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# DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

## Dr. Izni Syahrizal bin Ibrahim

Faculty of Civil Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Email: iznisyahrizal@utm.my
Introduction

T N G
N G

R = Riser
G = Going
Flight Landing h = Waist
N = Nosing
Span, L  = Slope
Introduction

G  400 mm

## • For comfort: (2  R) + G = 600 mm

(UBBL, BS 5395, Reynold et al. 2007)
Types of Staircase

## Straight stair spanning Free-standing stair

longitudinally

Helical stair
Types of Staircase

## Straight stair spanning

Spiral stair horizontally

Slabless stair
General Design Considerations

• Permanent action: Weight of steps & finishes. Also consider
increased loading on plan (inclination of the waist)
• Stairs with open well: Two intersecting landings at right-angles to
each other, loads on areas common to both spans may be divided
equally between spans

## Bending Moment & Shear Force

• Stair slab & landing to support unfavourable arrangements of
• Continuous stairs: Bending moment can be taken as FL/10 (F is
the total ultimate load)
General Design Considerations

Effective Span
• Stairs between beam or wall: Centreline between the supporting
beam or wall
• Stairs between landing slab: Centreline of the supporting landing
slab, or the distance between edges of supporting slab + 1.8 m
(whichever is the smaller)

Detailing
• Ensure that the tension bar may not break through at the kink
General Design Considerations

Correct detailing
General Design Considerations

 Incorrect detailing
Design Procedure

## Step Task Standard

EN 1990 Table 2.1
1 Determine design life, Exposure class & Fire resistance EN 1992-1-1: Table 4.1
EN 1992-1-2: Sec. 5.6
BS 8500-1: Table A.3
2 Determine material strength
EN 206-1: Table F1
EN 1992-1-1: Table 7.4N
3 Select the waist, h and average thickness, t of staircase
EN 1992-1-2: Table 5.8
4 Calculate min. cover for durability, fire and bond requirements EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 4.4.1
5 Estimate actions on staircase EN 1991-1-1
Analyze structure to obtain maximum bending moments and
6 EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 5
shear forces
7 Design flexural reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.1
8 Check shear EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.2
9 Check deflection EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.4
10 Check cracking EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 9.3
11 Detailing EN 1992-1-1: Sec.8 & 9.3
Example 1
STRAIGHT STAIRCASE
SPANNING LONGITUDINALLY
Example 1: Straight Staicase

## • Permanent action, gk = 1.0 kN/m2

(excluding selfweight)
G = 255 mm
• Variable action, qk = = 4.0 kN/m2
• fck = 25 N/mm2
• fyk = 500 N/mm2
R = 175 mm • RC density = 25 kN/m3
• Cover, c = 25 mm
• bar = 8 mm

h = 110 mm

10  255 mm = 2550 mm
250 mm 250 mm

L = 2800 mm
Example 1: Straight Staircase

## 𝐺 2 +𝑅2 2552 +1752

𝑦=ℎ = 110 = 133 mm
𝐺 255

 Average thickness:
𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 133+(133+175)
𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟐𝟏 mm G
2 2

y R
t

y
Example 1: Straight Staircase

Action

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.221 = 5.52 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 5.52 + 1.00 = 6.52 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd = nd  1 m = 14.81 kN/m/m width

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Analysis

L = 2.8 m

## Note: F = wd  L = 14.81  2.8 m = 41.47 kN

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Main Reinforcement

## Effective depth, d = 110 – 25 – 8/2 = 81 mm

𝑀 11.6×106
𝐾= = = 0.071  Kbal = 0.167
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×812
 Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾
𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.93𝑑  0.95d
1.134

𝑀 11.6×106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟑𝟓𝟑 mm2/m
0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.93×81
Example 1: Straight Staircase

## Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑
𝑓𝑦𝑘 500
 As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013  1000  81 = 108 mm2/m

## As,max = 0.04Ac = 0.04bh = 0.04  1000  110 = 4400 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

## Main bar H8-125 (As = 402 mm2/m)

Secondary bar H8-350 (As = 144 mm2/m)
Example 1: Straight Staircase

Shear
11.6 kNm/m 11.6 kNm/m
14.81 kN/m

VA VB
2.8 m

M @ B = 0
2.80VA – 11.6 + 11.6 – (14.81  2.80  1.4) = 0

 VA = 20.7 kN/m
 VB = 20.7 kN/m
Example 1: Straight Staircase

Shear

## Maximum design shear force, VEd = 20.7 kN/m

200 200
𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.57 2.0  Use k = 2.0
𝑑 81
𝐴𝑠𝑙 402
𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0050 ≤ 0.02
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81

