Ransient Modeling of Gas Flow in Pipelines Following Catastrophic Failure

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Ransient Modeling of Gas Flow in Pipelines Following Catastrophic Failure

Ransient Modeling of Gas Flow in Pipelines Following Catastrophic Failure

© All Rights Reserved

- American Journal of Physics Volume 70 Issue 2 2002 [Doi 10.1119%2F1.1417532] Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L. -- Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics- Relating Work To
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A. Nouri-Borujerdia,

Available online 30 July 2011.

Abstract

This paper simulates transient compressible adiabatic gas flows in a long

pipeline following a catastrophic failure using an implicit high order finite

difference scheme as a discretisation technique for convective terms. A

rupture is assumed to be occurred accidentally at a distance from the feeding

point of a pipeline where the pipeline being divided into two distinct sections,

high and low pressure segment.

The results show that at early times after the rupture, considerable pressure

loss will occur at the breakpoint with a chocked flow at this point. After

expansion waves reach the closed end of the pipe, a reversal flow will

constitute in the pipe. In the high pressure segment, the gas feeding continues

and flow rate reaches a steady state chocked flow. In the low pressure

segment, the flow rate decreases towards zero until the entire gas of the low

pressure segment be evacuated.

Numerical simulation

Nomenclature

Cp Specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)

D Pipe diameter (m)

k Iteration number

L Pipe length (m)

M Mach number

p Pressure (Pa)

Prandtl number

wall heat flux (w/m2)

t Time (s)

T Temperature (K)

u Velocity (m/s)

z Compressibility factor

Δ Difference

∇ Gradient operator

λ Concentrate factor

μ Viscosity (kg/m s)

ν Volume (m3)

ψ General parameter

1 Upstream end

c Critical

n Time level

Rupture

Stagnation

w Wall

Adiabatic wall

∞ Ambient

Article Outline

Nomenclature

1. Introduction

2. Governing equations

3. Numerical solution method

o 3.1. Stability

o 3.2. Numerical accuracy

o 3.3. Convergence criterion

4. Results and discussion

5. Conclusions

References

1. Introduction

Unsteady gas flow in pipelines occurs due to rapid and slow disturbances. In

general, pressure and mass-flow fluctuations cause slow disturbances where

rapid disturbances are associated with compression wave effects caused by

sharp closure of a shut-off valve, the system startup or expansion wave related

to the pipeline rupture. The unsteady flow of gas in a long pipeline after an

accidental rupture is of considerable interest to the natural gas industry due to

the enormous amount of flammable gas release and its potential hazards. The

area, which is affected by the escaping gas, could be rather high due to the

large amount of gas contained in the pipeline. Therefore it is necessary to

know the rate of gas release from the breakpoint to calculate the dispersion

range.

A break divides the pipeline into two segments: high and low pressure sections

where the line is totally cut and the flows from each segment do not interact.

As a result of the rupture, an expansion wave moves into the pipeline and sets

the gas in motion towards the breakpoint. The gas flow in the low pressure

segment is more complex than that in the high pressure one, since the

expansion waves entering the pipeline cause flow reversal in this segment and

two directions of flow exist. In one part of this segment the gas still maintains

its initial direction, whereas in the other part the gas moves towards the broken

end. These unsteady flows are usually studied with simplified computational

models, such as adiabatic or isothermal models. Slow transients caused by

pressure and mass-flow oscillations have been investigated by many workers.

Under adiabatic flow assumption, Gato [1] has investigated the effect of rapid

closure of downstream shut-off valves on dynamic behavior of high-pressure

natural-gas flow in pipelines using the Runge–Kutta discontinuous Galerkin

method. Tentis [2] studied the transient gas flow simulation using an Adaptive

Method of Lines. Comparison of isothermal and non-isothermal pipeline gas

flow is also modeled by Osiadacz [3]. Ryhming [4] studied early development

of the flow in a pipe for which the flow conditions are always critical at the

breakpoint. He used the method of matched asymptotic expansions using an

isothermal model to predict velocity profile at early times. The method of

characteristics is used by Flatt [5]. He assumed the adiabatic model for gas

flow after rupture. He substituted a line segment of the pipeline next to the

break by a nozzle with a quasi steady-state flow; therefore he did not have

difficulties with the singularity at the breakpoint. The results of this study show

that the mass flow of methane escaping from the pipeline increases about

25% using real gas model. Lang [6] studied gas flow following a rupture using

spectral method and assuming adiabatic gas flow. He concluded that the real

flow of gas considering heat transfer lies between two limiting cases of

adiabatic and isothermal flow. Olorunmaiye [7] computed the unsteady

isothermal natural gas flow rate after pipeline rupture using the method of

characteristics. Bisgaard [8] developed a finite element method to solve the

partial differential equations describing the unsteady flow of gas in pipelines.

