurement bus with a
programmable DC or AC voltage by connecting the signal generator, to transmit audio
signals that obey the samples received from the control element through the adequate
channel.

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The TAUC may be used to carry out different measurements by performing the appropriate
connections through accurate controls. For example, one measurement that may be taken is
the resistance, RL, between the two wires, a and b, of one of the lines.

In the TAUC, there is a processor that is responsible for the required algorithms, such as the
RL calculation in the above example. This processor is specialised in Digital Signal
Processing (DSP). It is related to the control element through the same interface used in the
ALCN board, the DPTC.

Different types of measurements may be taken, not only electrical but also audio signal
evaluations. Following the figure examples, a program in the DSP generates a signal with
known frequency and power. The signal is sent to the MCUA/E and from there to the line to
be measured (step 1 of the figure). The line pair is deviated to the measurement bus through
which it enters the TAUC where it ends at the simulated ’subscriber’ termination [2].The
measuring circuit takes samples of the signal received, the samples are sent back via the
MCUA/E and re–enter the DSP which evaluates them [3]. Finally, the result is sent to the
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

control element (MCUA/E)[4].

All test procedures are always triggered by the maintenance software. Therefore the results
are sent to this software at the end of the process.

Figure 56 : Measurement example

CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MCUA/E

ALCN DIGITAL
1 1
NETWORK

ÌÌ
DPTC

2
ÌÌ ÌÌ
ÌÌ
TAUC

600 Ohm.
1
ÌÌ
3

ANALOGUE PART
MEAS.
CIRCUIT
ÌÌ 3

FREQ. GEN.
1
DSP 3 RESULT
3
4
ALGORITHM MCUA/E

4 DPTC
RESULT

DIGITAL PART

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2.3.2 Digital Trunk Module (DTM)

The function of the digital trunk module is to act as interface between a transmission PCM
link at 2 Mb/s and the system internal links at 4 Mb/s, as well as, in some cases, to act as
interface between the signalling used in the trunk and the exchange control.

Figure 57 : Digital Trunk Module

ÌÌ
DIGITAL TRUNK
NETWORK

ÌÌ ÌÌ
DIGITAL
2 Mb/s ÌÌ 4 Mb/s

ÌÌ ÌÌÌÌ
LINK

ÌÌ ÌÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

VOICE CONTROL

SIGNALLING

We may find trunks with multifrequency signalling or with signalling through messages
(common channel signalling). All the different trunk modules will have to perform some
common tasks:

- Clock extraction and conversion of line code to binary

In order to read the incoming bits properly, a 2 MHz clock must be regenerated
resembling as closely as possible the one used at the transmitter side. This
regeneration is carried out by a circuit through the observation of the incoming pulses.
If the incoming signal were to present too many consecutive zeros the clock
regeneration would be a difficult task. For this reason, the information is not transmitted
directly in binary, but so–called ’line codes’ are used:

Figure 58 : Binary transmission

1 0 0 0 0 0
?

The line code, HDB3 code in Europe (AMI in USA), consists of the transmission of
three different logical levels (–1, 0, +1). The ’1’s are transmitted alternately as ’+1’ and
’–1’. If more than three consecutive zeros are to be transmitted, the fourth zero is
changed to 1 with the same sign as that of the last coded 1.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 64 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 59 : HDB3 transmission


1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
IS SENT –1 –1

Therefore, it is necessary to reconvert the signal from HDB3 line code to binary at the
receiver side, by performing the inverse task as that performed at the transmitter side.

- Retiming

Each exchange sends data through the transmission link with its own clock, which may
vary to some extent from that of the receiver exchange. Therefore, it is necessary to
perform ’retiming’ or adaptation to the clock signal at the receiver side. This is
achieved through the use of a memory buffer where the data is written according to one
clock, and read according to the other clock. If the difference between the read clock
and the write clock remains for a ”longer time” then using this buffer maximum 1 frame
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

is skipped or read twice (this is called: SLIP). CCITT allows only one slip in 70 days.

Figure 60 : Retiming
HDB3 / BIN

RETIMED
SIGNAL

ADDRESSES ADDRESSES

RETIMING
BUFFER 1/2
PULSE 2 Mb/s 2 Mb/s 4 Mb/s
MEMORY
SLOPES
WRITING READING INTERNAL
CLOCK LOGIC LOGIC CLOCK
REGENERATION
EXTERNAL
CLOCK

- Frame alignment detection

In the transmission link, the start of each of the 32–channel PCM frames is marked by
the repetitive transmission of an alignment pattern every two frames. Therefore it is
necessary to recognize this pattern in order to detect the start of each frame.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 65 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 61 : Frame alignment

PCM ERROR
LINK COUNTER

HDB3 / BIN
LOSS OF FRAME
ALIG. ALARM

FRAME ALIGNMENT DETECTOR

To ensure this recognition, an alignment detector will observe if the pattern is repeated
in channel zero every two frames. The third time that this process fails, the system falls
in the alignment loss state and an alarm is produced.

It is possible that the alignment pattern is not observed where it should be, but if this
does not occur three consecutive times, the system will not fall in the mentioned state.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

These error situations are counted and read by the control which, when a threshold is
exceeded, produces an excessive error rate (ERR) alarm.

- CRC4 detection

As an added protection procedure, CCITT recommends the use of the Cyclic


Redundancy Code CRC4, which consists of the elaboration of a 4–bit checking code
taking as input all the bits in eight frames. The code, C1C2C3C4, is sent in the first bit
of the four zero channels that carry the frame alignment pattern in the eight following
frames. This first bit is not used for alignment since the alignment pattern consists of
seven bits only.

The receiver side elaborates its own C1C2C3C4 character every eight frames and
compares it with the one it receives in the eight following frames. With the comparison
result, the receiver side accepts the reception as valid or not, and produces an alarm in
the second case.

Figure 62 : CRC4
FRAME 0 FRAME 7
FRAME 0 FRAME 7

0 0 0 0

CRC CODE C1 C2 C3 C4

C1 F.A.P. C3 F.A.P.

C2 F.A.P. C4 F.A.P.
F.A.P.= FRAME ALIGNMENT PATTERN

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 66 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

a. Modules that handle multifrequency signalling:


Digital Trunk Module Low

The PCM transmission link has its frames organized into groups of sixteen frames
each, called multiframes. The groups are recognized by a specific pattern that travels
through channel 16 of frame 0. The channels 16 of the subsequent frames are used for
the line signalling of two of the link channels: channel 16 of frame 1 for the signalling of
channels one and seventeen, that of frame 2 for channels two and eighteen, etc. Four
bits are used for the line signalling of each channel.

Figure 63 : CAS signalling

ÌÌÌ
FRAME 0
ÌÌÌ
FRAME 1
ÌÌ
FRAME 2

ÌÌÌ 16
ÌÌÌ 16
ÌÌ16
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MULTIFRAME
ALIGNMENT
a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d

LINE SIGN. LINE SIGN.


CHAN. 1 CHAN. 2

LINE SIGN. LINE SIGN.


CHAN. 17 CHAN. 18

These four bits will represent the line signalling variations corresponding to the most
commonly used trunks, in the same way as the E and M pair are used in an E and M
analogue trunk to indicate the trunk status.

Figure 64 : Line signalling

M E
E M

M = + E = + Ready
Ready E = + M = +
M = – E = – Trunk seizure
Acknowledgement E = – M = –

Taking this system as an example, bit ’a’ would be sufficient for the exchange of
signalling.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 67 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 65 : CAS encoding

FRAME 1

16

A XXXX

1 M = +
0 M = –
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This line signalling method is called CAS (Channel Associated Signalling).

Register signalling (transmission of digits and different dialogue controls between


exchanges), is carried out with different multifrequency signalling systems. The
telephonic events to be exchanged are represented by a pair of frequencies out of a
specific set of, usually, six different frequencies. In order to detect this signalling, it will
be necessary to deviate the channel towards a service module made up of a DSPA
board (similar to the one described in chapter 2.3.4). This board will have the adequate
programs loaded in the DSP, since each service module will be able to receive and
analyze up to 32 channels of up to eight different signalling systems, such as R2, ...

Figure 66 : MF treatment

X 16

ÌÌ
ÌÌ
Y
CAS
MF CODE

ANALYSIS

DSPA
SCM

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 68 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 67 : Trunk & DSPAs

X Y

Z SCM
X Y A

Z B ANALYSIS

DSPA

A B

X + Y + Z +.......+ A + B = 32

TRUNKS
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The outgoing codes to be transmitted are also generated at the service module, from
where they are sent through the network towards the corresponding trunk.

Figure 68 : MF codes transmission

Y DSPA
CODE TO
BE SENT
TRUNK
In the A1000 S12 system, there exists two modules which perform all the different
tasks of the CAS digital trunk mentioned here : these modules are called Digital Trunk
Module Low (DTM–L), and both consist of only one board : the DTUA and the DTUE.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 69 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 69 : DTUA/E

2 Mb/s
D T U A/E

DIGITAL DIGITAL
TRUNK NETWORK
The DTUA/E contains the Terminal Interface, the processor and the TCE memory, plus
the typical trunk functions included in a single block.

As shown on the next figure, the board consists of: a digital trunk physical interface
block that contains the adapting and isolation transformers, the loop that allows the
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

feed–back of the outgoing signal and the circuit to extract the 2 MHz clock (this
extracted clock may be wired with the Clock and Tone modules to serve there as a
master reference –see further–).
The Trunk Access circuit (TRAC) contains, in a single LSI circuit, the logic for
HDB3–to–binary conversion, retiming, frame alignment handling, CAS extraction,
multislot handling and management of the different alarms (Trunk Interface).

The circuits that act as the TI and the actual control element are also located on the
same board. The control element is composed of the processor, its PROM and RAM
memories, and a number of associated circuits (interrupts, clock, etc).

Using the DTUA/E, the processor reads the CAS received for each channel from the
TRAC memory, and writes the CAS to emit. The conversation channels are switched
towards their destination at the on–board TI. This destination may be another trunk, an
analogue subscriber or a service circuit, depending on the current call phase.

The next table gives an overview of the main characteristics of both DTM–L’s. The next
figure shows schematically the layout of the DTUA.

Table 2 : DTUA vs. DTUE

DTM–L
DTUA DTUE
1 PBA = 1 module 1 PBA = 1 module
Single trunk Single trunk
CAS or no signalling CAS or no signalling
Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit)
8086 80386EX

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 70 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

1 Mbyte 8 Mbyte (up to 16 Mbyte)


2 x QUAP+ POCO 2 x QUAP + POCO
TRAC TRAC
No FW Loadable FW
Not DTRE compatible Not DTRE compatible
No RLMA connection No RLMA connection
No X–over No X–over

Figure 70 : DTUA block diagram

ACCESS CIRCUIT
TO TRUNK (TRAC)
PHYSICAL INTERFACE
WITH THE LINE
HDB3 /BIN
RETIMING
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FRAME ALIGN.
2 Mb/s CRC4 TI PART
MULTI–SLOT
ALARMS
8 / 16 BITS

EXTERNAL RECOVERED
CLOCK (2 Mb/s)

TO C&T PROM, RAM


MODULE

8086

PROCESSOR

DTUA PBA

The DTUE is designed as a low cost alternative to replace the DTUA. The functionality of the
DTUA is limited by

- The restricted performance of the on–board processor

- The 1 Mbyte memory capacity

These restrictions are erased with the inroduction of the DTUE. Based on a MCUE (with
80386EX microprocessor) as TCE part and the implementation of minimum 8 Mbyte (up to
16 Mbyte) of memory capacity, the DTUE stands for an increased performance with at least
a factor 3 compared to the DTUA.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 71 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

The DTUE shalll support both the real mode and protected mode operation by providing the
Virtual Machine Motor (VMM) and the Common CE–SW Interface (CCSI) in one FPROM.
The DTUE will run the same real mode code as the DTUA. This will be realised by the
VMM.In addition a hardware independent CCSI shall be provided for protected mode
operation. This shield avoids direct HW accesses by the SW. This funtion will be
implemented on all new processor boards to avoid SW impact in case of future HW changes
in the processor area.

Figure 71 : Signalling & speech channels path

TI
16 X X MCUA/E ALCN
Y Z
16

0
1
31

CAS
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CE

DTUA/E

The CAS digital trunk module (DTM_L), based on the DTUA/E board, are linked to the
network forming high traffic TSUs, that is, TSUs of four modules each. A JH00 rack may
hold up to fifteen of these TSUs. Where such a large implementation is not required, the
DTM–L modules may be located in several positions of other rack types:

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 72 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 72 : DTM–L physical situation

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

RACK TYPE
AIR BAFFLE JH

10 11 12

13 14 15 DTUA/E
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SWITCH

ÌÌÏÏ Ì ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÏÏ Ì ÏÏ
ÌÌ Ì Ï
RACK TYPE
AIR BAFFLE JB

Ì
Ì
DTUA/E
ÌÏ
ACE

Ï
Ï
SWITCH ISCM

b. Modules that handle common channel signalling:


Digital Trunk Module High.

In common channel signalling, one channel of one of the links that make up a route is
used for the transmission of signalling messages. These messages, conform to CCITT
Number 7 recommendation, may be related to any route channel, that is, to channels of
the same link carrying the signalling or channels of a different link. A route is usually
formed by at least two links for reliability purposes. In A1000 S12, links that do not

770 00924 0120–VHBE 73 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

carry N7 signalling are implemented with Digital Trunk Module Low as seen in the
previous section.

Figure 73 : Common channel signalling

4
EXCHANGE A EXCHANGE B
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SIGNALLING
ANY CHANNEL IN ANY LINK A –B
MESSAGE

CHANNEL WITH SIGN. MESSAGE

The N7 signalling messages have the following structure:

The 64 Kb/s of a signalling channel are organized into frames delimited by two 8–bit
flags. These frames are given a sequence number when sent forward (FSN: Forward
Sequence Number) and recognized backwards on the basis of the said number (BSN:
Backward Sequence Number). The frame data field is used for the transmission of the
actual message. This field contains the following sub–fields: the message length, the
origin, the destination and the trunk and channel identity within the trunk to which the
message is referred (CIC) .

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 74 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 74 : Number 7 protocol


2 Mb/s

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CHANNEL DEDICATED TO SIGNALLING

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ (USUALLY CHANNEL 16)

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ NEXT FRAME

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
FLAG CRC FSN BSN FLAG LEVEL 2 FRAMES
64Kb/s
8 16 MESSAGE 8

FIRST BIT TO BE SENT


VERIFICATION
CODE BSN

LENGTH FRAME N. RECEIVED


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ORIGIN

DESTINATION
BIB: TOGGLED TO REQUEST RETRANSMISSION
CIC: LINK / CHANNEL
CIRCUIT
FSN
IDINTIFICATION
CODE BODY
(LINK & CHANNEL) OF THE
MESSAGE FRAME N IS FORWARDED

FIB: TOGGLED TO INDICATE START OF RETRANSMISSION

A digital trunk with N7 signalling will look for the channel dedicated to signalling at the
beginning of each frame, check its uncorrupted reception (CRC ) and send the
acknowledgement for the frame uncorrupted arrival in the next transmission in the
opposite direction. From the actual message data, the trunk will determine whether the
message is directed to ’this’ exchange or to another one. In the first case, the trunk will
pass the message to the digital trunk module in charge of receiving the link and voice
channel to which the message is referred. In the second case, the trunk will send the
message to the trunk handling the outgoing signalling channel that will reach the
destination point. This function is named Signalling Transfer Point. In the N7 protocol,
all these functions are named MTP (Message Transfer Part) level 3 discrimination,
distribution and routing functions.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 75 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 75 : Routing and distribution


DTM HIGH

CH 16
DTM HIGH
CH 16 ROUTING
Destination
CH 16

DISTRIBUTION
DTM LOW

BSN = FSN RECEIVED

ÌÌ
O.K. CIC
BIB = 0, FRAME OK DTUA
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– detects the frame (flags) and checks CRC


– if OK, acknowledges uncorrupted reception
– if the destination is:
. this exchange, sends message to the digital trunk that receives
the indicated channel, identified by the CIC indicator (distribution).
. another exchange, sends message to the digital trunk that handles
the appropriate signalling channel (routing).
A continuous flux of ’filling’ frames or FISUs, i.e. frames without data field, is sent
between the frames with data fields (messages), called MSUs (Message Signalling
Units). The FISUs do not increment the FSN field, but may use the BSN field for
acknowledgements.

There are two different types of DTM–H which are capable of handling N7 signalling
messages : the IPTM and the DTUB.

- The IPTM – module :

The IPTM basically consists of two boards : a DTRI and a MCUB. In the first board, the
DTRI, we find the same digital trunk physical interface as the one used in the DTUA,
with the possibility of setting the test loop; and, also, the same Trunk interface with the
common functions of HDB3–to–binary conversion, retiming, CRC4, frame alignment
and multislot service, but without making use of the CAS extraction function. The voice
channels, once time–adjusted and converted from 8 to 16 bits, pass through the TRAC
and go to the MCUB for subsequent routing through the network.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 76 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
Figure 76 : IPTM structure

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
TRAC

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
2 Mb/s
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
PHYSICAL

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
INTERFACE OBCI MCUB

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
CH X, CH Y
1 2

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
LIN / OUT
EXTERNAL
CLOCK 3

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ILC

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
4

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
OBC (386)

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ MEMORY BUS

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
RAM DTRI

ÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌÌ
IPTM

Although channel 16 is usually the signalling channel, there may be as many as four.
The signalling channel passes through the TRAC, also in a transparent manner, but is
switched through the TI, reflected in the Access Switch, sent back through the TI and at
the OBCI towards the ILC.

This ILC circuit (Integrated Link Controller), which is, pre–programmed by the on–board
processor OBC, observes the arrival of the messages (flag detection). The ILC then
passes these frames to a memory and notifies the OBC when this process ends. The
OBC deals with the level 2 & MTP level 3 distribution and routing functions. Therefore
the OBC sends the message through the OBCI, the MCUB and the network to the
DTUA that handles the associated speech channel or to the IPTM that reroutes the
message to the destination exchange (Signalling Transfer Point).

The channel 16 loop is handled in this way to make it common, from a software point of
view, in case an IPTM module handles the incoming signalling channel that is received in
another DTM or when a specific HCCM N7 treatment module is used.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 77 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 77 : Message routing and distribution

ÌÌ
CH 16 TRAC

ÌÌ
CH 16

2 Mb/s

Ì
Ì
CH Y

CH X
MCUB
1 2

OBCI CH Y

3
ILC
4

DMA DISTRIBUTION

ÏÏÏ
DMA
AND ROUTING

ÏÏÏ ÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MESSAGE

CH A

ÏÏÏ
DTUA

DTRI
RAM
LEVEL 2 TREATMENT
MTP LEVEL 3 FUNCTIONS
OBC

IPTM
ÌÌ
CH 16

Therefore, a route with N7 signalling is composed of a certain number of links without any
signalling channel, based on the DTUA board (CAS handling logic omitted), and at least two
links with a signalling channel each (usually channel 16), used to transmit and receive the
N7 messages. These signalling links are based on the DTRI board.

Figure 78 : Route structure

DTUA DTUA
SPEECH CHANNELS

ÌÌÌ ÓÓ ÓÓ ÌÌÌ
IPTM IPTM

ÌÌÌ ÓÓ ÓÓ ÌÌÌ
EXCHANGE A ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ EXCHANGE B

MESSAGES RELATIVE TO ALL THE


SPEECH CHANNELS IN THE ROUTE

Since the IPTMs (Integrated Packet Trunk Modules) do not handle all the links of a route, but
only those links carrying N7 signalling, only a few of them are implemented. The exact
number of IPTMs that is equipped per route depends on the actual route traffic flow. These

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 78 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

modules are combined into high traffic TSUs, four modules per TSU. Therefore, one of these
TSUs is implemented inside a subframe of the JH rack.

Figure 79 : Rack JH00 look

ÓÓÓÓÓÓ ÓÓ RACK JH

ÓÓÓ
ÓÓÓÓÓ
1

ÓÓ ÓÓ
ÓÓÓ
2 3

ÓÓÓ
ÓÓÓÓ
ÓÓÓÓ
ÓÓÓ ÓÓÓ ÓÓÓ
4 5 6

ÓÓÓÓÓ ÓÓ ÓÓÓ ÓÓÓ


1 15
7 8 9

ÓÓ ÓÓÓÓÓ
MODULES WITHOUT
SIGNALLING (DTUA)

ÓÓ ÓÓÓÓÓ
10 11 12

ÓÓ ÓÓÓÓÓ
ÓÓ ÓÓÓÓÓ
13 14 15

ÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÌÌÓÓÓ
ÌÌÏÌÓ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÌÌÓÓÓ
ÌÌÏÌÓ
SUBRACK

ÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÌÌÓÓÓ
ÌÌÏÌÓ
ÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÌÌÓÓÓ
ÌÌÏÌÓ
ÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÏÏÓÓÓ
ÌÌÏÌÓ
Ì ÏÏ
PBAs
SWITCH
DTRI
MCUB

RACK JF

Ì Ì
Ì Ì
Ì
ÌÌ
DTML (DTUA)

ÌÌ
ÌÌ
DTMH

(DTRI + MCUB)

770 00924 0120–VHBE 79 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Where such a large number of trunks are not needed, the DTM–Ls (DTUA) and the IPTMs
may be equipped in different positions of the other racks, such as the JF. These possibilities
are show on the previous figure.
- The DTUB – module :
This module combines MCUB and DTRI functions on one board and offers a second 2
Mbit/s trunk interface for optional use. The reduction of the HW from 2 to one PBA offers
considerable cost improvements.
In the first implementation step (from EC74 on), DTUB will replace the current PRA and
Frame Handling (PHI) applications of the IPTM module. For low end PRA applications, like «
partial » PRA, not making concurrent use of all 30 PRA user channels, the DTUB–variant
with the second trunk interface will offer a further considerable cost improvement.
In further implementation steps (EC75 or later) the one board trunk module could with
comparable, or slightly improved performance replace the present and some further planned
IPTM applications, which require HDLC channels with various protocols (e.g. : IPTM/CCS
and IPTM/X.25). Cross–over configurations and connections to the RLMA cannot be
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

supported by DTUB bacsue of non–accessability of cluster links.


The next two figures represent the two DTUB variants. The first is called the 1–trunk variant,
having two ILC’s connected to one trunk. In this example the board can terminate up to 4
HDLC–channels for that one trunk. The other is called the 2–trunk variant, having two ILC’s
connected to one trunk each. Here a DTUB can terminate up to 2 HDLC–channels per
trunk.
The following table shows a comparison between both available DTM–H’s.

