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Faculty of Civil Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Email: iznisyahrizal@utm.my

Introduction

T N G

N G

T = Thread

R = Riser

G = Going

Flight Landing h = Waist

N = Nosing

Span, L = Slope

Introduction

G 400 mm

(UBBL, BS 5395, Reynold et al. 2007)

Types of Staircase

longitudinally

Helical stair

Types of Staircase

Spiral stair horizontally

Slabless stair

General Design Considerations

Loads

• Permanent action: Weight of steps & finishes. Also consider

increased loading on plan (inclination of the waist)

• Stairs with open well: Two intersecting landings at right-angles to

each other, loads on areas common to both spans may be divided

equally between spans

• Stair slab & landing to support unfavourable arrangements of

design load

• Continuous stairs: Bending moment can be taken as FL/10 (F is

the total ultimate load)

General Design Considerations

Effective Span

• Stairs between beam or wall: Centreline between the supporting

beam or wall

• Stairs between landing slab: Centreline of the supporting landing

slab, or the distance between edges of supporting slab + 1.8 m

(whichever is the smaller)

Detailing

• Ensure that the tension bar may not break through at the kink

General Design Considerations

Correct detailing

General Design Considerations

Incorrect detailing

Design Procedure

EN 1990 Table 2.1

1 Determine design life, Exposure class & Fire resistance EN 1992-1-1: Table 4.1

EN 1992-1-2: Sec. 5.6

BS 8500-1: Table A.3

2 Determine material strength

EN 206-1: Table F1

EN 1992-1-1: Table 7.4N

3 Select the waist, h and average thickness, t of staircase

EN 1992-1-2: Table 5.8

4 Calculate min. cover for durability, fire and bond requirements EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 4.4.1

5 Estimate actions on staircase EN 1991-1-1

Analyze structure to obtain maximum bending moments and

6 EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 5

shear forces

7 Design flexural reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.1

8 Check shear EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.2

9 Check deflection EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.4

10 Check cracking EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 9.3

11 Detailing EN 1992-1-1: Sec.8 & 9.3

Example 1

STRAIGHT STAIRCASE

SPANNING LONGITUDINALLY

Example 1: Straight Staicase

(excluding selfweight)

G = 255 mm

• Variable action, qk = = 4.0 kN/m2

• fck = 25 N/mm2

• fyk = 500 N/mm2

R = 175 mm • RC density = 25 kN/m3

• Cover, c = 25 mm

• bar = 8 mm

h = 110 mm

10 255 mm = 2550 mm

250 mm 250 mm

L = 2800 mm

Example 1: Straight Staircase

𝑦=ℎ = 110 = 133 mm

𝐺 255

Average thickness:

𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 133+(133+175)

𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟐𝟏 mm G

2 2

y R

t

y

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Action

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 5.52 + 1.00 = 6.52 kN/m2

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Analysis

L = 2.8 m

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Main Reinforcement

𝑀 11.6×106

𝐾= = = 0.071 Kbal = 0.167

𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×812

Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾

𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.93𝑑 0.95d

1.134

𝑀 11.6×106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟑𝟓𝟑 mm2/m

0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.93×81

Example 1: Straight Staircase

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑

𝑓𝑦𝑘 500

As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013 1000 81 = 108 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

Secondary bar H8-350 (As = 144 mm2/m)

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Shear

11.6 kNm/m 11.6 kNm/m

14.81 kN/m

VA VB

2.8 m

M @ B = 0

2.80VA – 11.6 + 11.6 – (14.81 2.80 1.4) = 0

VA = 20.7 kN/m

VB = 20.7 kN/m

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Shear

200 200

𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.57 2.0 Use k = 2.0

𝑑 81

𝐴𝑠𝑙 402

𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0050 ≤ 0.02

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81

1/3

= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0050 × 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81 = 45011 N = 45.0 kN/m