He obtained a good agreement between his simulated results and

experimental data from a full scale gas pipeline. The method was used to

describe very transient flow (blowout), and to determine the performance of

leak detection systems, and proved to be very stable and reliable.

In this paper, we consider transient gas flow following a rupture in gas

transmission pipelines using an implicit high order finite difference scheme.

The advantages of this scheme are reduction of grid points, less computational

effort and time with high accuracy. The effects of compressibility factor on

pressure, velocity and temperature are investigated.

2. Governing equations

The transient gas flow in the pipeline is assumed to be one-dimensional and

compressible, so the governing equations of continuity, motion, energy and

(3)

f is the

Fanning friction coefficient, and is heat flux from the wall, U is

the overall heat transfer coefficient, is adiabatic wall temperature when the

gas reaches stagnant condition at the wall, his the specific enthalpy and ϕ is

the gas dissipation energy per unit volume. Where,(4) (5)

substance using h=h(T,P) can be obtained as [10].(6)

expansion coefficient. The equation of state which is commonly used in natural

gas industry is [11].(8)P=ZρRTwhere R is the specific gas constant,

and Z=Z(P,T) is the compressibility factor which represents the deviation from

the ideal gas law.

Taking Substantial derivative of Eq. (8) with an average value for , we have(9)

Unsteady flow: Initially, a steady-state flow is assumed in a gas pipeline with

length L. At some location of the pipeline between two booster stations, it is

assumed a rupture suddenly occurs and the pipe be divided into two parts,

high and low pressure segments, (Fig. 1). As the expansion wave reaches the

end of the low pressure segment, pressure and flow rate of the gas decrease

and leads to the surge phenomenon in the compressor of the next booster

station. Surge is a phenomenon which occurs when the compressor falls

below some minimum value. This is the minimum flow required at a given

speed for a compressor to maintain stable operation and is referred to as

surge flow. Surge is characterized by the oscillations in compressor flow and

internal pressure, increased rotor vibration and rapid temperature increase. If

the compressor is operating in surge, even for short period of time it will cause

serious damage to the compressor. Suppose the pipe is closed at downstream

end and gas flow is shut down as the expansion waves reaches there, while

the gas supply flow rate at upstream end is kept constant at the initial value. In

this case, the initial conditions required to solve the transient

equations (1), (2), (8), (10) are defined as

follows.(11)P(x,0)=P0(x)T(x,0)=T0(x)ρ(x,0)=ρ0(x)u(x,0)=u0(x)where P0(x),T0(x

),ρ0(x) and u0(x) are the flow variable before rupture and are obtained under

the steady condition.

Fig. 1.

A chock flow occurs at the break point when the condition of or the

violation of the second law of thermodynamics is established, [12]. In other

words, at the breakpoint, if the exit pressure of the gas is higher than the

critical pressure, chocking condition will occur and , otherwise

the exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure as follows.(12)

u(0,t<t∗)=u1u(L,t>t∗∗)=0

and indicate the times of reaching the expansion waves

the upstream and the downstream ends respectively.

Steady flow: Before the rupture, the steady solution of the respective unsteady

problem is obtained from the transient equations just by dropping out the

temporal derivatives of the previous equations summarized as follows.(13)

(14) (15)

under the

index 1 indicates the upstream end of the pipeline.

To calculate the values of four unknown

variables ρ(x,t),u(x,t),P(x,t) and T(x,t) in the high and low pressure segment

after the rupture, the two segments are first divided separately into small

elements. Owing to the high pressure gradients produced at the breakpoint, a

non uniform grid concentration is assumed at the breakpoint. In other words,

the grid points are placed more compact as getting closer to the break point.