Table 3 : IPTM vs. DTUB

DTM–H
IPTM DTUB
DTRI + MCUB 1 PBA = 1 module
Single trunk Dual / Single trunk
Nr7, ISDN–PRA, X31, X25 Nr7, ISDN–PRA, X31, X25
Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit) Blue Book (CRC4/Ebit)
80386SX (+80386) 80386DX
4 Mbyte 8 Mbyte
OBCI 2 x QUAP + POCO
TRAC 2 x / 1 x TRAC
2 x ILC 2 x ILC
Loadable FW Loadable Firmware
DTRE pin compatible DTRE pin compatible
RLMA connection RLMA connection
No X–over No X–over

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Figure 80 : DTUB –1 trunk

2Mbit trunk DSN

TRK I/F TRAC QUAP 0

DSN

QUAP 1

Tone
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

POCO
I/F
ILC 1 ILC 2

INTI

SRAM BA

80386 DRAM
(8Mbyte)

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Figure 81 : DTUB – 2 trunks

2Mbit trunk DSN

TRK I/F TRAC QUAP 0


1 1

2Mbit trunk DSN

TRK I/F TRAC QUAP 1


2 2

Tone
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

POCO I/F

ILC 1 ILC 2

INTI

SRAM BA

80386 DRAM
(8Mbyte)

If the processing capacity of the IPTM/DTUB is insufficient to handle the signalling


messages, the DTUA board may be used to deviate the signalling channels to a special
module in a semi– permanent way. This special module is called HCCM (High–performance

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1.

Common Channel Module) and is able to handle N7 signalling messages from up to eight
different origins. The structure of this module is described in the following section.

2.3.3 High–performance Common Channel Module (HCCM)

Figure 82 : HCCM structure


DTUA

MCUA/E

ch 16
8

ANY CHANNEL WITH 2


SIGNALLING MESSAGE 1
SLTA
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ILC

2 1

FLAG
3

DMA

4 OBCI
ROUTING
AND
RAM
DISTRIBUTION

SIGN.
LEVEL 2 CONTR.
PROCESS (8086)

OBC DUAL
(80186) PORT
MEMORY

RAM

SLTA
The HCCM is composed of a control element and up to eight SLTA boards (Signalling Link
Termination type A). Each SLTA handles one signalling link. With the HCCM, a mucher
higher amount of signalling traffic can be handled : with an HCCM, a total traffic of 8 x 700

770 00924 0120–VHBE 83 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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MSU/s can be treated, which allows a traffic of almost 1E per link. An IPTM has a much
lower capacity : as the 4 possible signalling links must all be treated by the same OBC, the
total capacity is restricted to 540 MSU/s, for the 4 links together (this means a traffic of
approximately 0.2 E per signalling link).

The signalling channel is conveyed through the network up to the MCUA/E in charge of the
eight SLTAs and, from there, sent by a fixed channel i assigned to each SLTA. Once in the
SLTA, this fixed channel is switched at an OBCI towards a fixed channel of port 1, which is
then received by an ILC. When the ILC detects the frames, it passes them (without the flags)
to a memory by means of DMA.

A dedicated process, known as Signalling Controller, checks the frame uncorrupted


reception (level 2 analysis), and passes the message to a double port memory, notifying the
on–board processor or OBC. The OBC then reads the message and continues the process
according to the message destination address. Therefore, it routes the message towards the
digital trunk (DTUA) that receives the CIC voice channel, or towards the SLTA associated
with the outgoing signalling channel that will be used to reach the destination.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2.3.4 Service Circuit Module (SCM)

This module is necessary for the detection, analysis and generation of the codes of the
different multifrequency signalling systems used between exchanges, for the detection and
the analysis of the multifrequency line codes (DTMF), as well as for the realisation of
multiparty calls.

Figure 83 : Subscriber MF signalling analysis


samples

a/d Service Circuit Module

ch x ch b
fx+fy ALCN
ch a
ch a ch b
ch y

Signalling X
Trunk Present code of
the interexchange
ch i Present code of signalling
subscriber MF System X
DTUA
signalling system

MF code f1+f2 samples

The analysis to find out the multifrequency code present in the incoming channels consists
of the use of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters. These filters consist on the
application of an algorithm based on the multiplication of a set of samples of the signal to be

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1.

analyzed by a set of coefficients or weighting factors. These coefficients are specific to the
frequency which presence is to be confirmed. The result of the addition of all those
successive products provides the instantaneous amplitude value that the frequency being
analyzed presents in the channel.

The more coefficients used, the greater the detection precision, but also the longer the time
required (t = n*125 micros). The use of 128 coefficients is a sensible choice since that
amount is sufficient to comply with the requirements of all the signalling methods.

The receiver will apply the algorithm multiplications and accumulates to find, or not, one and
only one pair of frequencies that present an amplitude higher than a set minimum. It will
carry out this process several times until it accepts the detection as valid for a time longer
than a minimum specified in each system: persistency test.

When multifrequency signalling is used, the Service Circuit Module not only must be able to
analyse the incoming multifrequency signals, but must also be able to emit multifrequency
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

codes.

Figure 84 : Service Circuit Module


fx+fy

ch i
MF signalling ch a
Trunk
Service Circuit Module
ch j
ch b
ch d
fw+fz
ch c ch b
ch c

SENDING
ANALYSIS
(TRANSMITTER)
(RECEIVER)

The SCM specific hardware has sufficient processing power to analyse the incoming
multifrequency codes of up to 32 input–channels (these codes may be MF as well as DTMF
signalling codes, with a maximum of eigth different sets of frequencies), and emit at the
same time all the multifrequency codes of maximum two different signalling systems (each
signalling system consisting of a set of frequencies in the forward direction, and a set of
other frequencies in the backward direction). This emission is done by placing each fixed
code (e.g. f1+f4) into a fixed channel, dedicating 2 times 15 channels to each multifrequency
system (15 channels for the forward MF signals and 15 channels for the backward MF
signals).
These codes are then to be distributed by the control element to the different TCEs.

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Figure 85 : Used channels on the PCM

ch i

S1 S2 Total number of
input channels=
1 15 17 31 32
MCUA/E
ch j

S3 S4 SCM
HARDWARE
1 15 17 31

The whole logic required to handle the thirty–two incoming channels of up to eight
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

multifrequency systems and to emit the corresponding codes in four sets of fifteen channels
each, is located in a single board called DSPA (Digital Signal Processor type A). This PBA
contains a specialised processor for digital signalling handling named DSP, with its own
RAM memory, a set of programmable FIFOs contained in the queues RAM (64Kx16), and
the queues RAM interface LSI named QRC (Queue RAM Controller).

An On Board Controller (80186 or compatible) controls the queues RAM using the QRC and
handshakes with the DSP.

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Figure 86 : SCM structure


DSPA PBA

Queue
RAM
CE 64K x 16
MCUA/E PBA SIGNAL
PROCESSOR
0 31
Queue DSP
TI 0 31 RAM
interface

RAM
MICRO
PROCES-
SOR.
RAM
OBC
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PROM 80186

RAM
interrupt

The OBC in the board initializes the queue RAM interface (QRC), assigning one FIFO to
each incoming channel. This FIFO will receive the samples of the code to be analyzed.

On the other hand, a certain RAM area is reserved in the queues RAM for the exchanges
between the OBC and the Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which will carry out the adequate
algorithms. A third RAM area is used for the TCE–OBC message exchange.

The CE sends a message, through channel 16, containing a task performance request. The
message is sequentially written into the queue RAM area that was assigned to channel 16
during the initialization.

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Figure 87 : Message to DSPA OBC

Area assigned to
the channel 16
(Message)

CH 16

TI
Message read
by the OBC
RAM Message to the
MICRO OBC:
PROCES- – Request for
SOR OBC
a receiver 80186
– Ch 1, Sign X PROM
CE
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MCUA/E PBA RAM

The OBC, using this interface area, assigns a FIFO to the successive contents of the
channel to analyze.

The OBC then writes the task performance request to the DSP, indicating the FIFO and the
MF system, into an exchange memory area. It then interrupts the DSP which will read the
command.

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1.

Figure 88 : Task performance request to DSP


Queue RAM
5

CE FIFO N OBC–DSP

ÏÏÏ
memory
MCUA/E PBA interface
Queue RAM interface
CH 1

TI 2 4 DSP

RAM
MICRO 1
PROCES- RAM
SOR OBC
3
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1.– OBC command : assign FIFO N to input channel 1

2.– The OBC requests the DSP to run system X algorithm with FIFO N samples

3.– The OBC interrupts the DSP

4.– The DSP reads the OBC command.

In the assigned incoming channel the CE sends the samples to be analyzed. Through the
QRC these are written into successive FIFO addresses. Taking into account the read
command, the DSP runs the filtering algorithm.

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Figure 89 : Filtering algorithm running on the DSP

Queue RAM
sample 3

sample 2 Filtering algorithm running


CE sample 1
MCUA/E PBA
CH 1

TI DSP
Queue
RAM
interface
RAM
MICRO
PROCES-
SOR RAM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The DSP, when it arrives at a conclusion, it writes the result into the DSP–OBC interface
zone of the queue RAM and notifies the OBC by means of an interruption. The OBC then
reads the result.

Figure 90 : Algorithm results

CE Q–RAM
MCUA PBA
Q–RAM–ITF
CH 1

TI DSP

RAM RAM
MICRO
INT OBC

The CE sends periodically requests towards the OBC, to ask for results.The OBC prepares
a message, with the result found, in the queue RAM area associated with channel 16. The
message will be transmitted sequentially, through the interface, as contents of this channel
(16).

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1.

Figure 91 : Sending of results to the CE

CE CH 16
Q–RAM
Result
MCUA PBA assoc. RAM Msg

Q–RAM–ITF

TI
CH 16

RAM
MICRO
OBC

In parallel with all this, the DSP must be writing, periodically, the FIFOs associated to the
channels outgoing towards the TCE that will carry the different multifrequency codes of the
different systems.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 92 : Writing the FIFO

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ Queue RAM


CH1, LINK 1
ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ f1+f2. System 1

CH1 LINK 1 ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ


ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ f2+f3. System 1

CH 31, LINK 2
ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ
ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ
ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ
f’5+f’6. System 2

1 2
TI DSP
Periodic
Updating
31
RAM
MICRO RAM
PROC. Queue RAM interface

These writings to the FIFOs must be performed within the appropriate period so that the
FIFO is never emptied, taking into account that the emission period is 125 micros.

Another task carried out by the DSPA is that related to the multiple conference. It offers the
Conference Bridge service for, typically 3 or 5 parties, but with a capacity for up to 10
parties. The speech samples of the different subscribers involved in the multiple conference
are carried to the DSPA, where the DSP adds them and outputs them through different
channels of the link going towards the MCUA/E.

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Figure 93 : Conference Bridge


DSPA

ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
Speech A B+C A
B

ALCN A
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
C

ÏÏÏ
A+C
MCUA/E A+B

ÏÏÏ
A+C
Speech B CA B
B+C
B

ALCN +
DSP
C A+C
Speech C B+C

OBC
ALCN A+B Initialisation

A+B Task Request


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The multiple conference may be performed in a simplified way, by simply adding the different
contributions, or in a complex way, by amplifying the weaker signals and not amplifying the
stronger signal at any given moment.

Taking this into account, the DSPA, depending upon the loaded software, may have different
configurations, with different combinations of senders, receivers and conference bridges.
The following table shows some examples of these configurations:

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1.

Figure 94 : Possible SCM Configurations

Senders Receivers SCB3 SCB5


60 0 0 0
60 16 0 0
60 32 0 0
45 0 0 0
45 16 0 0
45 32 0 0
30 0 0 6
30 0 10 0
30 0 0 0
30 16 0 6
30 16 10 0
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

30 16 0 0
30 32 0 0
15 0 0 6
15 0 10 0
15 0 0 0
15 16 0 0
15 32 0 0
0 0 10 6
0 0 0 6
0 0 0 0
0 16 0 6
0 16 0 0
Simplified Simplified
Conference Conference
Bridge for 3 Bridge for 5
Subscribers Subscribers

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The Service Circuit Module is a high–traffic module and is therefore arranged in TSUs of
four modules each:

Figure 95 : Service Circuit Module TSU

Access Switch
0 8
DSPA 1
MCUA/E
2
3
4
5
DSPA MCUA/E 6
7 15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Access Switch
DSPA MCUA/E 0 8
1
2
3
4
DSPA MCUA/E 5
6
7 15

The whole Service TSU may be implemented in a single subframe:

Figure 96 : Location in JH00 rack


RACK JH00

SWITCH

ÌÌ
ÓÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÌÓ
ÓÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÌÓ
SUBRACK

ÓÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÌÓ
ÓÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÓÓÓ
ÌÌ
ÏÌÓ
MCUA+DSPA
Same PBAs

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1.

2.3.5 Trunk Testing Module (TTM)

This module is used to perform trunk tests for fault detection, and, for periodic checking of
the service quality offered by the trunks. Several operations may be carried out on the trunks
using of this module, which consists of a Control Element (MCUA/E) plus specific hardware.
The TTM will be able to perform measurements on trunks that end in exchanges that,
although not A1000 S12, are equipped with devices conforming to the CCITT
recommendations.

Figure 97 : TTM Module

TTM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CLUSTER
PBAs MCUA/E

Thus, TTM will be able to evaluate the power and noise level of a voice signal received
through any channel of a link, and to generate any type of voice frequency tone in the
opposite direction. The two ends of the link to be measured may ’understand’ each other
through the exchange of multifrequency signalling based on the CCITT Number 5 code
(ATME2 ). This code may be detected and passed to the CE, and also, generated by it.

The CAS signalling is inserted in the unused bits (1 to 4) of each digital link channel, and
switched towards the TTM where it is observed. The following figures show, some of the
TTM test facilities.

On the sender side the TTM function is called DIRECTOR and on the receiving side the
function is called RESPONDER.

The TTM is also capable of executing ”Service Quality Tests”. This test generates a number
of calls to specified directory numbers in remote exchanges.These DNs are called robot
numbers because they do not correspond with a normal subscriber. A robot is nothing else
than an automatic answer circuit which can be an external device connected at MDF–level
or a TTM if the remote exchange is a A1000 S12 exchange. The test result indicates the
number of successful calls (answer).
The test result give a good idea of the service quality of the exchange since the hardware
and the normal call handling software is used.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 95 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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Figure 98 : In band filters


Digital Trunk
Module
ch x

Trunk DSN
Exchange ’A’

Test equipment
CLUSTER MCUA/E

– Signal Filtering and evaluating

( Typical used Filters: Sofometric


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

and broad band (400/2800 Hz))

Figure 99 : On demand signal generation


Digital Trunk
Module
ch x

DSN

Exchange ’A’

Test
Equipm. CLUSTER MCUA/E

– Any combination of three tones in the vocal


band with variable power.

– Aleatory Noise

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 96 770 00924 0120–VHBE


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Figure 100 : In–channel CAS and frame alignment tests

ÏÏ
ÏÏ ÌÌ ÏÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌÌ
0 1 15 16 17 30 31

ÏÏ
ÏÏ ÌÌ ÏÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌÌÌ
4 1

SYNC CAS Signalling ÏÏÏÏ


ÌÌÌÌÌ
Sample CAS

Digital Trunk
Module CH 1

DSN
PCM CAS
X
Exchange ’A’ Y

CH 0
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CLUSTER MCUA/E

ÏÏ
– SYNC Pattern Observation
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
– CAS Signalling Obervation

Figure 101 : BER and fixed pattern tests

Digital Trunk

ÌÌ Module

ÌÌ
CH P

ÌÌ
DSN

X
Exchange ’A’ 1110111.......11111
Periodic CCITT pattern
or
Z
Fixed data sample

CLUSTER MCUA/E

– Periodic Pattern Check or


– Delivering to the Control Element of the
fixed data sample

770 00924 0120–VHBE 97 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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Figure 102 : Two wires and V.24–RS232 interfaces


Digital Trunk

ÌÌ
Module

ÌÌCH P X
DSN

Exchange ’A’

CLUSTER MCUA/E

1
2
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

V24–1 V24–2 16
2 wire interface External
Test Equipment

External Test Equipment


based on PC

Figure 103 : In–channel CAS


DIGITAL TRUNK

CH X

ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
CH X CH 16 4 1

ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
1 1 X CAS

8 8

TTM Processing
CH X CAS

The TTM is also able to check the uncorrupted reception of the frame alignment pattern from
any link (Line Error Rate or LER test). This module can also generate and check the cyclic
patterns to be inserted into a channel to be tested, as recommended by the CCITT, (Bit Error
Rate or BER test); or fix the sample value to be sent through a channel, invariably the same,
and check it at the other end.

Another test that can be performed by the TTM consists of converting to analogue and
offering to the exterior, the signal received through a certain digital link channel. In the same

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 98 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

way, it can offer the contents of a channel to one of two V.24 interfaces for its connection to
the corresponding measuring device.

All of this is achieved using specific hardware based on the DSPA board, practically the
same board as that used in the Service Circuit Module. The only difference is that the DSPA
used here incorporates of an OBCI since without it, it would not be possible to chain the two
DSPAs contained in the TTM to the TCE links.

The module is completed with a MIRB (Modem Interface and Rate Adapter Board) that
passes the contents of a channel to V.24, and a TDAA (Test Desk Adapter Board) which
converts up to six channels to analog. These two boards are optional.

Figure 104 : TDAA / MIRB location

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ MCUA/E

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
TDAA MIRB
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ DSPA

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
1 2
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
1 2 3 6

V–24

Both, the structure and the operation of the DSPA are similar to those of the board used in
the Service Circuit Module, with the before mentioned exception of the OBCI inclusion. This
interface provides the means to discriminate between the TCE messages that are
addressed to one DSPA or to the other, given that these messages start with an OBCI
address that the DSPAs recognize. This configuration makes possible the simultaneous
analysis of up to 30 channels.

2.3.6 Clock & Tone Module (CTM)

This module, essential for the system, is in charge of the generation of the 8 MHz basic
clock that will be distributed to all the multiports and control elements, ensuring the system
synchronism. It is also responsible for the generation of exchange supervision tones as well
as real time. These functions are so important that the module is always duplicated, the two
CTMs working in active/hot–standby mode.

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Figure 105 : Clock and tones module


Double distribution
from unique source of clock
Remote Exchange DTUA/DTRI
Selection

Digital
Trunk Double tone
Selection distribution

2Mbps
Clock MCUB
Generation

External Feed Back


References

DSN
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Tone Generation CTM 2


CTM 1

Each Clock & Tone Module sends its 8 MHz output signal to the other one. Within each
module, the two 8 MHz signals enter a selection circuit where the same signal is selected by
both modules so that, the two parallel clock distributions end up distributing the same clock
signal. That is, the two clocks reaching all the multiports and control elements are taken from
the same source: the output of the active CTM. The selector changes automatically from one
signal to the other when it does not receive a clock from the selected CTM.

The tones are distributed in parallel to all the control elements. They enter the control
elements through TI port 5 with a fixed channel pattern that is Administration dependent.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 100 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 106 : Clock and tone distribution


DSE

0 8
1
MCUA/MCUB 2
CLOCK A 3
TI 4
TONE 5
LINK PCM 5 6
7 15

CLOCK B 8 MHz 8 MHz

TONE
LINK PCM
Tone Link PCM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

0 1 2 3 4 31

– Tenth of hours (2 bits)


– Tenth of Seconds – Hours (4 bits) Tone 2 Samples
– Seconds – Tenth of minutes (3 bits) Tone 1 Samples
– MInutes (5 bits)

Each module is made up of the MCUB, the two boards, RCCB and CCLA, for clock
generation, and one DSGA board for tone generation. The DSGA contains the interface
registers used by the control element (MCUA/E) to send and read data to and from the OBC
(8086) located in the RCCB.

The CTM performs a priority–based selection at the RCCB of one reference signal. The
RCCB receives four external synchronization signals at 2 MHz from four exchanges linked to
this one by digital trunks, one atomic clock signal that is the same for all the exchanges, the
oscillator output of the other CTM and its own oscillator output. The CCLA will track the
selected reference signal and, with it, will produce an 8 MHz clock that enters a second
selector that also receives the clock produced by the other module. Both modules’ selectors
are initially set for the selection of one of the clocks, namely the one produced by the module
defined as A by a backpanel connection. Therefore, at power–up, module A will be the
active and module B the hot–standby module.

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Figure 107 : RCCB and CCLA structure

MODULE A CCLA 8 MHz

Active
8 KHz 8 MHz

From Digital Trunks


RCCB PLL MCUA/E

+ Priority
1 1
2 2
3 3
2 MHz
4 4
5 8 KHz
6 Selector
ATOMIC Divisor
CLOCK 7
1
OBC OSC
8086

DSGA
TONES
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MODULE B CCLA 8 MHz

Hot Stand By
8 KHz 8 MHz
From Digital Trunks
RCCB PLL MCUA/E

+ Priority
1 1
2 2
3 3
2 MHz
4 4
5 8 KHz Selector
ATOMIC 6
Divisor
CLOCK 7

OSC
0
OBC
8086

DSGA
TONES

The two OBCs (A and B) must periodically activate a circuit that supervises the proper
operation of the firmware. If, at the active CTM, this periodic activation does not take place
or, the CCLA stops providing a clock signal, the output selector will automatically switch to
the other input in order to receive the signal produced by the other module, which from that
moment on will be the active one. Given that the two modules’ selectors are joined, the
selector will also switch at the other module for it to output its own clock signal since it is the
active CTM.

If all the external references fail, the OSC (oscillator) output is taken as a reference. Each
module takes the output of the other one as the highest priority reference.

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The RCCB and CCLA boards have LEDs on their stiffener whose meanings are indicated on
the figure below.

Figure 108 : RCCB and CCLA LEDs

Fast test
Fast test
FLL Alarm

OBC Alarm PLL Alarm


R Clock outgoing Alarm C
C C
C L
B A
P P
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

B B
A Voltage to the PLL A
out of range
(BELLOW)

Voltage to the PLL


out of range
(ABOVE)

The output of each CCLA/RCCB pair is sent towards a distribution PBA which is called
CLTD (Cock & Tone distribution). From there the clock is distributed again towards each lead
rack (every tenth rack), in which another CLTD is located (if there are more than 10 racks,
more than one CLTD is needed). From there, the CLTDs distribute the clock signals (both
from the same source) to the other 10 racks which contain RCLA boards for further clock
distribution.

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Figure 109 : Clock distribution


Switching or CE PBA
CLTD
JA00

ÏÏÏ ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ ÏÏÏ ÏÏÏ
ÓÓ
ÌÌÌ ÏÏÏ ÏÏÏ
Ó
ÌÌÌÌ
ÓÓ
ÌÌÌ ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌÏÏÏ
Ó
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
Distribution
ÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌ
to all CEs and

ÌÌÌÌ
SWITCH PBA inside
the rack

ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ ÌÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ ÌÌÌÌ
ÏÏ ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

JB00

CCLA
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ ÏÏÏ
ÌÌÌ
ÏÏÏ
RCCB
CLTD
RCLA
ÌÌ
ÌÌ JF00

Figure 110 : Clock distribution scheme


Row Lead Rack Any Rack in the same row

ÏÏ
RCLA
CLTD
Active
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
A
RCCB CCLA CLTD PLL

ÏÏ
RCLA
CLTD

ÏÏ
ÏÏ
PLL B

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
RCCB CCLA B

ÏÏÏ
CLTD PLL A
Hot Stand By

8 MHz

SWITCH or
CE PBAs

The CLTD is simply a distribution board. It may deliver a signal to up to 20 different


destinations using of no special logic except for the logic necessary to detect the absence of

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1.

a clock signal. If it detects such lack of signal, it lights up the LED on the board stiffener and
sends an alarm to the rack alarm board which, in turn, sends it to Defence.

