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ITIL Planning to implement service

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The planning to implement service management is a set in the Information Technology
Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework. This set is about the alignment of business needs and
IT provision requirements. Besides, this set describes how to implement or improve IT Service
Management within an organization and it describes steps to ensure that business needs and IT
provision requirements will be met. Furthermore, the planning to implement service management
set is mainly focused on the service management processes, but also generically applicable to
other ITIL sets.
An approach to implement or improve service management is the Continuous Service
Improvement Programme (CSIP). A CSIP is defined as: “an ongoing formal programme
undertaken within an organization to identify and introduce measurable improvements within a
specified work area or work process.” [1]
All the activities within a CSIP regarding one single improvement can be visualized generically
by using the meta-modeling technique. This results in a process-data diagram (figure 1), which
does not describe the continuous improvement activity of the programme. The process-data
diagram shows the relationship between processes and artifacts and this diagram consists of two
integrated diagrams. The left-hand side of the process-data diagram describes the activities
(processes) and is based on the UML activity diagram. The right-hand side describes the data
(artifacts) and is based on the UML class diagram. [2] The table of concepts and the activity
description regarding the process-data diagram can be found in the paragraph Process-data
diagram descriptions.
The process-data diagram shows the following activities:
• create vision
• analyze organization
• set goals
• implement IT service management
• measure goals
First, a vision has to be created and the IT and business strategies should be aligned. The second
step consists of analyzing the organization and its current position. In this step an answer has to
be found on the question ‘where are we now?’ The following step is about setting goals and
priorities regarding the improvement process. The fourth step is the improvement of the service
provision itself and during the fifth and final step the improvement will be measured to examine
whether the goals have been met.
Figure 1: process-data diagram

Contents
[hide]
• 1 The planning to implement service management set
○ 1.1 Create vision
○ 1.2 Analyze organization
○ 1.3 Set goals
○ 1.4 Implement IT service management
○ 1.5 Measure goals
• 2 Process-data diagram descriptions
○ 2.1 Table of concepts
○ 2.2 References of table of concepts
○ 2.3 Activity description
• 3 References
• 4 External links

[edit] The planning to implement service management set


Every activity in the planning to implement service management set, as depicted in figure 1, will
be further explained.
[edit] Create vision
As figure 1 shows, the first step that needs to be taken in the process is creating a vision
statement for a CSIP. The vision statement describes the aim and purpose of the CSIP on a high
level and should align the different strategies of business and IT. Additionally, the vision
statement should be well communicated to the stakeholder, to create commitment and buy-in for
the CSIP.
[edit] Analyze organization
After having created a vision an IT organization should analyze itself, wherein the question
‘where are we now?’ has to be answered. A useful technique to determine the current position is
the IT organization growth model. This model determines the maturity level of the IT
organization and is based on the Process Maturity Framework (PMF), as well as on the
Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The maturity of the organization will be determined in terms
of vision and strategy, steering, processes, people, technology and culture. It is also required to
understand who the stakeholders are, because stakeholders have an impact on the CSIP. This can
be achieved by defining, identifying and mapping the stakeholders. Additionally, the specific
needs of the stakeholders have to be identified and this can result in a stakeholder assessment
report.
The third step of the organizational analysis in figure 1, consists of assessing the current report
and measurement system. Knowing the current way of using and producing reports, facts and
figures gives insight in how well the organization is steered, but it also provides information
about the next activity ‘set goals’.
The last step in analyzing the organization is conducting benchmarks. A benchmark is a useful
management technique to improve performance. In a benchmark different parts of the
organization can be compared, like units or processes. But also organizations as a whole can be
compared in a benchmark. It is important to determine whether a service management process
should be benchmarked or not. A focus on the relevant service management processes is
essential. The results of the benchmarks can result in the identification of gaps.
[edit] Set goals
The next activity in the CSIP is about the agreement between business and IT regarding the
required and expected future roles and characteristics of the organization, which are based on the
current maturity of the organization. The first step that needs to be taken is the creation of a
business case to describe the added value and the justification of the CSIP. The business case is
determined by the current maturity of the organization and the organizational strategy. A
stakeholder assessment, conducted in the previous activity, can also be a contribution to the
focus on the results and the aim of the improvement programme.