The length of each element is assumed to be with centrality i as a grid

point, (see Fig. 2). The size of each element is calculated by the following

expression proposed by Escanes et al. [13].(17)

volume and λ is concentrate factor. Its common value is 3.5

andλ=0 corresponds to uniform node distribution.

Fig. 2.

Grid points and flow direction in the high pressure segment with breakpoint

at xN/L=0.5.

For each control volume, the governing equations (1), (2), (10) are discretised

and a set of algebraic equations is obtained. If replace the spatial derivatives

terms in Eq. (1) with the central implicit for density, central explicit for velocity

and first order forward difference scheme for temporal derivative, respectively,

the finite difference representation of Eq. (1) for density at a given grid

above equation in terms of an implicit form at time level n+1, we obtain(19)

In a similar manner,

Eqs. (2), (10) can be discretised for parameters u and T respectively as:(20)

(21)

where .

follows.(22)AX=C.In which A is a square matrix, X and C are column matrices

of the unknown and constant coefficients respectively. After

computing ρ(x,t),u(x,t) and T(x,t), one can simply obtain P(x,t) from Eq. (8).

3.1. Stability

The stability criterion for this scheme is defined by:(23) Since the

maximum velocity occurs at the breakpoint, the stability criterion is applied at

the breakpoint with the speed of sound at that point.

To study the effect of number of grid points on the solution accuracy, different

values of grid points are chosen in the solution domain. Fig. 3 shows the

pressure profile at the break point for grid numbers ofN=76, 151 and 301. The

results indicate that the grid number larger than 301 has no significant effect

on the results.

Fig. 3.

The relative error of the numerical method is obtained by the following

a general flow parameter and k denotes the iterations number. Relative errors

with number of iteration for velocity, density, and temperature are reported

in Fig. 4. Although the iterative method gives more accurate results, but the

first order implicit forward difference schemes has the advantage of simplicity

and less computer run time.

Fig. 4.

iterations.

To simulate the rupture in an isothermal natural gas transmission pipeline, a

120 km pipeline is considered. The pipeline is assumed to be buried at 2 m

from the ground surface with diameter of 1.4 m. Inlet gas pressure,

temperature, and velocity are 120 bar, 30 °C, and 10 m/s respectively.

From Table 1, the gas composition, the specific gas constant

and the specific ratio γ=1.289 can be found. The average Fanning friction

factor for a rough pipeline is assumed to be . The ambient pressure

and temperature are and respectively. Breakpoint is

located at from the feeding point. Also it is assumed that the line is

totally cut and the flow from one segment does not interact with the other one.

) ) ) ) ) ) (%)

CH4 16.043 191.1 4.64 518.35 2253.7 1735.4 1.299 88

C2H6 30.07 305.3 4.88 276.5 1766.2 1489.7 1.186 4.5

C3H8 44.097 370 4.26 188.55 1679.4 1490.9 1.126 1.4

8

C4H1 58.124 425.2 3.8 143.04 1716 1573 1.091 0.3

0 5

N2 28.013 126.2 3.39 296.8 1041.6 744.8 1.4 5.6

7

M=∑yiMi=17.916,R=8314/M=464.054,Cp=∑yiMiCpi/M=2071 and γ=1.289.

equations (19), (20) and (21), it is first necessary to solve

Eqs. (13), (14) and (15) numerically under boundary conditions Eq. (16). The

results are reported for different compressibility factor in Fig. 5. The effect of

the compressibility factor is more significant on the velocity in comparison with

the pressure and has no significant effect on the temperature.

Fig. 5.

rupture for different compressibility factors.

Fig. 6 depicts the pressure distribution along the gas pipeline at different times

(10, 40, 80, 120 and 145 s) after the rupture. It takes 145 s so that the

expansion waves start from the break point where the ambient pressure is 1

bar and reach both ends. The curves set on the left hand side of the

breakpoint belongs to the high pressure segment of the pipe and the other

curves set on the right hand side of the breakpoint belongs to the low pressure

segment. All curves are tangent to a straight line which indicates the pressure

distribution of the gas pipeline before the rupture. In other words, the pressure

distribution of each expansion wave changes between 1 bar at the breaking

point up to a pressure which is corresponding to the pressure at some

distance travelled by the expansion wave.