Figure 111 : CLTD board


ALARM

INPUT LED ON

1
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

20

The RCLA board is, somehow, more complex. It collects the signals from the two distribution
buses, re–shapes the pulses and randomly selects one of the two signals. To ensure smooth
switching to the non–selected signal, when required, the RCLA aligns the two signals. This
board uses the selected clock signal as reference for an oscillator that, in an autonomous
manner, tracks it and produces the 8 MHz clock to be distributed to all the multiports and
control elements in the rack.

As you can see in the next figure, the RCLA may produce two alarms. When the second
alarm is produced, the RCLA outputs are blocked and it warns the other board for it not to
reach the same block situation.

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1.

Figure 112 : RCLA alarms

RCLA

1
A chain

14
B Chain
Output Blocking

– Difference
between select – There is not reference
and stand–by Report to the pair
branches > treshold – Difference between PLL output PBA in the rack for
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

and reference > treshold not blocking


– Extreme correction
to the PLL – No PLL output

Alarm 1 Alarm 2
To the Alarm PBA

Chain A clock
input lost
Chain B clock
input lost
Clock output lost

Chain A tone
input lost
Chain B tone
input lost

Chain selection: on(B) – off(A)

The RCLA PBA have three LEDs with the meaning showed in previous figure.

Every multiport or control element receives the two clock signals from the two RCLAs in its
rack and, in turn selects one of them randomly and, using it as reference for an oscillator,
regenerates the 8 MHz clock necessary for the board operation. As before, if the selected
signal is not received, the selector will switch to receive the other one.

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1.

Figure 113 : Clock distribution into the rack


Sending to
another PBA 2 MHz 4 MHz 8 MHz MCUA
in the module

Aleatory selection

1 1 14
14
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Two RCLA of
sub–rack

RCLA RCLA

The tones are generated by the DSGA board. This board contains the physical interface
between the OBC and the RCCA board, and the control element processor. Therefore,
without this board, the ’clock’ part of the module could not communicate with the processor.
The samples of the different exchange tones, as well as, the controls required for their
orderly reading and transmission through the pre–fixed channel, are stored in a PROM
located on the actual board.

The RCCA OBC writes the Time Of Day (TOD) into a DSGA register every 100 ms., for its
transmission through two fixed channels.

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Figure 114 : Tone and Time of day (’TOD’) generation


Tone 1 Samples
Time of Day
Tone 2 Samples

DISTRIBUTION
Tone Link PCM
0 1 2 3 4 31

RCCA DSGA MCUB

Samples
and
control
OBC PROM +

time indication
R
A
M
Micro
processor
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Time of day

OBC Bus

Register

The tones are subsequently distributed in parallel with the clock signals via the CLTD and
RCLA boards. Every control element receives the two tones through its TI port 5 and can
choose the appropriate channel of any of the two receivers, to send the required tone
through any of the channels of the transmitter ports in the TI.

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1.

Figure 115 : Tone distribution


DSGA Row Header Rack Any Rack in the same row

RCLA
CLTD
1
MCUB
CLTD 1

1 6
20 Clock

RCLA
TI 20 CLTD
1
1
DSGA C&T MODULES
6
20 Clock

MCUB
TI
CLTD
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

1
Clock Regeneration 5
MCUA
TI 20

The TSAB (Test Signal Analyzer board) is connected to the free MCUB port (3) towards the
module side. This board performs the same test analysis functions as the signal processor
contained in the TAUC board. The TSAB is implemented in the cases where the TAUC is
not; for example, in toll exchanges where it might be necessary to perform some measuring
algorithm concerning tones or announcements.

Figure 116 : TSAB location


MCUB

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌ
CLOCK & TONES
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌ 1

ÌÌ
TSAB
ÌÌ ÌÌ 3

ÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌ
ch 1

S/P
ÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌ ÌÌ
DSP ch 1

ÌÌ ÌÌ
ÌÌ
MICRO
PROCESSOR

PROM RAM
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
The MCUB processor is related to the signal processor in the TSAB through readings and
writings from/to a RAM. This RAM will also be used to load the program to be executed by

770 00924 0120–VHBE 109 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

the DSP if it is not in the PROM. The data, signal samples, go through channel 1 of the PCM
link that connects the two boards, the TSAB and the MCUB.

The C&T modules are always equipped in the JF rack at the fixed 001D and 001C network
addresses. The CLTDs used for the distribution towards the ”leading rack CLTDs”, are
located in the same subrack as the CTMs. The first leading rack is the JF00 rack itself, so
another CLTD pair is provided within the rack.

Figure 117 : Clock and Tone modules in the JF rack

RACK JF00
TO OTHER RCLAs IN THE ROW

ÌÌ Ì
ÌÌ Ì
ÌÌ Ì
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ÌÌ
CLTD
Ì
CLTD

RCLA RCLA

MCUB CLTD

ÌÌÏÏ ÓÌ Ì Ï ÓÌÌ
ÌÌÏÏ ÓÌ Ì Ï ÓÌÌ
ÌÌÏÏ ÓÌ Ì Ï ÓÌÌ
C&T ’A’ C&T ’B’

CCLA
ÌÌÏÏ ÓÌ Ì Ï ÓÌÌ
RCCB TO OTHER ROW
HEADER RACK
DSGA
TSAB

2.3.7 Digital Integrated Announcement Module (DIAM)

The announcements module is used to send the different messages required to notify the
calling subscribers about certain situations such as, for example, that the called subscriber’s

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1.

phone number has changed. This module will also be used to send the time, that is, the
’talking’ clock.

The DIAM consists of a single board called Dynamic Integrated Announcements PBA
(DIAA), whose memory can optionally be extended with the AMEA board.

The announcements are sent to the Clock & Tone Module to be distributed by the tone bus,
if they are fixed announcements; or, through the network towards their destination if, they
are variable. The variable announcements, such as the message giving the new phone
number of a called subscriber, are composed by the control element of the DIAM from
elementary ones.

Figure 118 : Announcements distribution


Fixed Announc.

ÌÌ ÏÏ
DIAA

ÌÌ
Time and

ÏÏÏÏ
ÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Tones

ÏÏ
MCUA

ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ALCNs

ÌÌ
Varriable Announc.: New subscrber’s number

RCCA
CCLA
5
DSGA

RCLA MCUA ALCNs


CLTD CLTD

0 1 2 3 4 x y 31

time
ann–1
tone–1
–Tone Distribution ann–2
tone–2

For the elaboration of the announcements, the DIAA contains a processor specialized in
signal processing, a DSP; a Queue RAM, where the samples to be sent through each
channel are stored as blocks; and the corresponding Queue RAM Controller, QRC, which
operates similarly to the one seen in the DSPA. The control element is also located in this
same board.

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1.

Figure 119 : DIA structure

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ
FIFO RAM

ÌÌÌÌÌÌ ch X

DSP TI

Program
RAM

PROM
Sample RAM
RAM 8086
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

(4 MB)
DIAA PBA

AMEA PBA

!6 MBytes

With the configuration shown above, up to 524 seconds of announcement time may be
stored in the DIAA and, up to 42 minutes if the AMEA is implemented.

2.3.8 Peripheral & Load Module (P&L)

The P&L module is responsible for all communication between the exchange control and the
peripheral devices, and for the download of the microprocessors equipped in the system. An
exchange is always equipped with two P&L, working in active/standby mode.
Regarding its peripheral functions, the P&L modules handles the MMC system in order to
collect the operation commands and present their results to the operator using the VDU and
printer peripherals. It also controls the access to the mass storage peripherals like tape,
magnetic and optical disk, which contain the programs and data of all the CEs in the
exchange.
Furthermore, the P&L module is responsible for loading the different exchange CEs during
the initial exchange load or later individual reloads.
Due to the importance of this module functions, it is always duplicated and the pair works
in ACTIVE/STANDBY mode. In this way there is always one working, the other being ready
(updated memory) and waiting to take over if the former one fails. Both P&L modules are
connected to fixed network addresses: 000C and 000D.

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Therefore, when any control element receives the power (power–on), or it has received a
message from maintenance software forcing its reload, a BOOTSTRAP program (stored in
PROM) will be started. This program sends messages requesting a reload to both P&L
TCEs. One P&L module replies to the requesting CE and reads the software packages
related to that CE from disk, sending it, through the network, to the starting module.

Figure 120 : CE down loading


Load Bid
Control Element Request

RAM A ACTIVE

DSN
ÌÌÌÌ P&L

ÏÏÏÏÏ ÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏ ÏÏ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

B STAND BY

ÏÏÏÏÏ P&L
Micro
PROM
Reply and
Software Loading

Besides the tasks related to the load of the software, the P&L module is in charge of the
following functions:

– Coordinate the maintenance actions and manage the tests started as consequence
of a corrective or preventive maintenance action.

– Handle the Man–Machine Communication system, in order to receive operation


commands and present their results.

– Control the mass storage peripherals for the performance of the reload, the load of
overlay programs, the charging data collection, etc. These peripherals are: tapes,
magnetic disks and optical disks which will replace the tapes in the future.

– Handle and coordinate the system extensions.

– ...

The structure of the P&L module is shown in the following figure.

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Figure 121 : P&L board structure

16 alarms
fire,intrusion,.. alam readings/lamp commands

Inputs
CH 16 MCUB

DPTC

Multimaster
Bus
20 CLMA
RAM

ÏÏÏ
active 8 MB 80386
lamps shared

ÏÏÏ
memory
urgent
alarm
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

non urgent
alarm

request and
grant lines

MMCA (optional) serial


local chans 80186
SCSI
RAM
ctrller
ROM

FIFO

80186
RAM

PROM DMCA
Magnetic
Disk
SCSI

four more devices Bus

Optical
Disk

Adapt Formater
TAPE

Up to 8
SCSI devices

The module is composed of the control element (MCUB), DMCA board (Direct Memory
Controllers), the CLMA (Central alarm PBA) and, optionally, the MMCA (Man–Machine
Controller).

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The MCUB, as the control element, can handle up to eight mass storage peripherals with a
standard interface called SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) and with the support
of the DMCA for the performance of the purely mechanical tasks. The devices may be either
magnetic or optical disks, or magnetic tapes with their corresponding formatters and
adapters to the SCSI. The MCUB can also handle two asynchronous terminals or up to four
of them if one MMCA extension board is implemented. A maximum of two MMCAs can be
equipped per P&L module, allowing the connection of eight more terminals, or else the
terminals may be connected in a ’shared’ mode.

Figure 122 : Simplex configuration

DMCA A DMCA B
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MMCA A MMCA B

770 00924 0120–VHBE 115 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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Figure 123 : Duplex Configuration

DMCA A DMCA B

Request line
4
MMCA A 4 MMCA B
Request line
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The figure above shows how to connect two MMCAs with four shared terminals. Although
the diagram shows the connections of only two MMCAs, when four of them are equipped,
the connections are done in the exact same way.When a MMCA is going to work with one
terminal, it activates the request line so that the terminal will be ’captured’ by that side (that
MMCA) and the other side will not be able to close the access relays for that terminal.

The CLMA communicates with the MCUB through channel 16 messages that are collected
by a DPTC interface. This message collection is done in a way similar to that in the ALCN
(line board). When the MCUB sends a message to the CLMA, four bytes are written into a
memory that is later emptied into a control register. This register handles the periodic
erasure of a counter that, when not preset, produces an alarm: Dual failure . This alarm is
wired together with the alarm of the other module so that both CLMAs must fail
simultaneously before the alarm signal is sent to the Main Panel for Alarms (MPA).

The CLMA LEDs have the following meaning:

1. active board
2. urgent alarm
3. non–urgent alarm.

The MCUB can read up to 16 floor alarms (fire, intrusion, etc.) and the status of four keys,
from the main panel (MPA).

Optionally a second CLMA can be connected which will simply receive and light up more
alarms while the ’dual failure’ handling mechanism is deactivated.

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The two P&L modules, as well as the two CTMs, are located in the same rack: the JF00
rack.

Figure 124 : P&L into the rack JF00

1st and 2nd (opt)


CLMA
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DMCA

MCUB air
baffle

ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ ÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
1st and 2nd (opt)
MMCA Access switch

2.3.9 ISDN Subscriber Module (ISM)

The ISDN Subscriber Module is prepared to receive a ’U–interface’ . This interface provides
for the digital transmission and reception to/from the subscriber of two 64 Kb/s channels for

770 00924 0120–VHBE 117 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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speech or data, and one 16 Kb/s channel for signalling or X.25 packets, using the same pair
of wires of the actual analogue subscribers.

Figure 125 : Basic access diagram


Four wires A1000 S12 EXCHANGE
B B D
S
interface 8 8 4
a
ISDN
NT Subscriber
b
Module
subscriber loop
4
(two copper wires)
2

2
TA
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TA

PC

Up to eight terminals can be connected to the subscriber side. They will be connected
directly if they are ISDN terminals, or through a Terminal Adapter (TA) in the case of
non–ISDN terminals.

To allow for the transmission of the 144 Kb/s (the two B plus the D channels) through the
pair of wires, the line codes of three or four levels are used. These line codes are the
’4B/3T’, which sends a ternary symbol representing a four–bit pattern; or the ’2B/1Q’, which
sends a quaternary symbol representing a two–bit pattern. These line codes reduce the
speed to 3/4 or 1/2 of the original speed, depending on the code used. The subscriber
module will be in charge converting this code to binary.

Besides the code adaptation, the subscriber module must also separate the two
transmission directions and cancel the incoming echo.

The line signalling of the eight possible terminals consists of the transmission of messages
through the D channel. Therefore, the eight terminals must ’compete’ for the use of the
available 16 Kb/s available. Conceptually, these messages are similar to the N7 messages
between exchanges. A link level is used to protect the transmission of these messages, i.e.
the messages are sent in HDLC (High–level Data Link Controller) frames of a particular
format called LAPD (Link Access Procedure D). This format allows the transmission or
reception of messages to/from more than one terminal since it contains a terminal identity
field.

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1.

Figure 126 : Signalling levels


ISDN Subscriber Internal dialogue
Module
Terminal + TA

ÌÌ ÌÌ
D
Call Control
Dialling

ÌÌ D
Level 2

Level 3

flag CRC DATA control address flag Level 2 Frame

– Terminal identity (1/8): TEI


– Service Type (Signalling or packet): SAPI
speech SETUP
Frame type:
audio 3.1 Type of info establishment or
information or
Called Number receiver ready or
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

digital
etc.
Calling number

Facilities
Level 3 information

The ISDN subscriber module is made up of eight ISTA/ISTB/ISTC boards (ISDN Subscriber
Termination type A PBA). Each board handles eight subscribers, so the ISM provides access
to a total of 64 ISDN subscribers. In the same way as for the analogue subscriber module,
every two ISMs are connected in crossover (X–OVER).

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Figure 127 : ISM PBA composition


TO THE OTHER CE
(Cross–Over)

a
1

b
8
ISTA/B/C
MCUB
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

8
ISTA/B/C
8 x 8 = 64 Subscriber loops

1. The ISTA board, which is used when the U–interface uses the 4B/3T coding,
almost contains the same circuits as the DTRI board used in the N7 trunk module. Thus, we
have the ILC for the partial handling of level 2, and the OBCI as the local space–time
switching element. These circuits plus the UIC (U–Interface Controller), which performs the
above–described functions of code adaptation and echo cancellation, make up the ISTA
board (see figure 128).

Each UIC receives clock signals (channel time strobe) that it uses to order its output.

Four ILCs, each with two HDLC frame handlers, are programmed by the OBC to check if
there are frames, delimited by flags, in the eight possible D channels: ILC1 will check the
first D channel and the second D channel, and so on. When one HDLC in one ILC finds a
frame, it puts it in memory and notifies the OBC. The OBC then analyzes the level 2 fields
and eventually responds by extracting the signalling message and sending it, through the
OBCI, to the control element (MCUB). At the request of the CE, the OBC drives the
switching of the speech channel in the OBCI.

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Figure 128 : ISTA structure


ch1: B1 OBCI
7
7

4B/3T
0

T/4B
clock sending
UICs 1 2 3 4 to CE
ILC ILC ILC ILC
– Echo cancellation
– Decodig to binary

V* Interface
found
frame
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ...............32 – Level 2 Analysis
–Level 3 extraction
found
B1 B2 B3 B4 .............. – Ordering of
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

frame
D1 D2 PROM switching the
speech channels
OBCI switching
RAM
OBC

2. For the 2B/1Q line code, a similar board, differing only in respect of the UIC LSI,
has been designed. This board is named ISTB.

3. Recently, a new board has been developed : the ISTC, which can be used for
both 4B/3T and 2B/1Q coding.

This card exists in different hardware variants

ISTC–T –—–> 4B3T coding for the U–interface (replacing the ISTA)

ISTC–Q –—–> 2B1Q coding for the U–interface (replacing the ISTB)

ISTC(+)–T –—–> 4B3T coding for the U–interface (replacing the ISTA)

ISTC(+)–B –—–> 2B1Q coding for the U–interface (replacing the ISTB)

(ISTC(+) supports HDLC tunnel.)

Compared to its predecessors, this ISTC is an enhanced ISDN board in terms of use of state
of the art technology leading to increased performance. In line with cost control, technical
improvements are introduced: technological progress, corrections needed to meet changed
standards and functionality.

To cope wuth these new features, memory size is increased allowing more OBC–code and
software resources, but also the ”double memory” feature for future support of ’software
replacement with Zero Outage Time (ZOT) and Stable Call Preservation (SCP)’.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 121 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


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The functional enhancements are

1) compliance to newest standards of ETSI

2) Support of Zero Outage Time (ZOT) and Stable Call Preservation (SCP)

3) HW Identification

4) HDLC Frame concentration function for B–channels


Because of ISDN subscriber demands for internet, there is an increasing demand for
HDLC frame handling no longer only on D–channels but as well on B–channels. Up to
now we handled packet traffic on B–channels circuit switched. This strategy must be
extended because of internet calls are characterized by other/new traffic values. Those
are

– in average a much longer call holding time a low average data rate (compared
to 2*B–channel bandwidth)

– an unbalanced average data rate from subscriber to network compared to from


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

network to subscriber

– traffic peaks using the complete bandwidth to one subscriber

Because of those characteristics a frame concentration function shall be implemented,


which allows concentration of packet traffic from several (amount is traffic dependent )
B–channel to a single 64 Kbit/s channel on a cluster link. In average a concentration
factor of 8 is envisaged.

Therefore each B–channel shall be terminated by a HDLC controller.

5) HDLC Tunnels and Cluster Bus Contention Mechanism


The basic characteristic of a HDLC–tunnel is, that it provides between two modules of
A1000–S12 and across the DSN a permanently established 64 Kbit/s channel, which is
terminated on both ends by a hardware HDLC controller.

Examplary an HDLC–tunnel can be accessed on the cluster bus of subscriber module


by multiple (OBC–)processors (sharing the same channels), while it ends on the other
side in a single processor, which handles the concentrated traffic.

2.3.10 Mixed Subscriber Module (MSM)

Besides the Analogue Subscriber Module (ASM) and ISDN Subscriber Module, a third type
of subscriber module exists, which consists of a MCUB, and a number of ALCx and ISTx,
allowing to connect to the same module a number of analogue and/or ISDN subscribers.

2.3.11 ISDN Trunk Module (ITM)

The subscriber access previously studied provides only two channels for speech/data at 64
Kb/s and is called basic access. For high traffic subscribers such as an ISDN PABX, a

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different access, called primary access, is used. This access is based on a digital
32–channel PCM link where one channel is reserved for the signalling of all the others.

Figure 129 : Primary Rate Access

31 X 16 0

SIGNALLING CHANNEL:
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– Sending of point to point LAPD frames


TEI = 0, SAPI= signalling
with signalling messages related to the
rest of the channels

In the A1000 S12 system, the module that receives such interface is the ITM. This module is
made up of a DTRI and an MCUB board, identical to those used in the N7 trunk module but
with different software. The ITM boards contain the software required to handle the ISDN
levels two and three.

Figure 130 : IPTM functions in PRA

CH X

CH X
CH Y
TRAC
CH 16

SIGNALLING
MESSAGES
– HDB3 / BIN LEVEL 3
TREATMENT
– RETIMING
ILC
– FRAME ALIGNEMENT LAP–D MCUB
TREATMENT
FRAMES
– 8 / 16 BITS

PROM

OBC
RAM 386 DTRI

LEVEL 2 ANALYSIS

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2.3.12 The Data Link Module (DLM)

The A1000 S12 modules do not support modem connections (e.g: HCCM, IPTM, ...) When
an analogue modem connection is required (e.g: connections towards an Electronic Data
Processing Centre (EDPC) through the Packet Switching Network (PSN), analogue N7
connections, ...), an additional module is used: the Data Link Module.

The Nr7 message is prepared in the HCCM (or IPTM) module. From there it is transmitted
towards the DLM module which is connected to the modem using a V24 functional interface.

The DLM is composed of two PBAs: the MCUA/E and the MIRB. The MCUA/E contains the
CE and the TI. The MIRB PBA is responsible for the physical data transmission to the
EDPC.

ÌÌÌ Figure 131 : Analogue N7 connection

ÌÌÌ DATA TO BE SENT

ÌÌÌ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ACE

DLM

IPTM X.25 modem

MCUA/E MIRB
modem
DTE1

DTE4

modem
X.25 PKT LAPB

ÌÌÌ
GENERATION

ÌÌÌ X.25 PACKET

ÌÌÌ
DCE
PSN

2.3.13 EPM: Extended Peripheral Module

Extended Peripheral Module (EPM) provides the means of interworking between S12 and
Local Area Network (LAN), which is combined with TCP/IP on transport and network layer
and 10 BaseT Ethernet on data link layer and physical layer.

As a node in a local area network (LAN) which uses 10 BaseT Ethernet as a backbone,
EPM allows S12 to interconnect with all nodes of a LAN by means of TCP/IP protocol. The
advantages of developing EPM module is that :

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1.

- By using TCP/IP functions in EPM, as an interface between S12 and LAN, application
programs can be developed on the WSs/PCs

- Because of the powerful tools and libraries to design graphic user interface (GUI) with a
workstation, such as X windows, MOTIF, Sunview, etc. S12 programmers can develop
user friendlier interfaces

- An alternate for S12 to provide other I/O channel devices. For example, the network
measurement data or the charging data can be sent directly to a workstation or a PC
disk. I

- High speed transmission channel toward PC/WS, compared with RS232.

The EPM module will be implemented as a system ACE in phase 1. More than one EPM
module is possible in one exchange which act as nodes for different LANs. The number of
EPM modules depends on the traffic load of various applications. The maximun traffic load
per EPM will be evaluated during testing.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

An interesting board in the EPM is the LAN Module Controller (LMCA) PBA. This PBA
interfaces to a twisted pair ETHERNET LAN (10baseT) external device or HUB. It will be
used in the S12 EPM for LAN applications. The PBA–LMCA environment in the S12 system
is presented in the next figure.

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1.

Figure 132 : LMCA

TERMINAL
INTERFACE
TERMINAL PART
CLUSTER DSN
INTERFACE

BUFFER
PROCESSOR
DEMUX MMB/HSB
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ETHERNET
I/F LAN

PROCESSOR
MEMORY
PART
SERIAL INTERFACE

LMCA
The processor (D229) is a 32–bit Intel 80386 compatible microprocessor

The memory includes up to 8 Mbytes of on–board memory.