Furthermore, risks should be identified and managed. An approach to risk management should
be applied during the CSIP. Mainly the risks related to the business vision, existing processes
and the environment and business constraints should be managed to reduce the effects of those
risks.
After having created a business case, a gap assessment report should be completed. A gap
assessment report is used to compare the current state with the future state of the organization
and this results in gaps to overcome (‘where do we want to be’). It provides information about
gaps, risks and the prioritization on where to start. Once a gap assessment report has been
completed, there is a need for understanding and clarity. That means that the problems and the
following steps have to be presented to the key stakeholders, to establish creditability for the
assessment and support concerning the change.
The following step is the creation of a plan for quick wins. A quick win is an early success
during an improvement programme. In the plan for quick wins short term wins should be
identified and attained to keep the improvement programme running and to keep the
commitment level high during the improvement programme.
The last step is setting the goals regarding the improvement programme in relation to the earlier
defined stakeholder needs. A management tool for setting goals and measuring performance is
the balanced scorecard.
[edit] Implement IT service management
The first thing to consider regarding implementing or improving service management is finding
an answer on where to start (‘which service management process?’). Before identifying a process
that need to be improved, the first condition that needs to be fulfilled is that the organization
should have documented its current and desired state, which includes a completed gap
assessment report. ‘Where to start’ also depends on the level of maturity and the strategic goals
of the organization. Besides these dependencies, it is important to understand the
interrelationships between all the IT Service Management processes.
Another aspect which should be taken into consideration during the improvement programme is
creating awareness of the change. This can be done by making a communication plan, which will
give an explanation about the IT policy to the stakeholders.
The next thing to consider is how the changes are going to be achieved. Achieving changes
requires a reliable change programme. To prevent a CSIP from missing its intended goals the
OGC recommends [1] the approach from J.P. Kotter, called: ‘Eight steps to transforming your
organisation’ in combination with project management such as PRINCE2. The main reason for
using this approach in combination with regular project management, is that this approach also
takes the softer sides of change into account like resistance to change and creating commitment.
J.P. Kotter studied more than 100 companies with regard to their transformations in the past
years. This has resulted in eight main reasons why transformations succeed. The duration of the
studied transformations was quite long, about six to eight years.[3]
The eight main reasons why transformations succeed are transformed into eight steps.
1. Creating a sense of urgency
2. Forming a guiding coalition
3. Creating a vision
4. Communicating the vision
5. ‘Empowering’ to act on the vision
6. Planning for and creating quick wins
7. Consolidating improvements and producing more change
8. Institutionalizing the change
These eight steps can be applied equally to a service management improvement programme.
The culture of the organization is a main issue to be taken into account during organizational
change, because organizational change could support an implementation, and it can as well lead
to resistance. For that reason the organizational culture should be managed in order to avoid
problems like resistance.
A critical success factor for a CSIP is the clear definition of accountability, roles and
responsibility in relation to the new processes and the existing organizational structure. New
processes and working practices do often not fit within the existing organizational structure,
because processes are often cross functional. In other words, processes may run through the
whole organization. In this way new processes and working practices may introduce new roles,
which may overlap the existing organizational structure.
The last aspect that has to be taken into account regarding the implementation of IT service
management is training. Training can contribute to a higher quality of service management and it
can also lead to more productive and responsive employees. Before setting up a training
programme, questions like who to train, when to train, how to train and what to train should be
answered. For ITIL training see: ITIL Certification.
[edit] Measure goals
After the completion of each improvement process a Post Implementation Review (PIR) should
be conducted to indicate if the objectives have been achieved. This can be done by making a
comparison between the achievement of the improvement and the goals earlier set in the
programme. When the results of the PIR are confirmed, new targets regarding improvement
should be defined.During the improvement programme the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs),
which are earlier created during setting the goals as a part of the balanced scorecard, are needed
to be constantly monitored to confirm the PIR. Also, the improvement of the customers
perception (customer KPIs) during the CSIP needs to be surveyed. This can be done by
conducting a regular statistical survey regarding customer satisfaction, also called a Customer
Satisfaction Survey (CSS).
