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Unit

BASIC CONCEPTS
01
Q.1 Define an atom. Name some subatomic particles of atom. Which of them are regarded
fundamental particles? 01(001)
Q.2 What is the direct evidence of existence of atoms? OR 01(002)
Can we actually see the atoms?
Q.3 (a) Define.
(i) Molecule
(ii) Macromolecules (Board-2003, 2005, 2006) 01(003)
(b) What is atomicity? What are monoatomic, diatomic and triatomic molecules?
Q.4 (a) Define: 01(004)
(i) Substance (ii) Element (iii) Compound
Q. 5 Define molecular ion. What do you mean by cationic molecular ion and anionic molecular
ions. Give example? (Board 2005, 2005) 01(005)
Q.6 Differentiate between. 01(006)
(i) Atom and Ion (ii) Atom and molecule
Q.7 (a) Define: (i) Relative atomic mass (ii) amu 01(007)
(b) Write a note on isotopes.
(c) What is isotopy?
Q.8 (a) Explain the term relative abundance of isotopes. 01(008)
(b) What are mono isotopic elements?
Q.9 (a) What is the Mass Spectrometer? How it works?
Name the first mass spectrometer. 01(009)
(b) What is the mass spectrum?
(c) Discuss the construction and working of Dempster’s Mass Spectrometer.
OR
How relative atomic masses of isotopes are determined by mass spectrometer?
(d) Name different techniques used for the separation of Isotopes. (Lahore-2004)
Q.10(a) Define fractional atomic mass. 01(010)
(b) How do you deduce the fractional atomic masses of elements from the relative
isotopic abundance?
Q.11 (a) Define 01(011)
(i) Qualitative analysis (ii) Quantitative analysis (iii) Percentage of the elements
(b) How the percentage composition of the compound is determined?
Q.12 (a) Define organic compounds. 01(012)
(b) How organic compounds are analyzed by combustion analysis and the percentage of
C, H, O determined? (Board 2006, 2005, 2006)
Q.13(a) Define the following. 01(013)
(i) Empirical formula. (ii) Molecular formula.
(iii) Formula mass. (iv) Molecular mass.
(b) How the followings are determined?
(i) Empirical formula of a compound
(ii) Molecular formula of a compound
Q.14(a) Define the following terms and give three examples of each. 01(014)
(i) Gram atom (ii) Gram Molecular mass
(iii) Gram formula (iv) Gram ion
Q.15(a) Explain the term Avogadro's number. Give its significance. 01(015)
(b) Molar volume.
(c) Why 22.414 dm3 of each gas has a different mass but the same number of molecules.
Q. 16 (a) Define (Board 2004) 01(016)
(i) Stoichiometry (ii) Stoichiometry amount
(b) State two laws on which Stoichiometry calculations are based.
(c) What are assumptions that must be considered while doing Stoichiometric
calculations?
Q.17(a) Define and explain the term Limiting Reactant. Give an example. 01(017)
(Board 2005, 2004, 2005)
(b) How Limiting Reactant is determined in a reaction?
Q.18(a) Define: (Board 2005, 2006, 2010) 01(018)
(i) Yield (ii) Actual Yield (iii) Theoretical Yield (iv) Percentage Yield
(b) Why actual yield of a chemical reaction is usually less than its theoretical yield?
Q.19 Mg metal reacts with HCl to give hydrogen gas. What is the minimum volume of HCl
solution (27% by weight) required to produce 12 g of H2? The density of HCl solution is
1.14 g/cm3 Mg + 2 HCl (ag) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 01(019)
Q.20 One mg of K2CrO4 has thrice the number of ions than the number of formula units
when ionized in water. 01(020)
EXERCISE
Q.1 Select the most suitable answer from the given ones in each question: 01(021)
Ans. See in Objective.
Q.2 Fill in the blanks. 01(022)
(i) The unit of relative atomic mass is __________.
(ii) The exact masses of isotopes can be determined by __________ spectrograph.
(iii) The phenomenon of isotopy was first discovered by —————.
(iv) Empirical formula can be determined by combustion analysis for those compounds which have
__________ and __________in them.
(v) A limiting reagent is that which controls the quantities of __________.
(vi) 1 mole of glucose has __________ atoms of carbon, __________ atoms of oxygen and
__________ atoms of hydrogen.
(vii) 4 g of CH4 at 0°C and 1 atmosphere pressure has __________ molecules of CH4.
(viii) Stoichiometric calculations can be performed only when __________ is obeyed.

Q.3 Indicate true or false as the case may be: 01(023)


(i) Neon has three isotopes and the fourth one with atomic mass 20.18 amu.
(ii) Empirical formula gives the information about the total number of atoms present in the
molecule.