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81 = 40093 𝑁 = 40.1 kN/m

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 353

𝜌= = = 0.0044

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

Example 1: Straight Staircase

3/2

𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜

= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1

𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 402

Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.14 1.50

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 353

Deflection OK

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Cracking

h = 110 mm 200 mm

Max bar spacing

Main bar:

Smax, slab = 3h (330 mm) 400 mm 330 mm

Max bar spacing = 125 mm Smax, slab OK

Secondary bar:

Smax, slab = 3.5h (385 mm) 450 mm 385 mm

Max bar spacing = 350 mm Smax, slab OK

Cracking OK

Example 1: Straight Staircase

10 175 = 1750 mm

H8-350

H8-125 H8-125

H8-350

10 255 mm = 2550 mm

250 mm 250 mm

Example 2

STAIRCASE WITH LANDING &

CONTINUOUS AT ONE END

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

• Permanent action, gk = 1.2 kN/m2

G = 260 mm (excluding selfweight)

• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2

• fck = 25 N/mm2

R = 170 mm

• fyk = 500 N/mm2

• RC density = 25 kN/m3

• Cover, c = 25 mm

• bar = 10 mm

h = 160 mm

200 mm 200 mm

L1 = 2700 mm L2 = 1600 mm

L = 4300 mm

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Determine Average Thickness of Staircase

𝑦=ℎ = 160 = 191 mm

𝐺 260

Average thickness:

𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 191+(191+170)

𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟕𝟔 mm G

2 2

y R

t

y

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Action & Analysis

Landing

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 4.00 + 1.20 = 5.20 kN/m2

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Action & Analysis

Flight

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.90 + 1.20 = 8.10 kN/m2

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Analysis

11.52 kN/m

L1 = 2.7 m L2 = 1.6 m

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Main Reinforcement

𝑀 25.9×106

𝐾= = = 0.061 Kbal = 0.167

𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×1302

Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾

𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.94𝑑 0.95d

1.134

𝑀 25.9×106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟒𝟖𝟓 mm2/m

0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.94×130

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑

𝑓𝑦𝑘 500

As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013 1000 130 = 173 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

Secondary bar H10-400 (As = 196 mm2/m)

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Shear

25.9 kNm/m

15.44 kN/m

11.52 kN/m

VA VB

2.7 m 1.6 m

M @ B = 0

4.30VA – 25.9 – (15.44 2.70 2.95) – (11.52 1.6 0.80) = 0

VA = 38.0 kN/m

VB = 22.1 kN/m

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Shear

200 200

𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.24 2.0 Use k = 2.0

𝑑 130

𝐴𝑠𝑙 524

𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0040 ≤ 0.02

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130

= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0040 × 25 1/3 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130 = 67376 N = 67.4 kN/m

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130 = 64347 𝑁 = 64.3 kN/m

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 485

𝜌= = = 0.0037

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Factor or structural system, K = 1.3

3/2

𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜

= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1

𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 524

Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.08 1.50

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 485

Deflection OK

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Cracking

h = 160 mm 200 mm

Max bar spacing

Main bar:

Smax, slab = 3h (480 mm) 400 mm 400 mm

Max bar spacing = 150 mm Smax, slab OK

Secondary bar:

Smax, slab = 3.5h (560 mm) 450 mm 450 mm

Max bar spacing = 400 mm Smax, slab OK

Cracking OK

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &

Continuous at One End

Detailing 0.3L = 1290 mm

H10-400

H10-150

10 170 = 170 mm

H10-400

H10-150

H10-400

200 mm 200 mm

Example 3

STAIRCASE SUPPORTED BY

LANDING

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

200

50

1500

100

1500

50

200

Plan View 200 200

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

(excluding selfweight)

• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2

• fck = 25 N/mm2

• fyk = 500 N/mm2

• RC density = 25 kN/m3 h = 150

• Cover, c = 25 mm G = 260

• bar = 10 mm

R = 170

Section h = 150

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

𝑦=ℎ = 150 = 179 mm

𝐺 260

Average thickness:

𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 179+(179+170)

𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟔𝟒 mm G

2 2

y R

t

y

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

design for LANDING and

FLIGHT should be done

SEPARATELY !!!