The ETHERNET LAN interface circuits comprise the following areas:

- Serial network interface controller (SNIC). The serial network interface used in
PBA–LMCA is NS DP83902 (Serial Network Interface Controller, SNIC) D1701. It
provides a comprehensive single chip solution for 10BASE–T IEEE 802.3 networks.

- Address ID PROM. This is used to store a unique network address.

- Buffer memory. The buffer memory (D1601,D1602) is used for temporary storage of
receive and transmit packets.

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1.

- I/O ports . The I/O ports are the buffer which interface between processor and SNIC.

- 16/32 Bit data Bus buffer. The data bus buffers (D1604 and D1607 or D1613 and
D1616) are used for 16–bit bidirection data transfer.

- LED Indicator. These LEDs are used to indicate the status of LAN chip.

2.3.14 ISDN Remote Subscriber Unit (IRSU)


ISDN RSU Interface Module (IRIM)

The IRSU is a mixed analog/ISDN telephone line concentrator, designed for use in both rural
and urban environments. Subscribers connected to an IRSU receive the same services and
facilities as if they were connected to a subscriber module.

An IRSU allows the remote connection of up to 976 analogue subscribers, 480 ISDN
subscribers or a combination. The proportion of analogue and ISDN can be varied to meet
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

changing requirements, using the ratio of one ISDN to two analogue subscribers. Several
IRSUs can be connected to an A1000 S12 exchange, which is called the multidrop
configurations. This multidrop configuration consists of a maximum of eight IRSUs, providing
access to up to 1024 analogue or 512 ISDN subscribers or a combination. The interface
module used in the A1000 S12 exchanges is the so called IRIM. The actual interface is
realised with digital links.

Figure 133 : IRSU point to point configuration


IRSU

Up to
976 Analogue
or PCM LINKS IRIM
480 ISDN
subscriber
A1000S12

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1.

Figure 134 : Multidrop configuration


UP TO 1024 OR 512

IRSU IRSU IRSU

1 2 8

IRIM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The multidrop configuration can be easily extended till the maximum number of 8 IRSUs by
adding new IRSUs. The dialogue between the IRIM and each IRSU in the multidrop is based
on the control of a series of multiplexers , named K1 and K2. These multiplexers make
possible the isolation of the IRSU (e.g. when the feeding fails), or the closing of the loop
from one IRSU on, as well as, the option to insert messages or not into channel 16, or letting
the messages addressed to another IRSU or to the IRIM pass through.

Figure 135 : Multiplexers in the multidrop configuration

K2 (LOOP)

CH 16
IRIM
LAST
IRSU K1 (BY PASS)

ALL
CHANNELS MIO DATA
CH 16

ÌÌÌÌ
LOOP
CH 16

CONTROL
ÌÌÌÌ
IRSU 8 IRSU 1 IRSU
TOKEN
K2 ADDRESS
IRSU TO IRIM
IRIM TO IRSU

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1.

Let’s suppose that the K1 and K2 muxes are in the position shown in the figure. The channel
16 loop mux is in the position that lets channel 16 go forward to be transmitted by the IRIM.
After the complete loop channel 16 will come back to this mux.

Using the token and the address field in the signalling frames, the IRIM starts the procedure
to exchange data in the multidrop. The token is passed in a circular way and only the IRSU
which has the token can send CCS Nr7 messages to the IRIM and at the same time, receive
MSUs from the IRIM.

Both the IRSU and the IRIM consist of several specific boards, mainly the DTRH or the
digital trunk,the CALC for the simplified clock and alarms; the control element board (MCUB)
in the IRIM, the subscriber PBAs (ALCN and /or ISTA/B) in the IRSU, with the addition of the
RNGF and the TAUC PBAs for ringing and testing functions. Furthermore, the optional
boards for transmission, the TMIA and LPFA, can be added.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

770 00924 0120–VHBE 129 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 136 : IRSU structure at PBA level


32 ALCN / ISTA + RNGF + TAUC

HIGH LINES
LAST IRSU

OBCI TRAC
CLOCK
TMIA AMPLIFIERS
K1

OBC OBC ILC


K2

CALC DTRH

TMIA

OBCI
CLOCK TRAC

OBC
OBC
ILC

CALC
DTRH
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

32 ALCN / ISTA + RINGF


LOW LINES

ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌ
ÌÌÌÌÌ ÌÌÌÌÌ
STANDARD PCM TANSMITION EQUIPMENT

TWO PCM LINKS

TRAC TRAC
OBC OBC
DTRH DTRH

OBCI OBCI
IRIM
X_OVER

MCUB MCUB
TI TI

The DTRH board has the following structure:

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1.

Figure 137 : DTRH PBA structure

OBCI

CH 16

2 Mb/s

CH 16

CH 1

CH 1

LOOP
ILC CONTROL
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

OBC
USART 256 K 1K
80386

PROM RAM

DTRH
V24 TEST INTERFACE

First we find the same physical interface (transformers and loop) used in the DTUA and the
DTRI and also the same trunk interface circuit for HDB3 binary conversion, retiming and
frame alignment handling. Then we find a PCM link at 4 Mb/s (16 bits/channel) that goes to
the OBCI. In the OBCI, channel 16 is switched towards the ILC to monitor the messages.
Also the multiplexer is shown via which the CH16 loop can be opened or closed (see
explanation before).

On the other hand, the CALC board (Clock & Alarms) contains a simplified clock circuit that
produces the internal clock, using the 2 Mb/s clocks regenerated from the PCM links. These
reference clocks are sent by the clock regeneration circuit contained in the physical interface
circuit of each DTRH. This board is duplicated in each IRSU. Each CALC controls the clock
to be selected (choice between their own or the partner clock). In that way, only one single
clock is distributed. In each CALC, the selected clock is supervised, and a switching is
performed in case of failure.

The CALC also contains the logic required for the handling of the alarms and the control of
the TMIA loops.

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1.

An 8031 processor collects the IRSU alarms (converters, etc.), writes alarm indicators, and
reports changes to SW in the host. The processor handles the TMIA loops, through a
’programmable interface’ contained in a chip, and also controls the ring current and its
assignment to one of the board by closing the appropriate relays.
It must be clearly understood that, with this architecture, the call and the PCM link channels
used are under the control of the IRIM control elements (MCUBs). A possible call scenario
could then be as follows:
Figure 138 : Call Handling simplified scenario for IRSUs
5
ALCN

DTRH DTRH MCUB


1

Ì ÌÌ
DPTC CH 16 X Y

Ì ÌÌ
O O
B B TONES
4
C C
I I
2 3
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

OBC OBC
4

2 DTRH DTRH
CH 16

O O
B B
C C
I I
3

OBC OBC

1. The related DPTC line collects the hook off event.

2. This event is read by both OBCs of the two DTRH PBAs


3. Using the token protocol, both OBCs send a message containing the event to the
mate OBCs in the IRIMs
4. These OBCs, knowing from the message content that the related line is a high one,
transfer the event to the high MCUB (if it is on line).
5. The MCUB software selects a speech channel (’Y’) in the MCUB DTRH link, and
another one (’X’) is selected in the PCM link towards the IRSU. In the DTRH, both
channels are joined, allowing the tones to reach the IRSUs over this path.
The IRSU is informed of this speech channel assignment by a channel 16 message.
The Call Control software continues, using this strategy, with a message flow
IRSU–IRIM, and vice versa, to perform the different Call Control decisions in the host
exchange.

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1.

To increase the traffic capacity of the IRSU multidrop, calls between subscribers connected
to the same IRSU are switched internally (within the IRSU), whereas calls between
subscribers connected to different IRSUs on the same multidrop are switched locally, using
only a channel of the PCM link in each direction for each call.

In case the communication between the IRSU and the host exchange is lost, the IRSU will
be switched to stand–alone mode. Functions to be performed depend on whether an
optional Emergency Call Feature (EFC) is equipped or not. If so, up to 23 stable calls
between subscribers connected to the same IRSU can be handled.

If required by the traffic, the number of available PCM channels can be doubled by
duplicating the number of PCM links. To do so, the DTRF board is used instead of the DTRH
as the former has two PCM links.

Figure 139 : DTRF PBA structure


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

LINK 1 TRAC OBCI

LINK 2 TRAC OBCI

LSCM

OBC
RAM
ILC

DTRF

With this, the IRSU structure would be:

770 00924 0120–VHBE 133 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 140 : IRSU structure using DTRF PBAs

ALCN/ISTA

CALC DTRF DTRF MCUB

DTRF DTRF MCUB


CALC

ALCN/ISTA

IRIM

IRSU
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The IRSU contains maximum 61 ALCNs or 60 ISTAs, as the ALCN boards may be
substituted by ISTA boards (some exceptions for some positions). In case of maximum
capacity (976 analogue lines or 480 ISDN subscribers), one IRSU is placed in half a JR03
rack, occupying three subframes (shelves). One rack may hold up to two IRSUs, the
transmission equipment being installed separately.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 134 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 141 : IRSU Rack distribution and IRSU alternatives

ALCN
1 16 1 16

Ñ
ÑÓ
ÏÌ ÓÏÌ Ñ
Ñ
1 14 1 15 TAUC

ÏÓ
ÑÌ ÓÏÌ Ï
ÏÓ
ÑÌ ÓÏÌ Ï
ÏÓ
ÑÌ ÓÏÌ
AIR BAFFLE
ÏÌ
RNGF

Ì
Ì DTR M/F

ÌÓ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– TRANSMISSION EQUIPMENT

Ó
Ó
– BATTERIES CALC

CONVERTERS

480

ISDN LINES

240
FRAME WITH 3 SHELVES

112 FRAME WITH 2 SHELVES

FRAME WITH
40 1 SHELF OR
CABINET
24

32 64 96 256 512 976


ANALOG LINES

The TMIA and CALC boards have some LEDs and keys on their stiffener that have the
following meaning:
Remark: Going signal = from previous IRSU and Back signal = from next IRSU.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 135 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 142 : CALC and TMIA PBAs


Urgent Alarm Pass done

Going signal lost


Non Urgent Alarm

Back signal lost


Sanity Timer Expired

”By pass” mux switch


Loop mux switch
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Loop bypass activated


Loss of synchronisation

CALC Loop done

2.4 Remote Terminal Sub Unit (RTSU)

In addition to IRSUs, and in particular for larger subscriber clusters, it is possible to optically
remote entire parts of an Alcatel 1000 S12 exchange, including some subscriber modules
and their access switches to the Digital Switching Network. These segregated parts are
named RTSU (Remote Terminal Sub Units), which can be equipped with one or more
analogue or ISDN TSUs – Terminal Sub Units–, linked to the host by means of optical fiber.

As explained in previous chapters, every subscriber TSU is composed of up to eight


analogue or ISDN modules connected to ports 0 to 7 in two Access Switches. Further
modules (Auxiliary Control Elements, P&L TCE, C&T TCE, etc.) can be connected to ports
12 to 15. The Access Switches use ports 8 to 11 to connect to the group switches in planes
0, 1, and optionally 2, and 3. The figure shows an example of these TSUs for a four–plane
DSN.

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1.

Figure 143 : ’TSU structure’


SUBSCRIBER 0 8
9
MODULE 0 1 10
ACCESS
11
SWITCH
12 N 8
13
9
14 10
SUBSCRIBER N 1
7 15 ACCESS 8 11
9
MODULE 1 SWITCH 12
1 10
N ACCESS 8 11 13
SWITCH 9 12 14
1 7 10 13 15
N ACCESS 8 11
14
SWITCH 9 12
7 10 15
0 8 GROUP 13
11
9 N+4 SWITCH 14
12
1 10 7 15
ACCESS 11 13
SWITCH 12 14
SUBSCRIBER 15
13
14
MODULE 7 7
15 0
PLANES
1

2
NOT SUBSCRIBER
NOT SUBSCRIBER
NOT SUBSCRIBER
NOT SUBSCRIBER
MODULE
3
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

MODULE
MODULE
MODULE

If, as in the above TSU example, subscribers are located in a remote area, an RTSU can be
used to provide telephone access to these subscribers. The figure represents a scheme of
that possible configuration.

Figure 144 : Remote Terminal Sub Unit


REMOTE AREA HOST SITE

MODULE 0
ACCESS
SWITCH Optical 1

MODULE 1 Fiber 1

1 7 0
7
GROUP 1
SWITCH
7 2
3
ACCESS
SWITCH
MODULE 7

The concept of RTSU –remote subscribers and optical links– makes possible to spread
subscriber lines of an exchange to be spread over a vast area, entailing copper pair cost
saving and allowing long distances from the subscriber cluster to the host exchange. All
these remote subscribers are offered the same functionality as the local ones.

In case of isolation, due to a link failure, the RTSU must make it possible to set up internal
calls. Therefore, for MF analysis purposes, some SCMs are equipped in the RTSU. Another

770 00924 0120–VHBE 137 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

feature of the RTSU is the possibility of connecting a VDU to it for on–site Operation and
Maintenance purposes.

The link to the host is realised by extending all the 4 Mbps PCM links between the access
switch and the group switch in the first stage of the Digital Switching Network. Every Access
Switch offers a 4 Mbps link to every equipped plane in the host. These links are multiplexed
at both ends using one or more multiplexers, which are implemented as standard Alcatel
1000 S12 PBAs. These multiplexers can combine up to eight 4 Mbps PCM links in a 34
Mbps CCITT G.703 link and a binary interface to an EOC (electro–optical coupler). This
EOC can also be provided in a standard Alcatel 1000 S12 PBA.

The transmission system also gathers the clock and tone provision in the cluster from the
host. The tone link is sent as a 4 Mbps PCM link, and the clock is extracted from the 34
Mbps link by the multiplexer. This clock is the reference used by the SCLA –Simplified
CLock version A– PBA, to produce and distribute the internal clock in the RTSU. This board
includes a PLL circuit that is able to provide a clock signal in the case of a link failure. This
SCLA board plus the control board is named the RTSU Emergency Clock & Tone Module
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

–RECM–.

The figure shows an RTSU architecture for one TSU with 1024 analogue lines – approx.
0.15 Erlang per line–, or 512 ISDN subscribers. Two optical lines –therefore two
multiplexers– are always used for reliability reasons.

BELL EDUCATION CENTRE 138 770 00924 0120–VHBE


1.

Figure 145 : RTSU architecture and connection


1
0 8
ASM/ISM 1 ACCESS
SWITCH M
11
2 N 12 E
U O
7 15 C
ASM/ISM
X

0
8
1 ACCESS
8 SWITCH
11
N+4 M
12
E
ASM/ISM O
7 15 U
C
1
X

SCM

SCM (opt)
2
Clock
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

RECM Tone
C&T
Distribution

Optical

Fiber

M
E
U N 8
O
9
C 10
1
X N ACCESS 8 11
9
SWITCH 12
1 10
ACCESS 8 11 13
N
SWITCH 9 12 14
1 7 10 13 15
ACCESS8 11
14
SWITCH9 12
N 7 15
10 0
GROUP 13
11
SWITCH 14
N+4 7 12 1
15
13
M
E 14
15 2
O
U
C
3
X

PLANES

Clock Tone

For more than one TSU segregation –multi–RTSU–, it is not necessary to provide eachTSU
with its own multiplexer (one or two). It is possible to take advantage of the eight inputs of
the multiplexer to mix the links of each TSU. The second example on the next page shows a
multi RTSU example which supports three TSU accesses using four multiplexers.

In these multi–RTSU configurations, where three or more 34 Mbps connections are needed,
it is generally more economical to multiplex the links (G.703 outlet) to a higher order –e.g.
140 Mbps– using a commercial multiplexer and EOC.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 139 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 146 : Multi–RTSU example

TSU 0
4 Mbps

Access
Switch
M 34 Mbps

Access x
Switch

TSU 1 M

U
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Access x
Switch
M 140 Mbps

Access M x
Switch
U

x
TSU 2

Access
Switch M

x
Access
Switch

The RTSU is implemented in the JA02 rack. This rack, fully equipped, supports up to 12
subscriber modules (ASM or ISM ones), 3 service modules, 6 RTSU Emergency C&T
modules, 6 multiplexers, and up to 6 Access Switches. The EOC PBAs can be equipped in
the air baffle area of the rack. In the host, the RTSU optical links are connected to a set of
EOCs and multiplexers located in the rack type JJ02. This rack has the same configuration
as the JJ00 rack (see the Exchange configuration chapter), but includes a number of slots
for the multiplexer PBAs.

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1.

Figure 147 : JA02 Rack

ÌÏÏ ÌÏÏ ÏÏ
ÌÏÏ ÌÏÏ ÏÏ
ALCN / ISTX

ÓÓ ÌÏÏÌ ÌÏÏ
1

ÓÌÌ
8
ÏÏ 1 8
ÌÌ
ÌÌ
Subscriber

ÓÓ
ÓÌÌ Ì ÌÌ
Module

ÓÓ ÌÏÏ
ÓÌÌ Ì Ì ÏÏ
Ï Ï ÓÓ
ÌÌÓ
MCUB
1 8 1 8

ÌÏÏ Ì ÏÏ
Ï Ï ÓÓÓ
ÌÏÏ Ì ÏÏ
Ï Ï ÓÓÓ
SCM

ÌÏÏ ÌÏÏ ÏÏ ÓÓ
ÏÓ
1 8 1 8

ÏÏÏ
AIR BAFFLE
Multiplexer

ÓÓ
ÓÌÌ ÓÓ
Ó Ì Ï
ÓÓ
ÓÌÌ ÓÓ
Ó Ì Ï
ÏÏ
ÓÓ
ÓÌÌ Ó
ÓÓÌ Ï
ÏÏ
RECM

1 8 1 8

ÌÌÌ ÓÓ
ÓÓ
Ó Ó ÌÌÌÏÏÏÏ Ï
ÏÏ
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Ì
Ì ÌÌ Ì Ï Ï
SWCH
1 8 1 8

ÏÏÌÌ ÌÏÏ
Ì ÌÌ
ÏÏÌÌ
ÌÌ
ÏÏÌÌ
1 8 1 8

ÌÌ
ÏÏÌÌ
This rack is used to equip three different sizes of TSU. For traffic reasons, an exchange
should not have a mixture of different RTSU sizes, except in those cases where RTSUs
have not reached their final size to allow for future extensions. The quantity of ASM/ISM per
TSU is defined by the traffic per line according to the following list:

- Low traffic RTSU (less than 0.151 Erlang/Line): 8 Subscriber modules/TSU

- Medium traffic RTSU (less than 0.201 Erlang/Line):6 Subscriber modules/TSU

- High traffic RTSU (less than 0.275 Erlang/Line):4 Subscriber modules/TSU.


According to this ratios, the maximum capacity of the JA02 rack is of three –high
traffic–TSUs .

The following figures contain two schematics of rack and RTSU configurations for high and
low traffic TSUs. The first one shows a three high traffic TSU RTSU configuration –twelve
subscriber modules–. The second one shows, a three low traffic TSU RTSU –24 subscriber
module–. In the second case, two racks JA02 are needed.

770 00924 0120–VHBE 141 BELL EDUCATION CENTRE


1.

Figure 148 : RTSU Rack for High Traffic TSU

Module 2 Module 3
TSU 2 TSU 2

Module 0 Module 1
TSU 2 TSU 2

Module 2 Module 3
TSU 1 TSU 1

AIR BAFFLE

Module 0 Module 1
TSU 1 TSU 1

Module 2 Module 3
TSU 0 TSU 0
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Module 0 Module 1
TSU 0 TSU 0

Figure 149 : RTSU rack configuration for Low Traffic TSU

Module 2 Module 3 Module 6 Module 7


TSU 1 TSU 1 TSU 2 TSU 2

Module 0 Module 1 Module 4 Module 5


TSU 1 TSU 1 TSU 2 TSU 2

Module 6 Module 7 Module 2 Module 3


TSU 0 TSU 0 TSU 2 TSU 2

AIR BAFFLE AIR BAFFLE

Module 4 Module 0 Module 1


Module 5
TSU 0 TSU 2 TSU 2
TSU 0

Module 2 Module 6 Module 7


Module 3
TSU 0 TSU 1 TSU 1
TSU 0

Module 0 Module 1 Module 4 Module 5


TSU 0 TSU 0 TSU 1 TSU 1

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1.

3. A1000 S12 SOFTWARE

3.1 Functional subsystems

The Alcatel 1000 S12 software provides all the exchange services by managing the relevant
circuits. The main service is the call handling function, with a series of additional facilities
(abbreviated address, three party, detailed billing, etc..). In addition, the software offers to
the administration a broad range of features intended for operation, administration, and
maintenance tasks.

This software is broken down into a series of subsystems by grouping common functions.
Furthermore, by successively breaking down these functions they are grouped into areas
and finally modules.

The software breaks down into six basic subsystems :


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

- Operating System

- Database

- Call Handling

- Telephonic support

- Maintenance

- Administration.

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Figure 150 : Software building blocks

ADMINISTRATION

CALL
MAINTENANCE
HANDLING

TELEPHONIC

SUPPORT
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DATA OPERATING
BASE SYSTEM

Every subsystem breaks down into a series of software areas.

- The Operating System and the Data Base contain the following software areas:

– Operating System Nucleus

– Network Handler

– Input/Output

– Man Machine SW

– Load and initialization

– Clock, Tone and Calendar

– Data Base Management System

- The Telephonic Support subsystem is made up of:

– Telephonic Device and Signalling Adaptation

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– Signalling Handling

– Charging

– Remote Subscriber Unit

– Network Service Centre

– Packet Switching

– CCITT N7 Common Channel Signalling Message Transfer

- The Call Handling consists of the following areas:

– Call Handling and Facilities

– Call Service
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- Maintenance covers the areas:

– Maintenance SW

– Status and Alarm SW

– Line and Trunk testing SW

– Test Signal Analyzer and Test Access Unit SW

- Finally, the Administration subsystems contains:

– Administration SW (Traffic and performance measurements)

– Extensions

At the lowest level are the software modules. The software areas are divided into modules
that are completely independent of each other. These modules are called Finite Message
Machines (FMMs) and System Support Machines (SSMs). The communication between
FMMs is carried out through normalized data structures known as messages. The
interaction between FMMs and SSMs is performed by means of procedure calls in the FMM
––> SSM direction, and through messages in the SSM ––> FMM direction.

All these software modules are distributed over the different hardware modules. As can be
seen in the figure, the software is distributed among the different modules. This distribution
is not carried out in an arbitrary way, instead each module contains that part of the software
it needs for its operation.

The support software (Operating System Nucleus, Network Handler, Data Base SW, and so
on) is distributed over all CEs in the exchange.

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3.2 Software concepts

3.2.1 Finite Message Machine (FMM)

a. Definition and characteristics

An FMM is the basic software–building functional block and has the following
properties:

– It can communicate with other FMMs but only through messages.

– From the outside, an FMM is a “black box”, i.e. its internal structure is not known to
the rest of the system. Its functional behavior is uniquely defined by the set of
messages it sends and receives.

– It may be in one of several different states and transactions between these are
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

allowed. A limited set of messages is defined for each state. After receiving a
message, the FMM may generate and transmit output messages and its state may
change.