(iii) During combustion analysis Mg (ClO4)2 is employed to absorb water vaporous.
(iv) Molecular formula is the integral multiple of empirical formula and the integral multiple can
never be unity.
(v) The number of atoms in 1.79 g of gold and 0.023 g of sodium are equal.
(vi) The number of electrons in the molecules of CO and N 2 are 14 each, so 1 mg of each gas will
have same number of electrons.
(vii) Avogadro's hypothesis is applicable to all types of gases i.e. ideal and non-ideal.
(viii) Actual yield of a chemical reaction may be greater than the theoretical yield.
Q.4 What are ions? Under what conditions are they produced? Can you explain the places of
negative charge in PO 34 , MnO  2
4 , Cr2O 7 . 01(024)
Q.5 (a) What are Isotopes? How do you deduce the fractional atomic masses of elements
from the relative isotopic abundance? Give two examples in support of your answer. 01(025)
(b) How does a Mass Spectrograph shows the relative abundance of isotopes of an element?
(c) What is the justification of two strong peaks in the mass spectrum for bromine; while for
iodine only one peak at 127 amu is indicated?
Q.6 Silver has atomic number 47 and has 16 known isotopes but two occur naturally i.e. Ag-
107 and Ag-109. Give the following mass, spectrometric data. Calculate the average
atomic mass of silver. 01(026)
Isotopes Mass (amu) Percentage abundance
107 Ag 106.90509 51.84
109 Ag 108.90476 48.16
Q.7 Boron with atomic number 5 has two naturally occurring isotopes. Calculate the
percentage abundance of 10B and 11B from the following information. 01(027)
Average atomic mass of Boron = 10.81 amu
Isotopic mass of 10B = 10.0129 amu.
11
Isotopic mass of B = 11.0093 amu.
Problem: Percentage abundance of 10B and 11B = ?
Q. 8 Define the following terms and give three examples of each. 01(028)
(i) Gram atom. (ii) Gram molecular mass
(iii) Gram formula (iv)Gram ion
Q. 9 Justify the following statements; 01(029)
(a) 23 g of sodium and 238 g of uranium have equal number of atoms in them.
(b) Mg atom is twice heavier than that of Carbon.
(c) 1 80 g of glucose and 342 g of sucrose have the same number of molecules but different
number of atoms present in them.
(d) 4.9 g of H2SO4 when completely ionised in water have equal number of positive and negative
ions but the number of positive charged ions are twice then the number of negatively charged
ions.
(e) One mg of K2 CrO4 has thrice the number of Ions than the number of formula units when
ionized in water.
(f) Two grams of H2, 16 g of CH4 and 44 g of CO2 occupy separately the volumes of 22.414 dm3,
although the size and masses of molecules of three gases are very different from each Other.
Q.10 Calculate each of the following quantities: 01(030)
(a) Mass in grams of 2.74 moles of KMnO4.
(b) Moles of O atoms in 9.00g of Mg (NO3)2.
(c) Number of O atoms in 10.037 g of CuSO4, 5H2O.
(d) Mass in kilograms of 2.6  10 molecules of SO2.
(e) Moles of Cl atoms in 0.822g C2H4Cl2.
(f) Mass in grams of 5.136 moles of silver carbonate.
(g) Mass in grams of 2.78  1021 molecules of CrO2Cl2.
(h) Number of moles and formula units in 100 g of KClO3
(i) Number of K+ ions ClO 13 ions, Cl atoms and O atoms in (h).
Q.11 Aspartame the artificial sweetener, has a molecular formula of Cl14H18N2O5 . 01(031)
(a) What is the mass of one mole of aspartame?
(b) How many moles are present in 52 g of aspartame?
(c) What is the mass in grams of 10.122 moles of aspartame?
(d) How many hydrogen atoms are present in 2.43 g of aspartame?
Q.12 A sample of 0.600 mole of a metal M reacts completely with excess of fluorine to form
46.8 g MF2. 01(032)
(a) How many moles of F are present in the sample of MF2 that forms?
(b) Which element is represented by the symbol M?
Q.13 In each pair, choose the larger of the indicated quantity, or state if the samples are
equal. 01(033)
(a) Individual particles: 0.4 moles of oxygen molecules or 0.4 moles of oxygen atoms.
(b) Mass: 0.4 moles of ozone molecules or 0.4 moles of Oxygen atoms.
(c) Mass: 0.6 mole of C2H4 or 0.6 mole of l2
(d) Individual particles: 4.0g N2O4 or of SO2
(e) Total ions: 2.3 moles of NaClO3 or 2.0 moles of MgCl2.
(f) Molecules: 11.0 g H2O or 11.0 g H2O2.
(g) Na+ ion: 0.500 moles of NaBr or 0.0145 kg NaCl.