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Action

Landing

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 3.75 + 1.20 = 4.95 kN/m2

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Action

Flight

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.61 + 1.20 = 7.81 kN/m2

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Lb1 = The lesser of width support 1 or 1.8 m = 200 mm

Lb2 = The lesser of width support 2 or 1.8 m = 1500 mm

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Support 1

L1 = 2.7 m L2 = 0.75 m

Support 2

Le = Effective span

M = FL/10 = 14.0 kNm

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Self Study

Moment Design

Shear Check

Deflection Check

Cracking Check

Detailing

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

w kN/m

L = 3.4 m

= (11.18 1.5) + 11.8 (reaction from support 2)

= 28.6 kN/m

𝒘𝑳

𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟒𝟖. 𝟔 𝒌𝑵

𝟐

𝒘𝑳𝟐

𝑴𝒎𝒂𝒙 = = 𝟒𝟏. 𝟑 𝒌𝑵𝒎

𝟖

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Main Reinforcement

𝑀 41.3×106

𝐾= = = 0.077 Kbal = 0.167

𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎×1202

Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾

𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.93𝑑 0.95d

1.134

𝑀 41.3×106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟖𝟓𝟒 mm2/m

0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.93×120

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑

𝑓𝑦𝑘 500

As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013 1500 120 = 240 mm2/m

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Shear

200 200

𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.29 2.0 Use k = 2.0

𝑑 120

𝐴𝑠𝑙 1335

𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0074 ≤ 0.02

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 130

= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0074 × 25 1/3 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120 = 114350 N = 114.4 kN/m

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120 = 89095 𝑁 = 89.1 kN/m

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 854

𝜌= = = 0.0047

𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

3/2

𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜

= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1

𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 1335

Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.56 1.50

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 854

Deflection OK

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Cracking

h = 150 mm 200 mm

Main bar:

Smax, slab = 3h (450 mm) 400 mm 400 mm

[1500−2 25 −10]

Max bar spacing = = 90 𝑚𝑚 Smax, slab OK

16

Cracking OK

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Detailing

LETS DO IT

Example 4

TWO SPANS OF STAIRCASE

INTERSECT AT RIGHT ANGLES

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

200 1500 10 @ 255 = 2550 200

200

1500

A A

10 @ 255 = 2550

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

(excluding selfweight)

• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2

• fck = 25 N/mm2

• fyk = 500 N/mm2 G = 255

• RC density = 25 kN/m3

• Cover, c = 25 mm

• bar = 10 mm R = 170

h = 150

h = 150

Section A-A

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Determine Average Thickness of Staircase

𝑦=ℎ = 150 = 180 mm

𝐺 255

Average thickness:

𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 180+(180+170)

𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟔𝟓 mm G

2 2

y R

t

y

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Action & Analysis

Landing

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 3.75 + 1.00 = 4.75 kN/m2

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Action & Analysis

Flight

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2

Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.63 + 1.00 = 7.63 kN/m2

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Analysis

Load on

landing 2.

WHY? 5.46 kN/m

L1 = 1.6 m L2 = 2.65 m

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Main Reinforcement

𝑀 20.4×106

𝐾= = = 0.057 Kbal = 0.167

𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×1202

Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾

𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.95𝑑 0.95d

1.134

𝑀 20.4×106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟒𝟏𝟐 mm2/m

0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.95×120

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑

𝑓𝑦𝑘 500

As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013 1000 120 = 160 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

Secondary bar H10-400 (As = 196 mm2/m)

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase

Intersect at Right Angles

Self Study

Shear Check

Deflection Check

Cracking Check

Detailing

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