Figure 151 : An FMM as a black box

M3_INFO_LDC
M1_ORIG
FMM M4_SLCT_CH
M2_CH_INFO
M5_ACT_CACO

FMM INTERFACE:

M1_ORIG M3_INFO_LDC & M4_SLCT_CH

M2_CH_INFO M5_ACT_CACO

b. Finite State Machine (FSM)

By definition, we know that an FMM may be in one of several states. The FMM may
emit one or more output messages and/or change from one state to another upon
receipt of a message. This state change mechanism brings us to the FINITE STATE
MACHINE concept.

For a proper understanding of this concept, we will study the example shown in next
figure. It shows how the FMM can receive messages A, B and C and, in turn, send

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messages D and E. The functional behavior of the FMM is completely defined when the
message reception and transmission sequence is known. The sequence in our
example will be: For the FMM to send message D, it must first receive either message
A, or C and then B. To send message E, it must receive message B before A.

This FMM may be built with three states. Figure 152 shows the way the FMM works.
The three states are:

– INIT:
This state indicates that the FMM is waiting for message A, B or C. If it receives
message A, it sends message D and changes to the INIT state. If it receives
message B, it changes to the B_REC state. If it receives message C, it changes to
the C_REC state.

– B_REC:
This state indicates that the FMM received message B and is now waiting to receive
message A. When this message arrives, the FMM will send message E and go back
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to the INIT state.

– C_REC:
This state indicates that the FMM received message C and is waiting to receive
message B. When it arrives, the FMM will send message D and go back to the INIT
state.

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Figure 152 : FSM structure


START FMM

INIT
STATE

WAITING
MESSAGES

INIT B_REC C_REC

A B C A B
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STATE STATE
D E D
B_REC C_REC

INIT INIT
INIT
STATE STATE
STATE

c. Types of FMMs

Before studying the different types of FMMs to be found in the system, we must first
define a term that is very important in all FMM executions : the PROCESS. An FMM
consists of a part that is pure code, called process definition, and another part with
the data, known as process data. The execution of a process definition with its
associated process data is known as process.

Let us now study the different types of FMMs with the help of some practical examples.

– Monoprocess FMM

First, let us have a look at the FMM that analyzes the prefix. When executed, this FMM
will establish, among other things, the call destination, i.e. whether the call is local or
outgoing. The FMM will start its execution (process definition) using the data area
(process data) at the moment it receives a request in the form of a message. When the
execution ends, the FMM will output a message and the data area will no longer be
needed for this request. When a new message arrives at the FMM, asking it to analyze
of a prefix, the same process definition will be executed again and the same data area
will be used. This means that a single data area is required for this type of FMM. These

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FMMs are therefore called MONOPROCESS since only one process may be active at
any given moment.

Figure 153 : Monoprocess FMM

PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA
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– Multiprocess FMM

For the second example, let’s take the FMM that handles the call setup. When a call is
set up, a process is created which uses a data area to store all the information required
for this call. This FMM will be handling one subscriber for a more or less prolonged
time; if during this time, another subscriber starts a call, the FMM will have to store data
for this second call. The FMM will then not be able to use the same data area, since it
has already been taken by the first call. If the FMM must handle multiple calls
simultaneously, independent data areas (one for each call) have to be created.

The FMMs that are implemented in this way are called MULTIPROCESS FMMs. In this
case, an independent data area is created for each new request. When the execution
of a request is completed, the data area used for it is released. The FMM part that is in
charge of creating and releasing the data area is called SUPERVISORY PART and has
its own data area. The FMM part responsible for carrying out the actual FMM function,
is called APPLICATION PART.

The execution of the supervisory part is known as a supervisory process, and the
execution of the application part on one data area is called an application process.
This means that multiprocess FMMs always have one supervisory process and a
variable number of application processes.

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Figure 154 : Multiprocess FMM


SUPERVISORY PART

PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA

APPLICATION PART

PROCESS DEFINITION

PROCESS DATA
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– Monoprocess multidevice FMM

Up to now, we have seen two different types of FMM – monoprocess and multiprocess
– each having its own specific structure and operating mode. As seen before, a
monoprocess FMM can only handle one execution request at a time. There is,
however, a special type of FMMs which has a single process but can handle more than
one request simultaneously.

Let us consider an FMM that scans the line circuits. The number of these circuits is
fixed and known beforehand; furthermore, the scan must be executed continuously.
Under these conditions, one data area per circuit will be required but the number of
these areas is also fixed.

We could implement this FMM as a multiprocess one. In this case, the FMM
supervisory part would have to create an application process per circuit only once, at
the initialization time. All these processes, however, would have to exist forever since
the scan must be performed continuously.

This solution does not seem to be the smartest, nor the most adequate. The alternative
is a monoprocess FMM that uses one data area per device. The result is then a single
process that controls a fixed number of circuits. This type of FMM, i.e. implemented in
this way, is known as a MONOPROCESS MULTIDEVICE.

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Figure 155 : Monoprocess Multidevice FMM

PROCESS DEFINITION

DEVICE 1

DEVICE 2

DEVICE N
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d. Overlay FMMs

There are kinds of FMM which do not require a periodic performance or/and which
occupy too much memory. FMMs with these properties are not resident (permanently)
in the CE memory, and are therefore called OVERLAY FMM –OFMM–. They are stored
on the system disk and will only be loaded into CE memory when their performance is
needed. At this moment the FMM program code and data will be set up in a particular
zone of the CE, called ’Overlay Zone’.

e. Shell based systems

The FMMs that we saw so far are implemented as one software unit. There are a
number of drawbacks though with this implementation:

– the maximum size of a software unit is 64 kB;

– if the software is CDE dependent a lot of variants have to be written and maintained;

– if the software handles signalling, possibly different versions of signalling have to be


handled, so again a lot of variants have to be written and maintained.

To solve all of these problems, an FMM can be implemented as a so–called Shell


Based System (SBS). The FMM contains a shell and a number of entities. Each entity
performs a specific task. Figure 156 gives an example.

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Figure 156 : Shell based system

 

S12 messages
  
S12 messages

internal messages
 

 

  
 
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Usually the shell is implemented as an FMM. The entities can be:

– a part of the FMM;

– an SSM (with interface procedures);

– a procedure that is linked with the FMM to form one software unit.

There are a number of rules in an SBS. Here are a few:

– only the shell can receive S12 messages from other software units;

– both the shell and the entities can send messages to other FMMs;

– the entities communicate indirectly with each other, via the shell;

– internal messages are used:

– for the communication between the entities;


– for the communication between the shell and the entities.

– the shell and the entities use shared data.

3.2.2 Messages

a. Standard messages
In the previous section, we have seen how the communication between FMMs is
performed through normalized information structures, called MESSAGES. These
messages have the following properties:

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– When a message is sent, the information will be placed into a 64–byte data
structure, called MESSAGE BUFFER. Each Control Element (CE) will have a certain
stock (pool) of message buffers.

– The message buffer structure consists of two parts: header and body. The header
is used to route the message towards the destination FMM and occupies 16 bytes. It
includes among others, the following information fields: a number (msg_identity),
which uniquely defines the message; a priority; message type; etc, as shown in the
next figure. The body, in turn, is divided into two parts. The first part is the text, or
the actual information, which occupies 40 bytes. The second part is reserved for use
by the Operating System and occupies 8 bytes.

– Each message structure is defined “off_line” and is known by different FMMs which
must use them. When an FMM has to send a message, it must first request one of
the free message buffers. The Operating System will search for a free buffer and
return a pointer with the message buffer starting address to the requesting FMM.
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This pointer will be used to copy the message to the message buffer. In the same
way, a pointer will be passed to the destination FMM, where it will be used to read
the message information.

Figure 157 : Message structure

INFORMATION LENGTH HEADER


MSG–IDENTITY
PRIORITY
TYPE
DESTINATION
SOURCE
BODY

TEXT (40 BYTES MAXIMUM)

RESERVED WORDS

b. Types of standard messages

Although up to now, we have basically referred to the messages as the communication


means between FMMs, they are actually used for the intercommunication of FMM
processes. The messages will always be sent/received through the “message buffer”
mechanism. There are two main types of messages depending on whether the
destination process is known by the originating process or not. These two types are:

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– BASIC MESSAGE:

This type of message is sent from an FMM (process) to another FMM (process). The
actual destination process is not specified when the message is sent. Determination of
the destination process will be a function of the Operating System.
As an example of this type of messages, let us take the FMM which handles the call set
up. When a new call is set up, there is no active process for its handling; thus, the first
message that the FMM (which detected the call set up), sends to the former FMM, is
the one without a specific destination, a basic message.

– DIRECTED MESSAGE:

This type of message is sent by a process to a known destination process.


In the above example, when the call set up continues, the originating process already
knows which process is attending to it. Therefore, in this case, the originating process
will send the events to the destination process in the form of directed messages.
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There are two rules to be taken into account when sending and receiving messages.
These rules, graphically represented in the next figure, are:

– A supervisory process may send and receive basic as well as directed messages.

– An application process may only receive directed messages; however, it may send
either basic or directed ones.
The same rules that apply to the supervisory part of a multiprocess FMM also apply to
the monoprocess FMMs. Therefore, the only process of a monoprocess FMM, will be
called supervisory process.
Figure 158 : Rules for sending & receiving messages

BASIC
BASIC

SUPERVISORY PROCESS
DIRECTED DIRECTED

BASIC

DIRECTED
APPLICATION PROCESS
DIRECTED

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c. Creation of application processes

Now that we have studied the different types of FMMs and messages that are generally
found in the system, we can describe the mechanism used to create an application
process for a multiprocess FMM. The steps followed to achieve this creation are shown
in the next figure.

[1]
A basic message is sent from a process to the supervisory process of an FMM.
As a result, this supervisory process decides to create an application process that
will handle the request received in the message.

[2]
The supervisory process will use the O.S. services to create the application
process. The new process will have an identity that is known, from the time of its
creation, by the supervisory process.
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[3]
At this point, the supervisory process can send a DIRECTED message to the
created application process since it knows its identity. This message will contain
all the information that the supervisory process received in the basic message.

[4]
The application process reads the information received in the directed message
and starts its execution. The result of this execution may be either a basic
message to another process or a directed message to the process that sent the
first basic message. From now on, the originating process will communicate with
this application process through DIRECTED messages (remember that the
application processes can only receive directed messages).

[5]
When the application process has completed its task, it will notify this and the
resources assigned to it will be released (process data).

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Figure 159 : Application process. Creation

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
2

BASIC
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
PROCESS SUPERVISORY PROCESS
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏOPERATING
1
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ SYSTEM

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
3
DIRECTED

5
APPLICATION PROCESS
DIRECTED

4
BASIC 4 ANY
OTHER FMM
(PROCESS)
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

d. User buffer

When a process has to send more than fourty bytes, it uses two buffers: a message
buffer and a user buffer. The user buffer is a memory area that can have any size up to
64 kB. The user buffers are organised in memory pools. Each memory pool contains a
number of buffers of a particular size. Within a control element you can have up to 10
different memory pools. A control element can therefore have user buffers of 10
different sizes.

The message buffer is organized exactly as seen before; however, the header contains
an indicator notifying that it has a user buffer associated with it, while the text includes
a field indicating the length and the address of the user buffer.

When a process wants to send a message with a user buffer, it delivers them to OS.
OS then puts the message in a delivery queue and presents it when appropriate. The
process that receives the message obtains the length and address of the user buffer to
read the information contained therein.

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Figure 160 : Message buffer with associated user buffer

MESSSAGE
BUFFER

HEADER USER
DATA BUFFER
1
POINTER

TEXT LENGHT

DATA
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

e. Compound messages
The messages discussed so far have a fixed structure: both the length of these
messages and the layout of the messages is fixed. When the higher level FMMs
communicate, the same message has to be sent a number of times during a call, but
the layout may differ depending on circumstances, such as when the message is sent
and what kind of facilities the subscribers have.
For ISDN subscribers there is an extra difficulty: they communicate with the exchange
with ISDN signalling, that uses optional components. These messages have to be sent
from one FMM to an other in the form of a S12 message. The standard S12 messages
do not support optional components.
To cope with these restrictions of the standard S12 messages, a different type of S12
message can be used: the compound message. A compound message contains a
number of message blocks. Each message block has a message block identifier
(MBID), a length indication and the contents part.

3.2.3 System Support Machine (SSM)

a. Definition and characteristics


Generally, the software modules are implemented as FMMs and written in the high
level language CHILL. The FMM not only offers specific advantages (modularity and
flexibility), it also has some drawbacks:

– Many times, the software must be available and ready to attend to certain events,
e.g. a hardware interrupt. This readiness is not furnished by the FMM model since,
as mentioned earlier, the FMMs are only started through the reception of messages.

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– In the case of common support routines which we want to group into independent
SW modules, we could actually use FMMs. However, every time one of those
routines were to be used, a message would then have to be sent to the FMM
containing them. This would involve a great shuffle of messages and overload, with
the subsequent loss of time for their reception and transmission.

The reasons exposed here are more than enough to think out a different module, one
module to complement the FMMs and solve the above problems. This software module
is known as SYSTEM SUPPORT MACHINE (SSM).

An SSM is designed as a set of routines, all within the same module, that carry out
some support function for one or more FMMs. These routines are not started through
messages, but through procedure calls; although they can actually send messages to
the FMMs.

b. Types of routines in a SSM


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– Interface routines

These routines are started by FMM processes through procedure calls. In this case, the
routines are executed as if they were part of the calling program. The interface routines
may send and receive directed messages, such as the answer–back message from the
FMM to which a message was previously sent. The routines of this type are the only
ones that may be called by an FMM process. Furthermore, for a process to be able to
make use of these routines, the process and the SSM interface routine must be in the
same CE.

– Clocked procedures

These routines are run periodically. They are mainly used for scanning telephonic
devices. The interrupts are masked out during the execution of these routines, so they
will not be interrupted by a timer or any hardware event.

– Interrupt procedures

These routines are executed whenever a hardware interrupt takes place. Just as the
clocked procedures, they also run with the interrupts masked out.

For this reason, both the periodic and the interrupt procedures must have a short
execution time so that no hardware interrupts are missed. Consequently, these routines
will not be able to send or receive messages as this would take too long. Thus,
functions that require a longer execution time, or the sending of messages, will not be
designed with these type of routines; instead, they will be designed as Event Handlers.

– Event Handlers

These routines run with the interrupts allowed and, therefore, will be able to send
messages.Their main function is to prepare and send messages based on the data

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provided to them by the periodic and/or interrupt procedures. These routines have an
associated flag (event flag) that, when set by the periodic and/or interrupt procedures,
or even FMMs processes, indicates to the Operating System that the Event Handler
must be started. Once the execution of the Event Handler has ended, control is given
back to the Operating System.

Figure 161 : Interconnection of an SSM and other modules

MESSAGE
FMM O. S.

SSM
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DIRECTED
INTERRUPT EVENT
INTERFACE CLOCKED
HANDLER
PROCEDURE PROCEDURE PROCEDURE

MESSAGES

SSM ROUTINES

MESSAGES
MESSAGES

3.3 Communication between processes

As we already know, the software stored in the different control elements is organized in the
form of FMMs, SSMs, and OS modules. Of all these software tools, the FMMs are those
used to create processes that perform the application functions. These processes exchange
information with each other by means of standardized messages.

The transfer of these messages, from the originating to the destination process, is carried
out via the OS, and may be established within a single microprocessor or, between different
CEs through the internal switching network. The following figure shows an example of the
transmission of messages between the A, B and Y FMMs resident in the CE1 and CE2
control elements.

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Figure 162 : Communication between processes

FMM FMM
A B

OPERATING SYSTEM

CE 1
DSN
CE 2

FMM
Y
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OPERATING SYSTEM

This transfer works as follows: the originating process must first obtain a message buffer
and fill it in correctly and then it must ask the OS for its transmission. Thanks to the
Operating System, the transmission of these messages is completely transparent to the
processes involved. The destination process is known from the type of message and the
information contained in the message header, and the path to follow is established by an
algorithm called routing. The routing result may be ’internal’ (communication within the
actual CE) or ’external’ (communication between different CEs).

There are two different ways to start the routing procedure, depending on whether the
message is a directed or a basic one. If it is a directed message, the originating process
knows the identity of the destination process, and writes it into the message header. This
destination process identity contains the identity of the CE where the process is executed.
Therefore, the routing will consist of comparing the two CE identities (origin and destination)
and deciding whether the message is internal or external.

In the case of a basic message, the originating process does not know the identity of the
destination process. In this case, routing is essentially based on the message number. For
this situation, the OS data provides a set of tables called MRT ’Message Routing Tables’ in
each system control element. These tables contain for every message the information
necessary to find out the destination process identity or the CE where the destination FMM
resides.

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Figure 163 : Routing of ’Basic’ and ’Directed’ messages


Ps–1
Ps–1
External External
FMM Internal FMM
A Internal
B

Pa–1
Pa–1
HEADER OPERATING SYSTEM
HEADER OPERATING SYSTEM

INFO
INFO

MRT
BASIC
MESSAGE DIRECTED
MESSAGE

As we already know, the basic difference between the two types of messages is that,
directed messages may be sent to any type of process (supervisory or application), whereas
basic messages may be sent only to supervisory processes. The reason for this is that the
routing result is the identity of the destination FMM and this identity only provides a link to
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the supervisory process in an unambiguous manner.

3.3.1 Communication within the same CE

If the routing result indicates that the message is internal, the Operating System must
complete the transmission by presenting the message to the destination process. This
presentation is not carried out immediately, instead the message is inserted in the delivering
queues with its corresponding priority. The message stays in this queue until the moment
when it is presented to the destination process.

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Figure 164 : Internal communication

FMM
FMM
B P2
A
P1
HEADER
OPERATING SYSTEM
INFO

MESSAGE INTERNAL

MRT
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DELIVERING QUEUES

3.3.2 Communication over a virtual path (VP)

Virtual Paths (VP) are temporary paths that are used exclusively for the transmission of a
message and are released after the message is completely received. This is the most
commonly used type of path and it is dedicated to the support of individual exchanges of
information.

As we already know, a path can be released by sending two or more ’Idle’ or ’Clear’
commands through the actual path. The message arrival acknowledgements are also sent
through virtual paths.

a. Communication with messages

On the other hand, if the Operating System decides, based on the routing result, that
the message is external, it will be necessary to establish a communication path through
the network with the remote control element that contains the destination process.
Once the identity of the destination CE is known, the Operating System must see to the
transmission of the message. This transmission is carried out in accordance with the
steps.

[1]
Copy the message buffer to the TI memory.
First a launching buffer is reserved in the TI Packet RAM. The message is copied
from the Main Memory into this buffer. Of course, the message will be preceded
by the SELECT commands required to establish the path towards the destination

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CE, and the SOP or Start Of Packet indicator. Furthermore, a CRC and the EOP
or End Of Packet command are appended to it.
[2]
Order to launch the buffer:
Once the buffer is copied, the OS orders its launching using of the TI control
registers, where a command is given to launch the packet in any free channel. In
the response command the TI indicates the chosen channel identity. The TI
hardware sends the message–words from the buffer to the chosen channel, in an
autonomous way. Once the launch is completed, the TI notifies the OS which
releases the associated buffer of the actual TI packet RAM.
Figure 165 : Transmission of an external message
TI
TI

P–RAM
P–RAM
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4
3 DSN

5
1

MICRO
MICRO

Main
Main
Memory
Memory

[3]
Progress through the network:
The SELECT commands, written at the beginning of the packet, establish a
network path that terminates at the TI of the required control element.
[4]
Collection and storage in the destination TI:
The SELECT commands of the packet sent stay in the different network
multiports, so that the first word arriving at the TI is the Start Of Packet, SOP. This
indicator causes the TI hardware to collect all the incoming information until the
arrival of the EOP and store it in its internal memory.
[5]
Copy the buffer to the main memory of the destination CE:

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Once the EOP is detected, the TI notifies the microprocessor through the
appropriate registers. This provokes the entry of the OS which transfers the
message to the main memory, checks the CRC, and releases the buffer used.
After the message is copied to the destination, the Operating System again
analyzes the message in order to obtain the identity of the destination process
and stores it in a presentation queue.

Besides the well–known NACK mechanism (backward information), provided by the


network when the continuation of the path establishment proves impossible, the
Operating System uses an error protection protocol. This protocol consists of the
transmission of an acknowledgement with CRC. This acknowledgement is materialized
in the transmission of an acknowledgement message (ACK).

If the message does not arrive within a specified period of time (’To’ in the figure), the
originating Operating System retries the message launch a certain number of
consecutive times (usually three). If the acknowledgement is still not received, apart
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

from other actions to be taken, the appropriate error reports are generated and sent
towards the defence CE responsible for error handling.

Figure 166 : Error protection

CE1 CE2 DEF


Message 1 (1)

Ack

Message 2 (1)

To
Message 2 (2)

Message 2 (N)

To
Error Report

However, this whole operation is transparent to the processes involved and they are not
notified of the correct or incorrect message arrival. Therefore, the actual processes must
support, if required, their own acknowledgement protocol.

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To continue with these ideas, there are basically two strategies to establish a path
through the switching network: the virtual paths and the user paths.

b. Communication with user buffers

The user buffer transmission is carried out by splitting it up into 64–byte portions (due
to the mapping of the Terminal Interface P–RAM). These portions are sent through the
network using a held–up path towards the destination CE. This path is established by
the first packet sent and is held by ’SPATA’ words until the transmission of the last
packet. The destination OS assembles the incoming portions using the previously
reserved area.

Difference must be made between ”small user buffers” (up to 128 bytes) and ”large
user buffers”.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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Figure 167 : UB transfer indication

U.B. up to 128 bytes


USER OS OS USER

ÉÉ ÉÉ
MSG_UB

ÉÉ ÉÉ
MSG MSG (keep conn.) Get UB

ÁÁ ÁÁ
ÁÁ ÁÁ
Held UB[1]
UB

ÁÁ ÁÁ É
ÁÁ
Path
(UB[2]) (clr conn.)

ACK É MSG

Á
MSG_UB

Á
UB

Á
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

U.B. 256 bytes or more

USER OS OS USER

ÉÉ MSG_UB Get UB

ÉÉ
MSG Get U.B. (VP)

ÁÁ
ACK

ÁÁ UB ACK_UB (VP)

ÁÁ ACK

ÁÁ
ÁÁ ... ÁÁ
UB[1](keep conn.)
Via

ÁÁ
2

ÁÁ
Held (UB[n]) (clr conn.)

Path
ÉÉ É MSG
ÉÉ
s MSG (VP)
ACK MSG_UB
Á
Á UB

Á
– User Buffers up to 128 bytes

In this case the user sends the ”message with user buffer” to OS (see figure 167). OS
transmits this message and the user buffer to the remote side via the DSN. The first
packet sets up the connection and the last packet clears the connection. At the end an
acknowledgement is sent back to the originating OS. The first packet contains the
message itself (standard S12 message). The header information indicates the

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presence of a user buffer, so that the destination OS can allocate a user buffer. At the
end of the scenario the ”message with user buffer” is sent towards the user.

– User Buffers of 256 bytes or more

This scenario also starts with the transmission of the ”message with user buffer”
towards the OS. In this case the originating side sends a request (message via virtual
path) to the destination side for a user buffer. The destination OS allocates a buffer and
sends an acknowledge back (also message via a virtual path). This ACK_UB message
contains the pointer to the user buffer (in the destination CE). Then the user buffer is
transmitted via two held paths (see figure 168, the first packet makes the connection
and the last packet clears the connection for each held path). Finally the A1000 S12
MSG is sent via a virtual path. This message already contains the new pointer (points
to the user buffer in the destination CE). The complete ”message with user buffer” is
delivered to the user.