(h) Mass: 6.02  1023 atoms of 235 U or 6.02  1023 atoms of 238 U.
Q.14(a) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in the four important fertilizers i.e. NH 3,
NH2CONH2, (NH4)2 SO4,and NH4NO3 01(034)
Solution:
Mass of the element in compound
%age of element =  100
Molecular mass of compound
Molecular mass of NH3 = N + 3H = 14 + 3 = 17g mol-1
Molecular mass of NH2CONH2 = 2N + 4H+ 1C +IO
= 2  14 + 4 + 12 + 16 = 60g
Molecular Mass of (NH4)2SO4 = 2N +8H + IS + 4O
= 2  14 + 8 + 32 + 4  16 = 132g
14
%age OF N in NH3 =  100 = 82.35 %
17
28
%age OF N in NH2CONH2 = 100 = 46.66%
60
28
%age OF N in (NH4)2SO4 =  100 = 21.21 %
132
28
%age OF N in NH4NO3 =  100 = 35%
80
(b) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen and phosphorus in each of the following:
(a) NH4H2PO4 (b) (NH4)2HPO4 (c) (NH4)3PO4
Q.15 Glucose C6H12O6 is the most important nutrient in the cell for generating chemical
potential energy. Calculate the mass %age of each element in glucose and determine the
number of C,H and O atoms in 10.5 g of the sample. 01(035)
Given: Formula of glucose = C6H12O6
Problems:
(i) %age of C = ? (ii) %age of H = ?
(iii) %age of O = ? (iv) Atoms of H = ?
(v) Atoms of O =? (vi) Atoms of C =?
Q.16 Ethylene glycol is used as automobile antifreeze. It has 38.7% Carbon, 9.7% Hydrogen
and 51.6% Oxygen. Its molar mass is 62.1 grams mol1. (Rawalpindi 2005) 01(036)
Determine its empirical formula:
Given: (i) Compound = ethylene glycol (ii) %age of C = 38.7%
(iii) %age of H = 9.7 % (iv) %age of O = 51.6%
Problem: Empirical formula
Q.17 Serotenin (molecular mass = 176 g mol-1) is a compound that conducts nerve impulses in
brain and muscle. It contains 68.2% C, 6.86 % H,15.09% N and 9.08%. What is its molecular
formula? 01(037)
Given: %age of C = 68.2 %age of H = 6.86
%age of N = 15.09 %age of O = 9.08
Problem: Molecular formula = ?
Q.18 An unknown metal M react with S to form a compound with a formula M 2S3 3.12 g of M
reacts with exactly 2.88 g of sulphur, what are the names of metal M and the compound M2S3
01(038)
Ans: Given: Mass of M = 3.12 g
Problem: (i) Name of metal M = ?
(ii) Name of the compound M2S3 = ?
Q.19 The octane present in gasoline burns according to the following equation. 01(039)
2C8H18 (l) + 25O2 (g)  16 CO2(g) + 18H2O(l)
(a) How many moles of O2 are needed to react fully with 4 moles of octane?
(b) How many moles of CO2 can be produced from one mole of octane?
(c) How many moles of water are produced by the combustion of 6 moles of octane?
(d) If this reaction is to be used to synthesize 8 moles of CO 2 How many grams of Oxygen are
needed? How many grams of octane will be used?
Ans. (a) Given: Octane = 4 moles
Problem: Moles of O2 = ?
Q.20 Calculate the number of grams of Al2S3 which can be prepared by the reaction of
20 g of Al and 30 g of Sulphur. How much the non-limiting reactant is excess? 01(040)
(Board 2005)
Q.21 A mixture of two liquids, hydrazine N2H4 and N2O4 are used as a fuel in rockets. They
produce N2 and water vapours. How many grams of N2 gas will be formed by reacting 100 g of
N2H4 and 200 g of N2O4. (Board 2005) 01(041)
2N2H4 + N2O4  3N2 + 4H2O
Q.22 Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an important ceramic material. It is produced by allowing sand
(SiO2) to react with carbon at high temperature. (Board 2004, 2006) 01(042)
SiO2 + 3C  SiC + 2CO
When 100 kg sand is reacted with excess of carbon, 51.4 kg of SiC is produced. What is the
percentage yield of SiC?
Q.23 (a) What is Stoichiometry? Give its assumptions. Mention two important laws which
help to perform the Stoichiometric calculations? 01(043)
(b) What is limiting reactant? How does it control the quantity of the product formed?
Explain three examples.
Q.24 (a) Define yield. How do we calculate the percentage yield-of a chemical reaction?
(b) What are the factors which are mostly responsible for the low yield of the products
in chemical reactions? 01(044)
Q.25 Explain the following with reasons. 01(045)