[edit] Process-data diagram descriptions
[edit] Table of concepts
Concept Definition
The classification of someone or something with
Assessment
respect to its worth. [6]
An aid to organizational Performance management.
It helps to focus, not only on the financial targets but
Balanced Scorecard
also on the internal processes, customers, and
learning and growth issues. [1]
A report that contains a comparison of performance
Benchmark report between different organizations or between different
units within an organization. [1]
Information that describes the justification for
setting up and continuing a PRINCE2 project. It
Business case provides the reasons (and answers the question
'Why?') for the project. It is updated at key points
throughout the project. [7]
A plan that describes how the IT policy will be
Communication plan explained to the stakeholders and as a result of this,
it will create awareness in the organization. [1]
The addition, modification or removal of the whole
of the ideas, corporate values, beliefs, practices,
Cultural change
expectations about behavior and daily customs that
are shared by the employees in an organization. [1]
A document which gives an answer on the question
‘Where should I start’ and depends on the
completeness of the assessments conducted in the
Decision document
previous steps, like determining the maturity level of
the organization, service processes and strategic
goals. [1]
A change management model, consisting of eight
Eight step model
steps. [9]
Gap analysis naturally flows from benchmarking or
other assessments. Once we understand what is the
Gap assessment
general expectation of performance in industry, we
report
can then compare that with current capabilities, and
this becomes the gap analysis. [10]
The state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve
Goal and that (when achieved) terminates behavior
intended to achieve it. [5]
A model that determines the current maturity of the
IT Organizational IT organization in terms of vision and strategy,
growth model steering, processes, people, technology and culture.
[1]
Measurement The active employment of particular sets of
framework measurement recommendations. [3]
Measurable element of a service process or function.
Metric
[1]
Organizational change has two dimensions. The
Organizational first, OC involves a transformation of organizations
change between two points in time. The second dimensions
concerns the way the transformation occurs. [8]
Responsibilities, authorities and relations organized
Organizational
in such a way as to enable the organization to
structure
perform its functions. [11]
One or more reviews held after project closure to
Post implementation
determine if the expected benefits have been
review
obtained. [7]
The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects
of the project and the motivation of all those
Project management involved in it to achieve the project objectives on
time and to the specified cost, quality and
performance. [7]
A plan which describes the quick wins (possible
early successes of a project / improvement
Quick wins plan programme) to be made to keep a change effort on
track and help keep the energy and commitment
levels high. [1]
The identification, selection and adoption of
countermeasures justified by the identified risks to
Risk management assists in terms of their potential impact upon
services if failure occurs, and the reduction of those
risks to an acceptable level. [1]
A change for better services. Service stands for: one
Service improvement or more IT systems that enable a business process.
[1]
SM (service A statement of the desired future state of the
management) vision organization within the arena of competition defined
statement in the mission, regarding service management. [2]
Stakeholder An assessment which defines and analyses the
assessment stakeholders. [1]
A goal which is brought in relation with the
Stakeholder goal
stakeholder needs. [1]
A deliberate plan conceived in advance of the
Strategy
making of specific decisions. [4]
A collection of activities that collectively implement
Training programme
skilled behavior. [1]
Table 1: table of concepts with definitions
[edit] References of table of concepts
1. Office of Government Commerce (OGC). (2002). Planning to Implement Service
Management. London : The Stationery Office.
2. Raynor, M.E. (1998). That vision thing: Do we need it?. Long range planning, 31, 3.
3. Folan, P., Browne, J. (2005), A review of performance measurement: Towards
performance management. Computers in industry, 56, 7.
4. Mintzberg, H. (1978). Patterns in Strategy Formation. Management Science, 24, 9.
5. WordNet Search - 2.1. (2006). Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Princeton Website:
http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=goal
6. WordNet Search - 2.1. (2006). Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Princeton Website:
http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=assessment
7. Best practice. (2006). Retrieved March 8, 2006 from OCG Website:
http://www.get-best-practice.co.uk/glossary.aspx?product=successfulprojects
8. William P. Barnett; Glenn R. Carroll. (1995). Modeling Internal Organizational Change.
Annual Review of Sociology, 21, pp. 217-236.