Figure 168 : Transmission of a user buffer via two held paths


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TI
TI
DSN P–RAM
P–RAM
VP 1

VP 2

11 1

2 11 2
1
33 2 3
2

3 33
N N
SPLIT 1
N N SPLIT 1

SPLIT 2
SPLIT 2

Another strategy used to save transfer time is to pack the data in the outgoing channel.
Up to now, we have seen that eight of the sixteen bits of an A1000 S12 PCM channel
are used to carry data through the network. For user buffer transfers the ’bit
packing’ method is used. This new method consists on carrying 12 bits instead of 8
on each PCM channel thus achieving a better transfer time.

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Figure 169 : Packing strategy

1 Protocol Bits BYTE 1


2 Protocol Bits BYTE 2 UNPACKED
3 Protocol Bits BYTE 3
8

1 Protocol Bits B2–L BYTE 1


2 Protocol Bits B2–H BYTE 3 PACKED
3 Protocol Bits B5–L BYTE 4
4 8

Note: Another way to send information greater than fourty bytes is to organize it in successive
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

message buffers. This strategy saves the time spent in the search for the user buffers and in the
splitting up of the buffer, but increases the transmission time as it involves the routing of each and
every one of the messages making up the series to be sent.

3.3.3 Communication over a user controlled path (UCP)

There are also User Controlled Paths (UCP). The main feature of these user paths is
their two–way and lasting nature. The paths are assigned to two processes, one at each
path end. These two processes are considered the path users. This type of path is primarily
used to create a conversation path between two subscribers or two trunks located in
different control elements, but also for the massive exchange of control data between CEs.
Therefore, unlike the virtual paths, the UCPs are established and released under direct user
control. These two functions, path establishment and release, are performed using the
services offered by the operating system.

When a user, for instance the process PA, seeks to establish a UCP towards the remote
process, PB; it asks the OS for a user path.(step 1). This request assigns, from this moment
on and in a bi–univocal manner, the process PA to the identity of the path that will be
created. This means that all the messages that arrive through the created UCP will
automatically be sent to process PA.

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Figure 170 : Request of an UCP

DSN
O.S. O.S.

PA P
B

CE 1 CE 2
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Now the originating process PA has to associate the UCP to the destination process, PB. In
order to achieve this, PA requests the transmission of a basic message via the UCP (step 2).

As a consequence of the request, the Operating System sends a message notifying the
creation of the UCP to the destination side OS (step 3). The latter, defines a new UCP
identity that will be significant within that CE (CE 2), and responds with the creation of the
return path (step 4). At this moment, the two–way path is established in the network,
although it has not yet been assigned to any process on the destination side.

All messages transmitted through a UCP carry a UCP identifier which is relevant on the
originating side within the message body; therefore, once the message has reached the
destination CE (step 5), the OS there must change that identity into one that is locally
significant. This is done in a similar way for each message arriving through a UCP. However,
the first message must be sent by use of the routing algorithm (basic message), for no
process has yet been assigned to the UCP. Once the OS finds out the destination process, it
places the message in a queue and hands it over to process PB when required (step 6).

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Figure 171 : Notification to the destination process

DSN 3
O.S. O.S.
4

2 6
5

PA P
B

CE 1 CE 2
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The receiving process must now ask the OS for its association to the created UCP (step 7).

Figure 172 : Answer from the destination process

DSN
O.S. O.S.

PA P
B

CE 1 CE 2

Once the path is established, and the processes involved are identified, the path can be
used for the fast exchange of messages. However, these user paths are used above all for
the connection of telephonic devices; that is, subscriber to subscriber, subscriber to trunk,
subscriber to service circuit, trunk to service circuit, etc. In order to carry out these
connections, it is necessary to link the established user path with the port and channel
corresponding to the external telephonic device. This link is performed through a request to
the operating system. The OS orders the Terminal Interface internal switching to establish
the duplex connection by a ’Cut through’ operation. This task is performed in the two CEs
involved.

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Figure 173 : Switching in the Terminal Interface


TERMINAL INTERFACE

CH N CH A

Tx Tx UCP
CLUSTER
Rx Rx
CH M CH B

P–RAM
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Figure 174 : Connection of a subscriber to a UCP

TERMINAL INTERFACE TERMINAL INTERFACE

ASM CH N CH A CH C CH O
ASM
HARDWARE
HARDWARE
CH M CH B CH D CH P

DSN

Either process (origin or destination) may ask the Operating System for the release of the
user path while it is being used. As a consequence of this release request, the respective
OSs release the established communication and notify the associated processes.

3.3.4 Communication with the internal packet protocol (IPP)

The communication mechanisms discussed so far provide services that are sufficiently
generic for the transmission of messages. Yet there still are some limitations:

- the time that a message must wait in the delivery queues

- none of the previous procedures allows for the transmission of messages to remote
OBCs

- the routing algorithm can provoke a work overload in some control elements, especially
those associated with packet handling (N7, X.25, ISDN,...).

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These problems are solved by the use of a new internal communication protocol called IPP
(’Internal Packet Protocol’). This protocol was introduced to support the transfer of
messages between an N7 user, resident in the module that provides access to the speech
channel, and the module that provides access to the associate signalling trunk. This
introduction considerably increased the performance of the message transfer between them,
and its use was subsequently extended to include the data and packet communication
areas.

Figure 175 : IPP protocol in N7

UCP ACE
UCP
INCOMING OUTGOING
DTM DTM
ch x ch y

IPP IPP
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

N.7 DTM N.7 DTM


ch 16 ch 16
IPP

P&L C&T

Due to design reasons, there are different types of IPP users: for N7 application, for X.25,
OSI stack, etc. These software modules are called interworkings (IWs), and, as we will see
later, in order to take full advantage of the IPP protocol, it is suggested to code them under a
particular structure so that they can be activated from any other software module by
procedure calls.

The part of the Operating System responsible for managing this protocol can support only
one kind of user, a module called Common IPP (CIPP) or IPP Handler is added between the
interworkings and the actual OS.

The functions of this new module are to provide multiple users with access to the IPPs, to
receive and route the messages towards their corresponding points, to reserve the required
channels in the network as well as in the cluster PCM links for the transparent transfer of
IPP packets to the OBC/s through the Terminal Interface, etc.

When a process needs to transmit data using the IPPs, it stores the information into a
memory buffer and through the corresponding IW, passes the buffer to the Common IPP
with the identity of the destination CE or OBC and the destination IPP user identification in
that CE.

The Common IPP adds an IPP header –with the identities related to the transfer over IPPs–
to the packet and transmits it to the destination CE.

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An important factor to be taken into account is the size of the information to be sent. If the
information is too long to be sent in a single message, the Common IPP must find an
alternative way for its transmission. The most commonly used procedure is to place the
information in a message buffer and a user buffer – ’Segmenting’–. If the information to
transfer is excessively long, the previous procedure becomes too slow. Therefore, the
transfer time can be reduced by using of a transmission mechanism similar to the user
buffer, that is, splitting up the information into two halves, and sending them through two
paths – ’Splitting’–. Both procedures are invalid for communication with OBCs, given the
need to use held–up paths (not supported by the OBC Operating System).

Figure 176 : Transference of an IPP packet


MESSSAGE
CE or OBC Identity BUFFER

IW Identity

HEADER
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IPP HEADER
IPP PACKET
DATA TEXT

DATA

The transmission of medium length messages (similar to the N7 packet size) or to/from
OBCs, is carried out by a strategy called ’Chopping’. This mechanism consists of dividing
up the information into multiple portions that form a set of separated but related messages.
For very small messages the data from several users are grouped – ’Grouping’ – and sent
as a whole in a single message buffer, thereby significantly improving the traffic flow
between micros.

At the destination the message is passed to the Common IPP of that side, which stores it in
a new buffer and hands it over to the destination IW through the ’procedure call’.

As we have seen, one reason that supports the advance in performance is the fact that the
IPP implementation offers a dedicated message transfer. By dedicated, we mean that the
messages are directly handed over to the corresponding user module, without having to
pass through the routing or message presentation queue steps. However, one first drawback
is that the destination user (IW) must be designed as an SSM routine. Furthermore, the
users must have knowledge of the different identities of the CEs, OBCs and IWs involved in
the communication.

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Figure 177 : IPP levels

FMMs SSMs
IPP IPP
PACKET PACKET
S–12
MESSAGES INTERWORKING

Internal
Interface

Common IPP

OPERATING SYSTEM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

NH BYPASS

DIGITAL SWITCHING NETWORK

The Common IPP or IPP Handler supports the two protocol types: connection oriented and
connection–less. The connection oriented protocol is mainly designed for the communication
with OBCs. In this case, the CIPP manages a table to link the connection identities with the
associated OBC identities. The second case (connection–less) allows the transmission of
data units to CEs or OBCs without any sequence number.

3.4 Software modules

3.4.1 Logical grouping of the Call Handling software into call control planes

In every access module (ASM, ISM, IPTM, ...) there is software to handle a call. Figure 178
shows the building blocks in the call origination and in the call termination modules. The
building blocks are always present, independent of the type of access: BA, PRA, analogue
line or trunk.

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Figure 178 : Call Handling building blocks


AUXILIARY CONTROL ELEMENTS

SUBSCRIBER PREFIX TRUNK


PARM
IDENTIFICATION ANALYSIS SEARCH

SIGNALLING CALL AND FACILITY


HANDLING CONTROL SYSTEM

CALL ORIGINATION CALL TERMINATION

SIGNALLING
SIGNALLING
HANDLING
HANDLING
DSN DEVICE
DEVICE
HANDLING
HANDLING
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

BA BA

PRA PRA

Analogue Line Analogue Line

Trunk (CAS or Nr7) Trunk (CAS or Nr7)

These different blocks can be placed in 3 planes:

- Call Control Plane;

- Protocol Plane;

- Connection Plane.

Each of these planes performs tasks within their own area.

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Figure 179 : Call Handling Planes

DEFINE CALLED DEVICE

Prefix Subscriber Trunk


PARM
Analysis Identification Search

Call and Facility CALL CONTROL


Control System PLANE

Signalling Signalling PROTOCOL


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PLANE
Handling Handling

Device Device CONNECTION


Handling Handling PLANE

CALL ORIGINATION CALL TERMINATION

a. Connection Plane (Device Handling)

The main tasks are:

– cluster handling (seizure and release);

– speech path control (join, release, ...);

– Allocation of devices to various requesters.

In general it consists of an FMM and SSM. It also keeps the busy/free status of the
devices (therefore the FMM part is a monoprocess multidevice). The type of device is
also dependent upon the module, e.g: trunks for a DTM, subscriber lines for an ASM,
B–channels for a PRA, ...
Not only access modules contain a device handler. The Service Circuit Module for
example, also contains a device handler where the devices are the senders/receivers.

b. Protocol Plane (Signalling Handling)

One of the major tasks of the exchange during the setup of a call is signalling.

– Line signalling:

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Hardware events coming from the Device Handler (changes in the state of the
subscriber line) are sent towards the signalling software. These events must be
translated into telephonic events which can be passed to a higher software level.
Conversely, logical telephonic signals coming from the higher level software must
be translated into commands for the operation of the subscriber’s line equipment.
Examples: off–hook of a subscriber, trunk seizure, clear forward/backward, ...

The line signalling function is performed by the signalling handling software.

– Register signalling:

Register signalling deals with the supervision of transmitting and receiving


identities. These identities can be sent by the subscriber via his push button set or
dial set, or via MF/R2 or No7 for incoming/outgoing calls.

For a push button set the DTMF code is detected in the hardware of the SCM.
The device handler collects the result from the hardware and delivers it towards
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

the signalling handling software. The same principle is used for trunks with MF
signalling.

For a dial set the digits enter the ASM by means of line events, and are therefore
detected in the device handler of this module. The device handler delivers the
digits (after counting the pulses) to the signalling handling software.

For incoming trunks with No7, the messages enter the signalling handling
software and contain the digits.

– Combining line and register signalling:

When using more sophisticated signalling systems, it becomes possible to


combine some events in one message. E.g: if a Q931_SETUP (ISDN) message
enters the exchange, it combines the seizure (line signalling) and the digits
(register signalling) in one message. The same applies for the Nr7 messages
used on trunks.

Conclusion:

Whatever type of signalling is used, the result is always the same. The signalling
handling software will collect the digits so they can be transmitted towards the higher
software level, the Call Control.

Summary of the main functions:

– Protocol interpretation and translation into Call Control plane terminology and vice
versa.

– Protocol interpretation and translation into Connection plane terminology and vice
versa.

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– Establishing a datalink.

– Communication within the protocol plane (=inter–signalling communication)

– Administration of timers and call references used in call control procedures.

– Administration of access resources.

– Handling of auxiliary devices such as senders and receivers.

c. Call Control Plane

This is the highest software level within the module. It controls the setup and the
release (during unstable phase) of the call. When events enter the signalling handling
software, it can check in the data if call control should be informed or if the event is
treated locally.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The main tasks are:

– Number Analysis

– Routing

– Call configuration management (complex facilities)

– Registration / erasure / activation / deactivation of features ordered by the


subscriber

The call control plane is signalling independent

The call control plane is steered by data coming from the building blocks within the
group: ”DEFINE CALLED DEVICE”. These building blocks are discussed in the next
chapters.

Figure 180 gives a more detailed view of the call handling planes. The software blocks
are described in the following chapters.

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Figure 180 : Call handling planes

CALL CONTROL PLANE


CALL SERVICES
TRA TRC PATED LSIF ARTA

CALL AND FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM


CFCS

PROTOCOL PLANE
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SIGNALLING SIGNALLING SIGNALLING


SIG SIG SIG

CONNECTION PLANE

DEVICE HANDLER DEVICE HANDLER DEVICE HANDLER


DH DH DH

ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ


OPERATING SYSTEM and DATABASE

ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ASM HARDWARE ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
SCM HARDWARE DTM HARDWARE

3.4.2 Operating System

The A1000 S12 software is divided into nine subsystems. Each subsystem has its specific
function.

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Figure 181 : Software Subsystems

ADMINISTRATION

MAINTENANCE DATABASE OPERATING


SYSTEM

CALL CHARGING RESOURCE


CONTROL MANAGER

CALL DEVICE
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SERVICES HANDLER

CALL TELEPHONIC FUNCTIONS


HANDLING

The Operating System is the subsystem that provides support to the rest of the system, by
managing the own resources of each processor. These resources are, as in any other
processor system, the time and the memory of each one of them.

Regarding the time, the Operating System is in charge of its management, since it is the
Operating System which determines the task to be performed at any given moment.

The memory, having a limited capacity, will also be controlled by the Operating System,
which is in charge of its distribution among the programs that require it.

For these reasons, the Operating System will be stored in all the CEs of the different
modules.

Given its control over time and memory, the Operating System will be essential for the
existence of the FMMs and the SSMs since it will allow the communication through
messages and will take part in the activation process of the different SSM routines.

This subsystem will also handle the clock and peripheral interrupts, thereby allowing the
execution of the appropriate SSM routine. Another function of the Operating System will be
to control the switching network and the Terminal Interface, since it will establish the physical
communication paths between the different system modules.

Finally, it will be in charge of the reloading and recovery of the different control elements for
which purpose it is equipped with error handling elements. Once an error is detected, the
Operating System will interact with the Maintenance modules for subsequent recovery.

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The main functions of the Operating System can thus be summarized as follows:

- Manage processor time: For the OS to be able to perform this function, there is a series
of different tasks to be carried out by the processor. The operating system indicates at all
times which of these tasks is executed according to the previously assigned priority. The
OS will have FIFO queues for managing each of these priorities.

- Manage main and mass memory: When creating a process, the Operating System
provides it with a data area, and when it terminates the Operating System releases this
area so that it may be allocated to a new process. The OS provides the message buffers
allowing these processes to intercommunicate. It also controls the memory areas
reserved for the overlay programs, indicating the relevant areas and their respective
contents.

- Timing: The OS will start the clocked procedures (inside SSMs) at a fixed time interval
per routine.
Other processes (FMMs) can start relative and absolute timers (periodic or not) and the
OS will inform the process upon expiration of the timer(s).
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- Message Handling: OS will deliver the messages to the appropriate processes according
to their priority.

- Control the switching network and the Terminal Interface: The OS allows for the
transmission and reception of messages by controlling the Terminal Interface memory,
ports and channels. It also controls the switching network since it will be in charge of
writing the network control commands for the establishment and release of paths.

- CE load and initialization: A set of OS modules are responsible for requesting the load,
when necessary, of the different programs loaded in the processor memory. They are
also responsible for managing the initialization process of the different programs.

- Control the man–machine communication peripherals: The whole input/output system is


part of the Operating System; the OS will therefore contain the controllers for the
different peripherals.

- Control the loading and execution of overlay programs: The OS will control the loading
and execution of these programs when required.

Functionally, the Operating System can be broken down into several functions, all of them
independent of each other. This basic breakdown is as follows:

- Programs support: Creates the conditions necessary for the execution of the different
FMMs and SSMs. It supports the sequential execution of the processes, for which
purpose it “handles the processes” (creates, activates and terminates them) and performs
the process time planning. It provides time services for the implementation of time–outs.
It collects, controls and initiates local actions for all errors detected. It allows for the
execution of Overlay programs.

- CEs communication interface: carrying out allows the rest of the Operating System, to
send/receive messages to/from the Operating System of other modules.

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- Network Handler: Directly controls the TI and the switching network.

- Loaders and Initializers: They obtain the load packet, load it into memory and initialize the
different programs.

- Input/Output System (IOS): In charge of the peripherals, the man–machine


communication and direct memory access.

Figure 182 : Operating System functional breakdown

NETWORK & ALL


CIRCUITRY CEs
HANDLER
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CEs PROGRAMS LOADERS


INTERFACE SUPPORT &
INITIALISERS

INPUT /
OUTPUT
SYSTEM
P&L

All the kernel OS functions are loaded in all the CEs, but specific functions are loaded only in
the corresponding CEs. In the above example, the Operating System controls the cross–
over in the line TCEs, the input/output system in the P&L TCE, etc.

3.4.3 Database

So far we have seen that all software functions are implemented as FMMs, SSMs or specific
OS modules which will have to handle subscriber and exchange data. In previous systems,
each program had its own data file. This method has two drawbacks: REDUNDANCY, which
means that a piece of data can be stored in more than one place and be used by more than
one program, and INCONSISTENCY, which occurs when a program updates a piece of data

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in its own data file, without changing it in the data files of the other programs in which the
same piece of data is stored.

a. Objectives and use

Given modular structure of the software , a piece of data can be used by different
FMMs (data users) not necessarily belonging to the same subsystem and, due to the
A1000 S12 distributed control, these users will probably be executed in different
control elements. Therefore, a solution must be found so that the data can be shared
by the different users. The two above–mentioned drawbacks can thus be obviated.

In summary, a DATABASE can be defined as a “common pool” of consistent data,


shared by different programs.

This DATABASE concept covers two objectives: no data redundancy and data
consistency.

How then are we to implement our DATABASE so as to bring it in line with the FMM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

and SSM concepts?

The data will to be stored in zones of the CE memory and/or on disks. If one FMM
requires a piece of data, it will only have to search for that piece of data in that place.
The problem remains how the FMM calculates the physical address of the piece of
data. This problem is resolved with the introduction of programs that handle the data
directly. The function of these programs will consist of accepting data requests from the
FMMs in the form of procedure calls (not through messages), localizing the specific
piece of data in that place and, giving the piece of data back to the user that requested
it.

This set of programs is called DATABASE CONTROL SYSTEM (DBCS).

As a result of the introduction of these programs, data independence is achieved with


respect to the data user programs. This increases the modularity and the future
security of the data. Possible changes in the DATABASE itself will not have any effect
on the programs that use it. Bearing in mind the “Virtual Machine” concept, it can be
stated that the data and the DBCS that handle them form a virtual machine with respect
to the data user FMMs.

Besides convenient data access, another basic database property is that of data
SECURITY, so that the data is protected against unauthorized access and also during
dangerous situations such as data copy or update. The system in charge of providing
this security is the DATA BASE SECURITY SYSTEM (DBSS), which is contained in the
Peripheral & Load module.

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Figure 183 : Data Base overview

DATA BASE
CONTROL SYSTEM

DATA

CE 1 CE 2 CE N
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PROCESS 1 PROCESS N

b. A1000 S12 relational database

– Definitions.

The Database used by A1000 S12 has a relational structure, i.e. the data is organized
into bi–dimensional tables called relations.

A RELATION is a bi–dimensional matrix where the rows are known as TUPLEs. The
tuples are divided into fields, called DOMAINs, which are the matrix columns. All the
tuples in a relation have the same domains.

An example of a relation, i.e. a bi–dimensional representation of data, is shown in the


next figure.

In the relations, KEY is the name given to the domain or set of domains that uniquely
identify a certain tuple. The different programs achieve the data access, always, by
getting one whole tuple.

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ÏÏÏ
Figure 184 : Example of a relation

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
TUPLE

ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏ
DOMAIN
KEY
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– Types of relations.

The database system distinguishes two types of relations according to whether the
relations exist physically or only logically (such a relation exists only for the user):

1. REAL relations, are relations that are physically stored in memory or disk,
as they have been defined. If a user requires a tuple, it will be presented as a
whole.

2. VIRTUAL relations, are relations that do not physically exist but are supported
by a set of real relations.

There are different types of virtual relations depending on how they are made up:

– REDEFINED.

– MULTITARGET.

– PROCEDURAL.

A REDEFINED VIRTUAL relation is supported by a single base relation and its


domains are a subset of the base relation domains. The key of the redefined relation
must be the key of the base real relation.

Whenever a user asks for a tuple of a redefined relation, the DBCS will search for the
tuple in the corresponding real relation. Only the subset of domains defined for the
redefined relation, will be extracted and presented to the user. This new relation will
have a name different from that of the base real relation.

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Figure 185 : Redefined relation


REAL RELATION (ONLY ONE TUPLE REPRESENTED)
D_KEY D_1 D_2 D_3

R_1 A B C D

D_KEY D_3

REDEFINED RELATION
A D
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

(USER VIEW)

A MULTITARGET VIRTUAL relation is made up of domains of two or more real


relations. Of this set of relations, constituting a multitarget, one is the starting base
relation, the key domain of the multitarget relation being the same as that of the base
real. The joining with the rest of the relations that originate the virtual one, is performed
through the common domains and by means of a JOIN operation.

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Figure 186 : Multitarget relation


D_KEY D_1

REAL RELATION R_1 A B

D_KEY D_1 D_2

REAL RELATION R_2 B C D

JOIN
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MULTITARGET
RELATION A C D
(USER VIEW)

D_KEY (R_1) D_1(R_2) D_2(R_2)

A PROCEDURAL VIRTUAL relation will be built up by a special procedure when the


regular procedures provided by the database prove inadequate.

Obviously, the relation is not physically stored in memory and is based on one or more
real relations.

Whenever a user requires a tuple of a procedural relation, the DBCS calls the
procedure that searches for the requested information within the relevant real relations.
This procedure will build the requested tuple and present it to the user that asked for it.