Fig. 6.

Pressure distribution in the low and high segments at different times after

rupture.

Fig. 7 illustrates the gas velocity in the high pressure segment of the pipeline

at different times. Each curve shows the velocity distribution of the gas started

from a point in the pipe where the velocity is 10 m/s and reaches the

breakpoint with a maximum velocity of 160 m/s. The shortest curve belongs to

the early stage of the rupture process and the longest one belongs to the late

stage in which the gas has traveled the whole length of the pipe from the

breaking point up to the feeding point.

Full-size image (26K)

Fig. 7.

Fig. 8 states the velocity distribution of the gas in the low pressure segment of

the pipe at different times (10, 40, 75, and 125 s) after the rupture. This

segment is located on the right hand side of the break-point. The negative sign

of the velocity quantity on the ordinate axis is because of the velocity direction

which is from the right to the left direction. The longest curve belongs to

time = 125 s in which an expansion wave has started running from the

breaking point and reaches a distance of x/L=0.45 where the gas velocity in

the pipe is about 15 m/s. It should be mentioned that the gas velocity in the

low pressure segment is bigger than that of the high pressure segment

(>10 m/s), because the gas flow is subsonic and Mach number must increase

in the flow direction and reaches one if the pipe length is long enough.

Fig. 8.

To verify the numerical results, two test cases are presented. Lang [6] studied

unsteady gas flow following a rupture in a 200 km pipeline with a diameter

0.87 m where the break is located at 100 km and ambient pressure is 1 bar.

Prior to the break, he assumed a steady isothermal gas flow with inlet

pressure of 120 bar and flow rate of 750 kg/m2 s. He also assumed the gas

flow is shut down at both ends as the expansion waves reach

there. Fig. 9 compares the present results with the data of Lang [6]. The

results show the mass flow rate of the gas against time at the break point for

both the high and low pressure segments before the expansion waves reach

the two ends. In the high pressure segment, the gas flow rate at the breakpoint

decreases to a steady state condition which is called a chocked flow, [14]. In

the low pressure segment, the flow rate decreases towards zero as the entire

gas in low pressure segment is evacuated.

Fig. 9.

Mass flow rates at the breakpoint for the low and high pressure segments.

characteristics by Flatt [5]. He considered a real case in the North Sea to

steady a steady state adiabatic flow in a 145 km pipeline with diameter 0.87 m

at the inlet conditions of pressure 133 bar, temperature 281 K, and velocity

10 m/s with the exterior pressure of 6 bar. The gas was considered as perfect

with and k=1.33. Flatt assumed isothermal initial condition and

adiabatic flow for t>0. These two assumptions are extremely idealized, reality

being somewhere in between. He also assumed the far end of the pipeline to

be shut down when the expansion wave front reaches there as end boundary

condition. Fig. 10 produces the pressure distribution in the low pressure

segment in the first 500 s. The present work is compared with the data

reported by Flatt [5] and there is a good agreement between them. The figure

states that there is a pressure peak for each curve because before each

pressure peak ∂P/∂x>0 and after that ∂P/∂x<0. Hence, a pressure peak will

appear somewhere between 0.5<x/L<1. The location of each pressure peak

corresponds approximately to the location of flow reversal, where the velocity

is zero. With increasing time, the pressure peak will slowly move towards the

right until it reaches x/L=1.

Fig. 10.

5. Conclusions

The paper deals with the use of implicit high order finite difference method for

convective terms to be applied in transient modeling of adiabatic gas flow in

the case of pipeline rupture. Results are compared to other authors’ results

and they seem to agree well. The main object of the method thus seems to be

the reduction of computational effort and time. At the early times after the

rupture, considerable pressure loss will occur at the breakpoint and there is a

chocked flow at this point. In the low pressure segment, there is a maximum

pressure point and flow reversal occurs behind the expansion wave front. In

the high pressure segment, the gas feeding is continued and is kept constant

with the same initial value and flow rate reaches a steady state chocked flow.

In the low pressure segment, it decreases towards zero as the entire gas in

the low pressure segment is evacuated.

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