9. Egan, R.W., Fjermestad, J. (2005). Change and Resistance: Help for the Practitioner of
Change. Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences –
2005
10. Definitions of Terms. (2006). Retrieved March 8, 2006 from Balanced Scorecard Institute
Website: http://www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/definitions.html
11. Development of Quality Assurance System in Higher Education(QUASYS). (2001).
Retrieved March 10, 2006 from University of Zagreb Website:
http://www.unizg.hr/tempusprojects/glossary.htm
[edit] Activity description
Activity Sub-activity Description
Creating a VISION STATEMENT for service
Create
management which fits with the organization
vision
STRATEGY.
Analyze Evaluate Evaluating the current position can be done by
organizatio current assessing the , IT ORGANIZATION
n position GROWTH MODEL. This gives an indication
of the maturity of the organization.
Defining and analyzing the stakeholders and
Assess
their needs, which results in a
stakeholders
STAKEHOLDER ASSESSMENT.
Assess
Assessing the current report and measure
current report
system results in a MEASUREMENT
and measure
FRAMEWORK.
system
Benchmarking results in a few
BENCHMARKS, which can be used as a
Conduct
steering instrument and can be categorised in
benchmark
four categories, which are not further
explained.
The IT ORGANIZATION GROWTH
MODEL and STRATEGY determine the
Create
BUSINESS CASE (current position) which
business case
describes not only measurable targets, but also
the costs, effort, benefits sense of urgency etc.
Managing risks results the artifact
Manage risks RISKMANAGEMENT, which is required by
the BUSINESS CASE.
BENCHMARKS lead to the analyses of gaps
Set goals Conduct gap
to determine the start. This activity results in a
analysis
GAP ASSESSMENT REPORT.
A PLAN OF QUICK WINS is based on the
Create plan
GAP ASSESSMENT REPORT and is needed
for quick
to convince the stakeholders of the
wins
changes/implementation.
Set
Results in STAKEHOLDER GOALS, which
stakeholder
is a generalization of GOAL
goals
Implement Selecting a starting point can be done by
ITSM creating a DECISION DOCUMENT, which
Select initiates ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.
starting point The decision to start the implementation is
based on the completeness of the previous
activities
Adapt results
previous see: Non-described rule
activities
Create Awareness can be achieved by creating a
awareness COMMUNICATION PLAN that supports
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Managing org. change results in
Manage
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE and can be
organizationa
done by using the EIGHT STEPS MODEL
l change
combined with PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Managing cult. change results in the artifact
Manage CULTURAL CHANGE and is required by
cultural ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.
change CULTURAL CHANGE encloses the soft side
of the CHANGE.
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE involves the
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE, which may
Set roles
change aspects like authority, tasks, functions,
roles etc.
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE requires
Train ITIL training (TRAINING PROGRAMME).
employees Which training is needed, depends on the
change.
This activity results in a POST IMPLEMENT.
Measure
REVIEW, which includes a comparison of the
goals
set and achieved goals/targets
Table 2: description of activities and sub-activities
Non-described rule
• This activity will be started if no starting point can be selected. In that situation, this
activity will result in an adaptation of the already delivered incomplete products, such as
a gap assessment report.
[edit] References
1. ^ Office of Government Commerce (OGC). (2002). Planning to Implement Service
Management. London : The Stationery Office.
2. ^ Weerd, I. van de (2005). WEM: A design method for CMS-based web
implementations. UU-CS (Int. rep. 2005-043). UU WINFI Informatica en
Informatiekunde.
3. ^ Kotter, J.P. (1995). Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 59–67
In: Journal of Product Innovation Management. 13, 2 , March 1996, 170
4. ^ Hochtstein, A., Tamm, G., Brenner, W. (2005). Service oriented IT management:
benefit, cost and success factors. Proceedings 13 European conference on information
systems (ECIS 2005), Regensburg, Germany.
[edit] External links
• The OGC website
• IT Service Management Forum
• The ITIL definition site
• The ITIL Forum
• The OGC successful delivery toolkit
• OGC get best practice
Retrieved from
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITIL_Planning_to_implement_service_management"
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