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Figure 187 : Procedural relation


R_A R_B R_N

A11 A12 A13 B11 B12 B13 N11 N12 N13

PROCEDURE
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A13 B12 N11 USER VIEW

A property common to all types of virtual relations is that it is absolutely necessary that
all the base relations are in the same control element as the FMM that requested the
virtual relation.

– Physical location of the relations.

A relation need not necessarily be stored entirely within one CE, nor does it have to be
in a single CE. In other words, a relation may be split up and distributed among a set of
CEs, or copied entirely to more than one CE, or even both.

It is, however, also possible that neither of these two conditions are present; in this
case the relation is called NORMAL.

A relation is said to be DISTRIBUTED when it is split up among a set of CEs. Each of


these CEs has a set of tuples in storage depending on the value of one or more of the
relation domains; these domains are called distribution domains. In this way only that
part of the relation needed in the CE is loaded.

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Figure 188 : Distributed relation

DISTRIBUTION
CE_1 CE_2 CE_3

DATA DATA DATA


USER
BASE BASE BASE

DBCS DBCS DBCS

R_1 R_1 R_1

1 6
11

2 7
12

3 8 13

4 9
14
5 10
15
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A relation is called REPLICATED when there is an entire copy of the relation in several
CEs. One of the CEs, called master, will control the modifications of the relation tuples
which is important to maintain the data consistency. A replication control procedure can
find which CEs contain a copy of the relation.

Figure 189 : Replicated relation

REPLICATION
CE_1 CE_2 CE_3

DATA DATA DATA


USER
BASE BASE BASE

DBCS DBCS DBCS

R_1 R_1 R_1

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

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When both possibilities occur together, the result will be a DISTRIBUTED and
REPLICATED relation. The distribution always taken place first, and then each of the
parts into which the relation is divided, is replicated on a set of micros..

c. Communication between the user and the DBCS

In order for a user (FMM) to be able to obtain a piece of data from the database, it will
have to call an “interface” procedure that is a component of the DBCS. When the FMM
calls this procedure, a pointer (p) to a data area within the FMM is passed, as a call
parameter, to the DBCS. This data area, that belongs to the FMM, is known as the
USER WORK AREA (UWA) and it is used as the communication area between the
calling process (user) and the DBCS.

Figure 190 : User – DBCS interface


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FMM

ÉÉ
UWA
P

ÉÉ
DB STATUS

RUWA
R1
R2
R3

ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ DATA

ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ R1 R3

ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
DBCS R2

ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
In this FMM data area (the UWA), amongst others, the following main fields may be
found:

1. DB_STATUS:
This field will contain information about the result of the operation requested after
getting back from the DBCS.

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2. RUWA:
Relation User Work Area. In this area, one tuple for each of the relations that the
FMM has access to, may be stored.

We will explain the way to make this communication effective with an example.

Let’s suppose that a FMM process (data user) requires to read a tuple of the relation
R_1. The steps to follow are:

1. The call to access the data is done by the process to the DBCS. As said before,
a pointer to the UWA is passed as a call parameter.

2. The DBCS is the system in charge of searching for the data in the data storage
device (memory or disk) and of obtaining the requested relation tuple.

3. If the tuple is found, it is copied into the RUWA for the R_1 relation.

4. An indicator of satisfactory result of the operation will be written into the


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DB_STATUS field.

5. The control will be given back to the calling FMM process.

Figure 191 : UWA handling

FMM

1 CALL

GET R_1
5 RETURN DBCS
UWA

DB_STATUS 4 SET

DB_STATUS

RUWA
R_1 DATA
D1 D2 D3 D4

3
R_1
COPY
TUPLE
D1 D2 D3 D4

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d. Direct Access Relations

Even though the use of the DBCS for the access to the data stored in the database,
has many advantages, it also has a great inconvenience that we cannot obviate: The
calls to the DBCS take up execution time.

In order to reduce the time necessary to find the requested information, the users are,
in some cases, allowed to access the database by themselves. To accomplish this, the
users look for the relation start address in the database only once, at the initialization
time. For the subsequent accesses, the users simply fetch the data directly from the
database, knowing the relation start position beforehand.

This type of access has an important restriction: it is valid only for read actions on real
relations. For the performance of relation modifications, it will be necessary to call the
DBCS.

3.4.4 Device handler FMMs


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The device handlers manage different devices depending on the module used:

a. Device handler in the ASM

In the ASM there are 128 subscribers (256 in X–over) and the ring circuits. They are
handled by the Subscriber Module Device Handler FMM (SMD). The SMD is a
monoprocess multidevice FMM with a separate data zone for each device. The task of
SMD is to manage the busy / free status of the devices.

In addition to the FMM there is an SSM. The SSM is called the Line Circuit, Ring
Circuit Device Handler SSM (LCRC DH SSM). The SSM contains:

– clocked procedures and event handlers to scan the hardware for events;

– interface procedures to drive the hardware (hardware of the subscribers and the
ringing PBA).

b. Device handler in the ISM

In the ISM you find the same device handling software as in an ASM. The device
handler can handle both analogue and ISDN subscribers.

c. Device handler in the DTM

In the DTM there are 31 trunks, which are looked after by the Trunk Circuit Device
Handler FMM (TC DH FMM). The TC DH is a monoprocess multidevice FMM (why ?).
When a DTM is selected, and a trunk request enters, the TC DH selects a free trunk
and marks it busy.

Also the TC DH FMM has an SSM counterpart to perform scanning and driving of the
hardware: the Trunk Circuit Device Handler SSM (TC DH SSM).

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d. Device handler in the SCM

In the SCM there are maximum 32 DTMF receivers . The FMM that manages these
devices is called the Service Circuit Device Handler FMM (SC DH FMM). The SC DH
FMM is a monoprocess multidevice FMM.

The SC DH FMM is complemented with the Service Circuit Device Handler SSM (SC
DH SSM). The SSM takes care of the driving of the senders and the scanning of the
receivers. It receives DTMF digits from subscribers and R1 or R2 information from
trunks. It passes the digits one–by–one to the signalling subsystem.

3.4.5 Signalling system

In every access module the signalling is handled by a corresponding signalling system.

In the case of a subscriber module (ASM or ISM) and the trunk modules (DTM or IPTM), the
signalling system has quite a large number of functions. If these access modules have at
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

least 4 MB memory, the whole signalling system can be present in the access module. If
however the access module only has 1 MB memory, the signalling system is split into two
parts:

- the terminal related functions are stored in the TCE (the access module);

- the call related functions are stored in an ACE. Typically this is the System ACE for Call
Services (SCALSV).

a. Signalling system in the ASM

All subscriber events pass via the signalling FMM (line and register signalling).
For each event signalling ”knows” (from a table) if call control should be notified or not.
The signalling system is called the Analogue Subscriber Signalling System (ASSS).
Since the ASM only has 1 MB memory, ASSS is split into ASSS_TSIG (in the ASM)
and ASSS_ASIG (in a SCALSV).

b. Signalling system in the ISM

The signalling system in the ISM is the ISDN Signalling System (ISS). An ISM has 4
MB memory, so the whole ISS is kept in this TCE.

Because of the CDE dependency of the ISDN signalling systems, ISS is implemented
as a SBS. There are different entities for the different ISDN versions, but also different
entities to handle the different layers in ISDN signalling.

c. Signalling system in the DTM

This signalling depends on the signalling used for the trunk (to which trunkgroup it
belongs). DTM signalling takes care of the line and register signalling between the
exchanges. Here again you can have a split signalling system. Depending on the
signalling type, you have:

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– CAS_ASIG (in the SCALSV) and CAS_TSIG (in the DTM);

– ISUP_TUP_ASIG (in the SCALSV, handling both ISUP and TUP signalling) and
ISUP_TSIG, TUP_TSIG (in the DTM).

d. Signalling in the SCM

Here the Register Signalling SSM (RSIG SSM) collects the digits one–by–one from
the SC DH SSM. Once a certain number of digits has been received, RSIG reports
them to the requesting signalling system. The RSIG is always informed about the
requested number of digits, so it knows when the digits should be transmitted in bunch
towards the requesting signalling system.

3.4.6 Call Control

- This plane contains Call and Facility Control System (CFCS). CFCS is a multiprocess
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

FMM.

CFCS handles:

– the basic call set–up for subscribers;

– the basic call set–up for trunks;

– supplementary services;

– the interface towards the SSF for IN services.

Whenever a call starts, the FMM is activated. Activation means the creation of an application
process.

CFCS is implemented as a SBS:

- the shell is part of the application process.

- each entity has it’s specific task. Entities can be common or CDE. This depends on the
main call control functions they logically belong to:

– basic call set–up: these entities are common;

– supplementary services: these enities are CDE;

– interface to IN: these entities are common.

3.4.7 Auxiliary Resources TCE Allocator

ARTA stands for Auxiliary Resource TCE Allocator. Resource means a DTMF receiver or an
R2 sender / receiver.

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ARTA finds a Service Circuit Module that contains the correct receiver or sender and that is
available. Its implemented as a monoprocess FMM and is located in the System ACE for
Call Services.

The actual search for a SCM is performed by a procedural relation. This relation is consulted
by ARTA. Figure 192 explains how the procedural relation works:

Figure 192 : ARTA procedural relation

Procedural Relation

INDEX 1 SCM 1 AVAIL


a 2 SCM 2 UNAVAIL
2
3 SCM 3 UNAVAIL b

d 4 SCM 4 AVAIL
5 5 SCM 5 AVAIL
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

6 SCM 6 AVAIL

c
ARTA
RUWA
4 SCM 4 AVAIL

Following steps are taken in the procedural relation :

[a]
The index is used to select a tuple from the relation.

[b]
Starting from this index, a sequential search is done until an SCM with the status
AVAILABLE is found.

[c]
The tuple is copied to the RUWA of the ARTA FMM.

[d]
The index is updated to make sure that the next search starts with the next SCM in the
list.

Then we return from the procedural relation.

3.4.8 Analysis of the Called Party Digits

Based upon the received digits, the destination of the call has to be defined. This is done by
an FMM, called PATED (Prefix Analysis and Task Element Definition).

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PATED consists of two functional parts

- Prefix Analysis. This part provides a digit preparation and analysis, resulting in a
Condensed Prefix (CPX), a Cause or a request for more digits.
The CPX is a number assigned to all digit combinations which result in a common set of
tasks : all subscribers connected locally, which must be charged in the same way have a
same CPX, while all digit combinations leading to the selection of the same outgoing
route (for outgoing calls) have another CPX assigned to it.
A cause is a number indicating which faulty situation occurred. The cause value found by
PATED could for instance be a value indicating ’DN Not Assigned’.
In the case of a CPX or a Cause, the result is passed to the second part for further
analysis.
In the case of a request for more digits, a message is sent back to CFCS to receive more
digits from the originating side.

- Task Element Definition. This part receives the result from the previous part (CPX or
Cause) and retrieves information about the tasks to be executed to complete the call.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

These tasks are : destination information, charging parameters, restrictions, numbering


type and signalling information.
These tasks not only depend on the received digits (CPX), but some of them are also a
function of the time of day, the type of call (normal call, operator call,...) or the origin of the
call (subscriber, incoming trunk,...).

Figure 193 gives an overview of the structure of PATED. We will describe the different
blocks in greater detail.

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Figure 193 : PATED Structure

Prefix Analysis Task Element Definition


Request more digits
Received digits Digit preparation
CPX
&
Digit Analysis CAUSE
Tasks

ÉÉ
ÉÉ
ÉÉ
ÉÉ
Task

ÉÉ
ÉÉ
Element
Type of call Category Definition
Analysis
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Origin Origin
Analysis

Time Time
Analysis

a. Category Analysis

Here, the Type of call is analysed. Possibilities are : Operator call, Data call, Test call,
normal call, priority call,...
The result of this analysis serves as input for the Task Element Definition and for the
Digit Preparation.

b. Origin Analysis

In this block the origin of the call is defined. This origin is a combination of :

– Type of Numbering Plan (telephone, telex, private numbering plan,...)

– Nature of Address : The Nature of Address specifies the layout of the received digit
stream (International, National, Network Specific,...). This value indicates whether
or not the country code is inserted in the received digit stream, whether or not the
trunk code is inserted ... .

– SourceCode : Defines the type of originating equipment (Subscriber, trunk, test


equipment,...) and the group (subscriber group , trunkgroup,...) to which the
originating device belongs.

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The result of this analysis serves as input for the Task Element Definition and for the
Digit Preparation & Analysis.

c. Time Analysis

Here, the time of day is analysed. This analysis result serves as input for the Task
Element Definition block.

d. Digit Preparation

The function of digit preparation is to adapt the layout of the received digit stream to a
standard digit stream layout, used inside the exchange.

Example :
Suppose the standard layout in the exchange is :
0 P Q A B C D E ...
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Where P Q = The zone prefix


A B C = The exchange prefix
D E ... = The subscriber identity inside the exchange

If the received digit stream has layout A B C D E..., digits 0 P Q have to be inserted
before the A.
The digit preparation depends on

– The received digits

– The type of call

– The origin of the call (Source code + nature of address + Numbering plan indicator)

Figure 194 gives an overview of the digit preparation.

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Figure 194 : Digit preparation


Received digit stream

Origin Digit
Adapted
Preparation digit stream
Type of call

Received digits Origin Type of call Adapted digit stream


Sourcecode Nataddr. Numb. plan
0 P Q A B C D E ... Subscr unknown E164 Normal Call 0 P Q A B C D E ...
A B C D E ... Subscr unknown E164 Normal Call 0 P Q A B C D E ...
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P Q A B C D E ... Incoming National E164 Normal Call 0 P Q A B C D E ...


I1 I2 I3 P Q A B C D E ... Incoming Internat. E164 Normal Call 0 P Q A B C D E ...

... ... ... ... ... ...

e. Digit Analysis

In this block the received digits are analysed to define the destination and the tasks to
be executed to reach that destination. For the analysis of the digits, we use a tree
structure. Figure 195 shows the layout of this tree. Each element of the tree contains
16 entries. The first digit, D1 is used as an index in the first element. Here we find a
pointer to a next element. Now we use the second digit, D2 as index in this new
element. Again we will find a pointer to a new element.
We will continue with this algorithm, each time using the next received digit (D3, D4,...),
until we find an indication that the prefix has been analysed. In the last entry we will
find a Condensed Prefix (CPX) or a CAUSE. This result is now passed to the last
block, the Task Element Definition.

The result of digit analysis not only depends on the received digits, but also on the
origin of the call. This is implemented by making the entry point in the tree structure
origin dependent. In the block Origin Analysis, we will find the entry point in the tree
structure. From this entry point on, we will start analysing the received digits. This
implies that for another origin, we will follow a completely different branch in the tree
and so the final result will be different.

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Figure 195 : PATED Tree structure


Numbering plan
indicator
Nature of address Origin
0
Analysis 1
SourceCode D1 ...

...
15

... D2 ... ...

... ... ...


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

... ... D3 ...

... ... ...

Digit Analysis
Result
(CPX or CAUSE)

f. Task Element Definition

This block defines the tasks that have to be executed to reach the desired destination.

Most tasks depend not only on the Analysis result (CPX),, but also on the origin, the
type of call and even the time of day. Therefore the outputs of all 4 blocks of the prefix
analysis part (see figure 196) serve as input for this Task Element Definition block.

The most important information we find here includes :

– Do we have a terminating or an outgoing call

– Do we have open numbering or closed numbering. What is the length of the


number.

– Is it a priority call or not

– If we have an outgoing call, after how many digits do we start trunk selection

– ...

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Type of
Extra Information
call

LOCAL DNET of Called Subscriber

OUTGOING Routecode , start selection point, ...

So far, we have only discussed the successful analysis of an existing prefix. Now let us
see what happens if something goes wrong.

– We did not receive enough digits (yet) to find a Condensed prefix.


Suppose we received 3 digits from the originating device. After having analysed the
third digit, we still have not found a CPX. In that case, PATED will send a message
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

back to Call Control, asking for one or more digits. After having received some
more digits, Call Control will send all digits back to PATED, where digit analysis
continues.

REMARK: The number of digits, which is sent to PATED, is always greater than or
equal to the number of requested digits retrieved from OLCOS . For example: an
ISDN subscriber provides all the called digits in one message, so all the digits are
transmitted to PATED and there will not be a request for more digits.

– Another possibility is that the received number does not exist. Instead of finding a
condensed prefix (CPX), the digit analysis output will give us a CAUSE. Now we will
have to find out what we have to do to end the call properly (e.g. It will tell us that we
have to send a congestion tone to the calling subscriber.)
This is done by the same Task Element Definition block. This time we will send the
CAUSE value instead of the CPX to the Task Element Definition. Now we will find a
list of tasks that have to be executed to end the call. Just as in the normal case,
these tasks are also a function of the Origin, Type of Call and Time of day.

– This feature of PATED is also useful if we find other problems during the call
handling. (e.g. we can not find a free DTMF receiver, A timer expires, a Q931
protocol error is detected,...)
Each possible problem is identified with a CAUSE value. When such a problem
occurs, we will send the corresponding CAUSE value to PATED. In PATED, the
Digit Analysis step is skipped and we jump immediately to the Task Element
Definition step. Here, too, we find a list of tasks to solve the problem.

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Figure 196 : PATED for CAUSE analysis

Prefix Analysis Task Element Definition

Digit preparation
&
Digit Analysis
CAUSE
Tasks

ÉÉ
ÉÉ
ÉÉ
ÉÉ
Task

ÉÉ
ÉÉ
Type of call Category Element
Analysis Definition
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Origin Origin
Analysis

Time Time
Analysis

3.4.9 Subscriber analysis

a. Subscriber data in general


During a call a lot of information about subscribers is needed. Some of the data is
required to set up the call, other information describes the facilities that a subscriber
may have. Since the amount of data is so big, the data is stored in two locations:

– the data that is required to set up the call is stored in the subscriber’s TCE itself. We
call this the subscriber data at TCE level. The data is retrieved by the device handler
FMMs and the signalling FMMs;

– the rest of the subscriber data, including possible facility data, is stored in an ACE.
This ACE contains both the originating and the terminating profiles . The FMM
that retrieves all the subscriber data in the ACE is the Local Subscriber
Identification (LSIF) FMM. We therefore talk about the subscriber data at LSIF
level.
The ACE that is mentioned here is the SACELSIF. Please refer to chapter 4.2.4..c for
more information on this ACE. At this moment it is important to know a little about the
configuration of this ACE.

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The SACELSIF works in an active / stand–by configuration. The amount of subscribers


a SACELSIF can handle is limited. So in a medium, and certainly in a large exchange
there will be a number of these SACELSIF pairs. The problem then of course is to
know which one of these pairs to choose when the subscriber data at LSIF level is
required. The directory number equivalent thousands (DNET) of the subscriber that
is anlysed, is used for that purpose. This applies to both an originating subscriber, as to
a terminating subscriber.

First let us have a look at the subscriber data itself. Figure 197 shows the organisation
and location of the subscriber data.

Figure 197 : Subscriber Data location

COL
COS

DNE
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OLCOS DNE analysis facility_1

TCE level facility_2

LSIF level

The next chapters describe these data blocks one by one.

b. Class Of Line (COL)

The COL gives information about the physical line that is connected to the exchange.
For an analogue subscriber it indicates amongst others:

– the settings of the hybrid on the ALCN board;

– the type of set (push button set, dial pulse set, combined set);

– whether a hardware key is used on the set.

c. Originating Line Class of Service (OLCOS)

This is the data we need when a subscriber originates a call. The OLCOS data is the
bare minimum data to set up a call. The most important fields of this OLCOS are:

– the terminal number or data key. This is the index into this data;

– the directory number equivalent (DNE). Such a DNE consists of the directory
number equivalent thousands (DNET) and the directory number equivalent units
(DNEU) ;

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– if the tuple represents a subscriber’s line, the equipment number (EN) is given. The
EN consists of the LCE identity of the TCE and the terminal number or datakey;

– if the line belongs to a PABX, the PABX identity is given;

– the tone map, that indicates which dial tone to apply.

d. DNE analysis

The DNE analysis indicates:

- the type of directory number (DN). Some possibilities are:

– not assigned number;

– normal subscriber line;

– Multi–Subscriber Number (MSN);


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– Direct Dialling–In Extension (DDI–Ext).

– depending on the type of DN, further information is given:

– if the DN represents a single subscriber line, the equipment number (EN) is


given. The EN consists of the LCE identity of the TCE and the terminal number
or datakey;

– if the DN represents a line of a PABX, the PABX identity is given.

e. Class Of Service (COS)

The COS data gives information about both public subscribers (analogue and ISDN)
and BCG subscribers.

The COS data contains both the originating COS data and the terminating COS data.

f. Facility data

The data that describes the different facilities is stored in separate relations. As an
example there is a relation that holds the abbreviated dialling information, an other
relation that holds the call forwarding information, and so on.

If a subscriber does not have any facilities, no tuple out of these relations are allocated
to this subscriber.

If an operator assigns a facility to a subscriber, a tuple from the relation that describes
that facility is allocated to the subscriber. The tuple is then linked to the subscriber’s
COS data. If a second facility is assigned, a tuple from an other relation is allocated
and linked to the COS data as well. The COS data and the facility data thus form a
chained structure. The reason for implementing the facility data in a chained structure,

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is that you only have to use a tuple of a particular facility relation if the subscriber has
that facility.

In the example of figure 197 the subscriber appears to have two facilities.

g. Retrieval of data for originating subscribers

To describe the subscriber data in detail and how it is retrieved, let us have a look at an
example. Let us assume closed numbering with seven digits. Let us call the digits
D1D2D3D4D5D6D7. Figure 198 indicates how the DN can be broken up into the DNET,
the DNEU and the DNEH.

Figure 198 : DNET, DNEU and DNEH


DNEU

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DNET

DNEH

Figure 199 gives an overview of the subscriber data structure.

Figure 199 : Subscriber data in detail


TCE level LSIF level
COS link
TN or DK DN analysis chain
00
DNET block
formula of COS
OLCOS DNEU
D5 100
DNEH tuples
facility_1
99
DNEH
analysis 00
facility_2

D6D7

99

The subscriber data is retrieved in the following sequence:

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[1]
The OLCOS data is retrieved in the TCE. The key to this data is the terminal number
(TN) or the data key (DK). The DNET is amongst others used in the SCALSV to find
the correct SACELSIF.
Note : An analogue subscriber can only have one profile stored at TCE–level in R_OLCOS; that
profile is stored against the TN. An ISDN BA can have up to 8 MSN’s assigned to the same access,
thus to the same TN, and for each of these MSN’s, a separate profile can be stored. For each MSN,
a tuple has to be stored in R_OLCOS. At TCE–level, a specific procedural relation, called the
SCREENING PROCEDURE, will translate the TN and MSN in a new parameter called the DataKey
(DK), which is used as a key in R_OLCOS.

[2]
In the SACELSIF the first action is to find the directory number equivalent hundreds
(DNEH). The DNEH is calculated with a formula: DNEH = (DNET – 1) * 10 + D5 + 1.

[3]
The DNEH is then analysed. The DNEH can represent:
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– a block of 100 DNs for normal subscribers;

– a block of 100 DNs reserved for an indialling PABX;

– an unused block of 100 tuples.

If we assume that the DNEH represents a block of 100 DNs for normal subscribers,
then the DNEH analysis gives a link into the DN analysis block.

[4]
To find the correct entry in the DN analysis block, you have to take the link as provided
by the DNEH analysis and increment it with the last two digits of the DN (D6D7, in the
range of 0 to 99). The DN analysis gives the information as presented in chapter d.
This includes the type of DN and further information. If we assume a single subscriber
line, the ’further information’ also contains a link to the COS link chain.

[5]
The COS link chain always contains at least one link: the link to the COS. This data is
always required. If the subscriber has facilities, then further links can link all the
additional tuples (in different relations) together.

[6]
The COS data was described in chapter e. The facility data was described in chapter f.

h. Retrieval of data for terminating subscribers

In the case of a terminating call, PATED gives us:

– an indication that it is a terminating call;

– the DNET value of the terminating subscriber. This value was derived during digit
analysis.

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In CFCS, we collect the remaining digits (D5, D6 and D7) from signalling. We use the
DNET value to find the appropriate SACELSIF and send a request to LSIF to start
subscriber identification. As in figure 201 LSIF retrieves the EN of the terminating
subscriber, together with the subscriber data. With the EN we have know the location
of the B–party.

i. Restriction match

In the case of a terminating call, LSIF has to examine if the call is allowed to continue.
This check is called the restriction match. Figure 200 shows how it is implemented.

Figure 200 : Restriction match


Access Status

normal line dataline coinbox operator line


normal call
priority call
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Calling
Party
Category
operator call CAUSE CAUSE CAUSE

testcall

– No CAUSE
– Destination restricted

There is a restriction match table. We select a row using the Calling Party Category
(CPC) as index. For originating calls, the CPC comes from the COS data. For
incoming calls, the CPC value is retrieved from the remote exchange via signalling
(sent from the remote exchange as a Type Of Call (TOC)).
In the selected row, we use the access status as index to pick out one element. The
access status was retrieved from the TLCOS. The value in the selected element tells
us if the call is allowed (no Cause) or not (destination restricted).

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Figure 201 : LSIF


LSIF

DNET,DNEU RETRIEVAL OF
OLCOS OLCOS

originating subscriber

terminating subscriber

Prefix DNET
Digits RETRIEVAL OF
PATED DNEU TLCOS
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

OK/
NOK
CALLING PARTY Restriction
CATEGORY Match

3.4.10 Trunk Search

Figure gives an example of (a part of) a network. Suppose that a subscriber from exchange
A wants to call a subscriber from exchange D. In the following chapters you find a number of
definitions that are used in the routing of this call.

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Figure 202 : Routingblock – Route

Exch C

Exch A Exch D

Exch B
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

a. Trunk

A trunk corresponds with one channel of a PCM link. A trunk is bi–directional. To avoid
that the exchanges at either side of the trunk try to seize the trunk simultaneously, two
possibilities exist:

– you can declare some of the trunks as outgoing and the rest of the trunks as
incoming. The fact whether a trunk is outgoing or incoming only reflects which
exchange can seize the trunk: an exchange can only seize the outgoing trunks. As a
result, the trunks that are declared as outgoing in one exchange, have to be
declared as incoming in the exchange at the other end of the PCM link and vice
versa.

– you can also declare the trunks as bothway trunks. In this case both exchanges can
seize the trunk. In this case the possibility of a collision exists. The software then
has to solve the problem.

Every trunk has to be handled by a particular signalling system. This way the seizure
and all the other events of the trunk can be reported to the exchange at the other side
of the trunk, but also the digit information can be reported.

Note : Let us abbreviate trunk to TK.

b. Trunkgroup

Trunks that have the same characteristics can be grouped into a trunkgroup. Typically
”the same characteristics” means:

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– interconnecting the same exchanges;

– having the same direction (outgoing, incoming or bothway);

– using the same signalling system (for example MFC, CCS N7).

Figure 203 : trunkgroups – Trunks

30 trunks
DTM 1 DTM 1

30 trunks
DTM 2 DTM 2
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Trunkgroup AB1
R2 trunks
Exch A Exch B

30 trunks
IPTM 1 IPTM 1

31 trunks
DTM 3 DTM 3

30 trunks
IPTM 2 IPTM 2

Trunkgroup AB2
Nr7 trunks

In figure 203 exchange A is connected to exchange B with 5 PCM links. There are two
trunkgroups: trunkgroup AB1, with R2 trunks and trunkgroup AB2 with CCS N7 trunks.

The equipment number of a trunk consists of the LCE identity of the trunk module +
the channel number, or the trunkgroup identity and the trunk sequence number.
In the figure, trunkgroup AB1 contains 60 trunks, spread over 2 DTMs, while trunkgroup
AB2 contains 91 trunks, spread over 2 IPTMs and one DTM.

Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup to TKG.

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c. Route

The collection of all the trunkgroups between two exchanges is called a route. At
present this definition is primarily used for administrative and traffic management
purposes.

d. Trunkgroup combination

At present subscribers can demand a certain minimum bearer capability of the


network. Possible bearer capabilities are:

– speech;

– 3.1 kHz audio;

– 64 kb/s unrestricted digital.

In addition, if the subscriber has activated certain facilities, possibly a minimum


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

signalling dependency is also required. Possible signalling dependencies are:

– any;

– digital mandatory;

– ISDN signalling preferred;

– ISDN signalling mandatory;

– ISUP signalling mandatory.

Hence, when a call is outgoing and a trunk has to be selected, it is possible that not all
the trunkgroups can be used, if they do not support the minimum bearer capability or
signalling dependency. Therefor a restriction has to be built in to the trunk search
mechanism. Observe the following figure.

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Figure 204 : Definition of trunkgroup combination lists and trunkgroup combinations

trunkgroup Characteristics
4 ISUP Digital transmission tkgcom AC3
5 ISUP Analogue transmission
6 R2 Analogue transmission Exch C

6
5
tkgcom AC1
4
trunkgroups tkgcom AC2
Exch A
3
tkgcom AB3
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

2 tkgcom AB2

trunkgroup Characteristics
1 ISUP Digital transmission Exch B
2 TUP Analogue transmission
3 R2 Analogue transmission
tkgcom AB1

Routingblock to Exchange B :

BC Sign. System subrouteblock Route AB Route AC


Speech , Audio any subroutingblock 3 tkgcom AB3 tkgcom AC3
Digital any subroutingblock1 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AC1
Speech , Audio digital signalling subroutingblock 2 tkgcom AB2 tkgcom AC2
Digital digital signalling subroutingblock 1 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AC1
Speech , Audio ISUP preferred subroutingblock 2 tkgcom AB2 tkgcom AC2
Digital ISUP preferred subroutingblock 1 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AC1
Speech , Audio ISUP mandatory subroutingblock 4 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AC2
Digital ISUP mandatory subroutingblock 1 tkgcom AB1 tkgcom AC1

In the route AB there are three trunkgroups:

– trunkgroup 1 (ISUP signalling);

– trunkgroup 2 (TUP signalling);

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– trunkgroup 3 (R2 signalling).

Suppose that you need a trunk from exchange A to exchange B. If a bearer capability
of digital and a signalling dependency of ISUP mandatory is requested, then only a
trunk of trunkgroup 1 can be selected. If however a bearer capability of speech and a
signalling dependency of ISDN preferred is requested, then both trunkgroups 1 and 2
comply.

So based on the required bearer capability and signalling dependency, a subset of the
trunkgroups from a route can be declared. This subset is called a trunkgroup
combination.

Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup combination to TKGCOM.

e. Subroutingblock

In figure 205 you can see three exchanges. For a particular call from exchange A it
may be possible that both a trunk via exchange B or a trunk via exchange C can be
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

selected. The collection of trunkgroup combinations that lead to the correct destination
is called a subroutingblock.

The definition of a subroutingblock is important for the routing of a call, since it only
contains trunks that (eventually) lead to the correct destination. The definition of a
subroutingblock also guarantees that it only contains trunks that comply with a
particular bearer capability and a signalling dependency.

Note : Let us abbreviate subroutingblock to SRTGBL.

f. Routingblock

The collection of all the trunkgroups that (possibly) lead to the correct destination, is
called a routingblock. This destination does not have to be an adjacent exchange.

Note : Remark that the definition of a routingblock does not indicate any dependency. It only
indicates the routing of a call.

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Figure 205 : Routingblock – Route

Exch C

Route AC

Exch A Exch D

Route AB

Exch B
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In Exchange A : RoutingBlock Destination Routes


1 Exch B Route AB + Route AC
2 Exch C Route AC + Route AB
3 Exch D Route AB + Route AC

The table in figure 205 gives an overview of all the routingblocks, defined in exchange
A. We see that exchange A is not connected to exchange D, yet we define a
routingblock to that exchange D (routingblock 3). If we want to set up a call to
exchange D, we can select route AB or route AC, because exchange D is reachable
through exchange B or exchange C.

A routingblock is identified with a routingcode. For outgoing calls, PATED translates


the dialled digits into a routingcode, which is used to select a free trunk to reach the
correct exchange.

When PATED gives a routingcode, the restrictions for bearer capability and signalling
dependency have to be built in. We call this the routingcode modulation. The result is
a subroutingblock.
Note : Let us abbreviate routingblock to RTGBL.

g. Trunkgroup combination list

In the previous chapters we collected the trunkgroup combinations that lead to the
same destination into a subroutingblock. If you require traffic distribution over the
trunkgroup combinations is required, or if you require overflow possibilities, you can

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define a step in between the subroutingblock and the trunkgroup combinations: the
trunkgroup combination list. Observe the following example:

Figure 206 : Example of trunkgroup combination lists

Exch B

50%
Exch C
first choice

30%

20%
Exch A
Exch D
overflow choice
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

50%
Exch E

50%

Exch F

The first choice is via exchanges B, C or D, with a respective traffic distribution of 50%,
30% and 20%. The overflow choice is via exchanges E or F, with a traffic distribution of
50% and 50%. The result is the following hierarchy:

Note : Let us abbreviate trunkgroup combination list to TKGCOML.

Figure 207 : Routing hierarchy with trunkgroup combination lists


SRTGBL
first choice overflow choice

TKGCOML_1 TKGCOML_2
50% 30% 20% 50% 50%

TKGCOM_1 TKGCOM_2 TKGCOM_3 TKGCOM_4 TKGCOM_5

Trunkgroup combination lists are optional in the routing hierarchy !

h. Distribution group

If in a country several carriers operate the telephone network, it is possible that to


reach a certain destination, the traffic has to be distributed between these carriers.
These carriers have defined complete subroutingblocks. As a result the traffic

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distribution has to be defined between the routingblock (indication of the destination)


and the subroutingblocks.

Therefore distribution groups have been defined. A distribution group contains a


number of subroutingblocks, each corresponding with a particular carrier, and indicates
the traffic distribution values between them.

Distribution groups are optional in the routing hierarchy !

Note : Let us abbreviate distribution group to DISTRG

i. Routing hierarchy

Figure 208 : Routing hierarchy

RTGBL
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

distrg Y
needed?
DISTRG
N

SUBRTGBL

tkgcoml Y
needed?
TKGCOML
ROUTE N

TKGCOM

TKG

TK

j. FMMs involved

There are three FMMs involved in the selection of a trunk.

– Trunk Request Coordinator (TRC) : responsible for the routingcode modulation, the
selection of a trunkgroup combination and the selection of a trunkgroup within that
trunkgroup combination. The selected trunkgroup identity is sent to the next FMM,

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the Trunk Resource Allocator (TRA). The TRC is located in the same CE as CFCS,
i.e. in each SCALSV.

– Trunk Resource Allocator (TRA) : selects a DTM with free trunks belonging to the
requested trunkgroup. The LCE–Identity of the selected DTM is sent back to CFCS.
Also the Device Interworking Data is retrieved here (see figure 209). All TRA’s in an
on–line exchange are located in dedicated CE’s called SACETRA.

– The Trunk Circuit Device Handler (TC DH FMM) : selects a free trunk belonging to
the requested trunkgroup and establishes a UCP towards the DH of the incoming
side (SMD FMM or TC DH FMM)

Figure 209 : Trunk selection


Prefix BC
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PATED CFCS

Routingcode Sign.Type

TRC

Trunkgroupcombination
Trunk group

TRA

DTM–id

DID–data

REMARK: The inputs indicate information, so these arrows are no messages.

3.4.11 Device Interworking Data

Apart from the selection of a free and compatible trunk, another very important task remains
to be done : retrieval of the Device Interworking Data (DID) .

The DID is a task map describing all necessary tasks to connect the originating device
(calling subscriber or incoming trunk) to the selected terminating device (outgoing trunk or
terminating subscriber).

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The originating device is identified by the subscriber group identity in the case of an
originating subscriber or by the trunkgroup number in the case of an incoming call.

The data is retrieved by the TRA FMM and sent back to CFCS.

The Device Interworking Data are subdivided into:

- incoming tasks: these tasks are executed by the incoming signalling. Examples:

– new value for inter–digit time–out;

– send a call–in–progress tone to the incoming device.

- outgoing tasks: these tasks are executed by the outgoing signalling. Examples:

– digit forward sending point;

– digit preparation;
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

– calling line identification restriction;

– moment of through connection (upon address complete, upon answer,...).

- common tasks: these comprise additional tasks or call control. Examples:

– perform charging or not.

3.4.12 Private Access Resource Management (PARM)

So far, we have discussed two types of called devices :

- Subscriber lines : In this case LSIF is called to translate the called DN into the EN of the
called subscriber.

- Outgoing trunks : Here, we call the Trunk Search FMMs is called to select an outgoing
trunk to the correct destination.

In this chapter we will discuss a third type of called device : The Private Automatic Branch
Exchange (PABX).

A PABX is a switching network, located on the customer’s premises, serving a number of


extensions. It is connected to the public exchange by means of a number of lines (Analogue
or BA) and/or a number of trunk connections (Analogue trunks, Digital CAS–trunks or
PRAs).

Figure 210 gives an overview of a few PABX types.

- PABX without indialling : The PABX is identified by means of the General Directory
Number (GDN) . For a call to this GDN, we have to select a free access towards the

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PABX. The process of selecting a free access is called hunting. Inside the PABX, the
call is routed to an attendant . This person is responsible for routing assistance. The
attendant can establish a further through connection between the incoming call and the
desired PABX extension . The extensions are invisible to the public exchange.

- PABX with indialling : In such a PABX, the extensions can be reached immediately from
the public exchange. Apart from the GDN, we assign a DDI range (Direct Dialling In
range) to the PABX. In the figure the DDI range is from 00 to 99. Each number
inside this DDI range corresponds to one extension.
To identify an extension in the public network, we take a Prefix value, assigned to the
PABX, in combination with the extension number. In the example the PABX prefix is
24037. To reach extension 69, the DN = 2403769 has to be dialled.
The signalling towards the PABX must contain at least the dialled extension number. This
is used to establish a connection inside the PABX towards the correct extension.
In the public exchange, hunting is based on the dialled prefix, not on the GDN. In such a
case the GDN is only needed to uniquely identify the PABX.
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

- Hunt group : We can also group a number of individual lines into a hunt group. This
hunt group is also identified via a GDN. A call towards this GDN will give a hunting over
the lines.
Each line is also assigned an individual DN (IDN) . A call towards this individual DN is
also possible, but in this case no hunting is involved.

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Figure 210 : PABX types

PABX without indialling : Attendant

Call routed
to attendant
.
PABX .
(GDN = 2403600)
.
Hunting on GDN

00
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PABX with indialling : Attendant


01
Call routed
to extension 02

PABX .
.
(GDN = 2403700) .
99

Hunting on prefix 24037

Huntgroup :

IDN1 = 2403801

IDN2 = 2404523

IDN3 = 240 2534

Hunting on GDN = 2403800

In System 12, the Private Access Resource Manager (PARM) is responsible for the hunting
process and the class provision of PABXs or hunt groups. PARM is located in a dedicated
System ACE, working in Active/Standby mode. Following tasks have to be executed :

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a. Class provision

All classes (originating as well as terminating) of PABXs, hunt groups or citylines


are stored in the system ACE where PARM is located. PARM is responsible for the
retrieval of these classes for originating and terminating calls. Figure 213 shows the
retrieval of classes.

Figure 211 : Class provision


A. Originating calls.

DNET,DNEU PABX–Id
TN OLCOS LSIF PARM
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Originating classes

B. Terminating Calls.
Remaining
digits

Prefix DNET PABX–Id


PATED LSIF PARM
digits

Terminating classes
Restriction match

b. Hunting

In the case of a terminating call towards a PABX or hunt group, PARM selects a free
access towards the PABX. Figure 214 gives an overview.

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Figure 212 : Hunting


Hunt Id. (Derived from PABX–Id)

Signalling System
BC Reduced Hunting

Hunt group Modulation

Hunting Hunting Hunting


Subgroup block Subgroup block Subgroup block

LineGroup TrunkGroup
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

EN EN DTM–Id DTM–Id

First of all, the Hunt Identity has to be defined. This hunt identity is derived from the
PABX identity. It can be compared with a RouteCode identity in the case of trunk
search (see TRC–TRA). The hunt identity defines a HuntGroupBlock.

Each Hunt group block is further subdivided into Hunting Subgroup blocks. The
selection of a subgroup block depends on :

– The Hunt Identity

– The required Bearer Capability

– The required signalling system

– A Reduced Hunting indication. In the case of reduced hunting, we will only select
free accesses from a subset of all available accesses. This can be useful during low
traffic periods, when only a few lines of a hunt group are being served.

This selection process is almost identical to the Route code Modulation used in Trunk
Search.

Each hunting subgroup block consists of a number of line groups and/or trunkgroups.
A line group consists of a number of individual lines (analogue or BA) having the same
characteristics. A trunkgroup was already been defined in the chapter on trunk search.

In the case of a line group, the hunting procedure will select a free line belonging to that
group. This line is identified by its EN.

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In the case of a trunkgroup, PARM selects a DTM with free trunks belonging to the
selected trunkgroup. The selection of a free trunk within this DTM is left to the TC DH
FMM.

c. Queue service

If all accesses towards a PABX or hunt group are busy, it is possible exists to queue a
call until an access becomes free. This process of queuing is done by the PARM FMM.
Whenever a line or trunk towards a PABX/hunt group becomes free, the DH informs
PARM. Here, the queue is checked. If there is a call on the queue, it will be offered to
this access.

3.4.13 Physical mapping of the software onto control elements


 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Figure 213 : Physical mapping of the software onto control elements

SCALSV
PATED TRC ARTA
TRA

CFCS SACETRA

LSIF PARM
ASSS_ASIG ... _ASIG
SACELSIF SACEPBX

ASSS_TSIG ISSS ... _TSIG RSIG

SMD FMM SMD FMM TC DH FMM SC DH FMM

LCRC DH SSM LCRC DH SSM TC DH SSM SC DH SSM

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ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
HARDWARE HARDWARE HARDWARE HARDWARE

ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ASM
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ISM DTM SCM

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4. 1000 S12 EXCHANGE CONFIGURATION

4.1 Input/Output exchange devices

From the administrator point of view, access to Alcatel 1000 S12 is provided by a set of I/O
interfaces which provide a set of tools to maintain and operate the exchange. This
administration device can be split into the following two groups: Man–Machine
Communication and Mass Storage.
The Man–Machine communication (MMC) devices are basically VDUs and printers. The
VDUs can be system specific VDUs or PCs on which VDU simulation programs are
executed. Their main objective is to control the whole exchange by entering the proper
orders (Operator Request Jobs). Both VDUs and printers are used to dump autonomous
system reports and ORJ reply reports.
These devices are connected to the P&L modules by serial channels – 1200 b/s using the
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DMCA PBA or, 9600 b/s using the MMCA PBA–. After the activation procedure, each of
these connections is named ’MMC channel’.
Figure 214 : Man Machine Communication devices
VDU & PCs

Serial Lines
EXCHANGE

PRINTERS

On the other hand, there are also mass storage devices. These devices are used to store
the software and the data of the exchange as well as statistical and charging data which are
very useful for the administration of the exchange. It is important to note that the size of the
exchange is sometimes small and the quantity of required data large. In such cases, the new
data is transmitted to a remote center (NSC, EDPC..), where it is processed.

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The mass storage devices are mainly the Magnetic Tape Unit, the Magnetic Disk and the
Optical Disk.

The Magnetic Tape is the most commonly used device with large capacity and sequential
access. The digital recording is carried out by using a plastic tape covered with a layer of
magnetic liquid. This magnetic tape is moved by two reels and the data is read/written by a
R/W head.

On the other hand, magnetic disk memories are large capacity memories with a lower cost
than random access memories. A disk is made of metal coated with a ferromagnetic
material, and rotating under one or more read/write heads. The reading and writing principle
is the same as for magnetic tape.

These hard disks have an embedded controller that performs all address calculating and
address translating functions, as well as driving functions of the hard disk. To the outside
world, the hard disk looks like a SCSI device. The hard disks support re–selection, which
means that they can act as an initiator in an SCSI environment.
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The re–writable optical disk combines the advantages of two capacity worlds: the medium
and the high. It ranges in the order of 600 MB. The information carrying medium of an optical
disk is a 5.25” cassette that contains a compact disk (CD). This CD consists of an alloy of
transition and rare–earth materials. The alloy can be magnetized only when it is hot, but it
keeps its magnetic field when it is cool.

Therefore, the writing principle of the optical disk consists of a laser heating up the spot to
be written just before the head of the optical disk writes the information in a magnetic way.
The reading is based on the laser scanning the disk’s surface and detecting any difference
in the angle of reflection caused by upward or downward pointing magnetic fields. So the
read write principle of the optical disk is in fact a magneto–optical principle.

The optical disk used in A100S12 is equipped with an embedded SCSI controller. This
controller handles all the driving functions for the optical disk, and makes it look like an
ordinary SCSI device to the outside world. The most common specifications of optical disk
are 652 MB of capacity and 1.4 MB per seconds as transfer rate (at SCSI interface).

This optical disk might be used as system disk instead of the magnetic disk, but it presents
two problems at the moment: first, the writing/reading operations are performed in a
sequential way, therefore the data access time is slower than for the magnetic disk, and
second, the writing towards the optical disk is limited.

There are other special I/O devices such as MPTMON (Multi–processor Test Monitor).
This terminal is mainly used for integration tests, although it is also useful for other purposes
such as installation and maintenance.

It may be a specific VDU or one PC running the suitable simulation program. In any case,
the terminal is connected to the associated CE via a serial line. The CE is called PTCE
(Permanent Test Control Element). This CE contains the software necessary to carry out its
functions (e.g. access to target CEs, debugging of programs, message traces, etc...). The

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results are displayed on the screen for further analysis. The software located in this CE
provides access to the target CE memory as well.

Figure 215 : MPTMON architecture

ACE
LTCE

TTCE PTCE
DSN

PLTCE MPTMON
VDU OR PC
 1998 ALCATEL BELL N.V. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

4.2 Control Elements

4.2.1 Control element configurations

As seen in the previous chapters, the A1000 S12 control is distributed among the exchange
processors. These processors are located in different modules, each of them performing a
specific function in the system.

The function of a particular module may be critical to the whole system operation, therefore it
must be replaced immediately after a malfunction. On the other hand, the replacement of
CEs that perform non critical functions may be delayed. Taking this fact into account, the