## 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐 = 0.12𝑘 100𝜌𝑙 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1/3 𝒃𝑑

1/3
= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0050 × 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81 = 45011 N = 45.0 kN/m

## 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.035𝑘 3/2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81 = 40093 𝑁 = 40.1 kN/m

## VEd (20.7 kN/m)  VRd,c (45.0 kN/m)  OK

Example 1: Straight Staircase

Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 353
𝜌= = = 0.0044
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 81

## Reference reinforcement ratio:

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

## Since   o  Use Eq. (7.16a) in EC 2 Cl. 7.4.2

Example 1: Straight Staircase

## Factor or structural system, K = 1.5

3/2
𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜
= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1
𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

## Modification factor for span less than 7 m = 1.00

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 402
Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.14  1.50
𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 353

## (l/d)actual = 2800/81 = 34.6  (l/d)allow

Deflection OK
Example 1: Straight Staircase

Cracking

h = 110 mm  200 mm
Max bar spacing

Main bar:
Smax, slab = 3h (330 mm)  400 mm  330 mm
Max bar spacing = 125 mm  Smax, slab  OK

Secondary bar:
Smax, slab = 3.5h (385 mm)  450 mm  385 mm
Max bar spacing = 350 mm  Smax, slab  OK

Cracking OK
Example 1: Straight Staircase

## Detailing 840 mm 840 mm

10  175 = 1750 mm
H8-350

H8-125 H8-125

H8-350

10  255 mm = 2550 mm
250 mm 250 mm
Example 2
STAIRCASE WITH LANDING &
CONTINUOUS AT ONE END
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
• Permanent action, gk = 1.2 kN/m2
G = 260 mm (excluding selfweight)
• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2
• fck = 25 N/mm2
R = 170 mm
• fyk = 500 N/mm2
• RC density = 25 kN/m3
• Cover, c = 25 mm
• bar = 10 mm

h = 160 mm

## 10  260 mm = 2600 mm 1500 mm

200 mm 200 mm

L1 = 2700 mm L2 = 1600 mm

L = 4300 mm
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Determine Average Thickness of Staircase

## 𝐺 2 +𝑅2 2602 +1702

𝑦=ℎ = 160 = 191 mm
𝐺 260

 Average thickness:
𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 191+(191+170)
𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟕𝟔 mm G
2 2

y R
t

y
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Action & Analysis
Landing

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.160 = 4.00 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 4.00 + 1.20 = 5.20 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, landing = nd  1 m = 11.52 kN/m/m width

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Action & Analysis
Flight

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.276 = 6.90 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.90 + 1.20 = 8.10 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, flight = nd  1 m = 15.44 kN/m/m width

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Analysis

11.52 kN/m

L1 = 2.7 m L2 = 1.6 m

## Note: F = wd  L = (15.44  2.7 m) + (11.52  1.6 m) = 60.1 kN

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Main Reinforcement

## Effective depth, d = 160 – 25 – 10/2 = 130 mm

𝑀 25.9×106
𝐾= = = 0.061  Kbal = 0.167
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×1302
 Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾
𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.94𝑑  0.95d
1.134

𝑀 25.9×106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟒𝟖𝟓 mm2/m
0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.94×130
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑
𝑓𝑦𝑘 500
 As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013  1000  130 = 173 mm2/m

## As,max = 0.04Ac = 0.04bh = 0.04  1000  130 = 6400 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

## Main bar H10-150 (As = 524 mm2/m)

Secondary bar H10-400 (As = 196 mm2/m)
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Shear
25.9 kNm/m
15.44 kN/m
11.52 kN/m

VA VB
2.7 m 1.6 m

M @ B = 0
4.30VA – 25.9 – (15.44  2.70  2.95) – (11.52  1.6  0.80) = 0

 VA = 38.0 kN/m
 VB = 22.1 kN/m
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Shear

## Maximum design shear force, VEd = 38.0 kN/m

200 200
𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.24 2.0  Use k = 2.0
𝑑 130
𝐴𝑠𝑙 524
𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0040 ≤ 0.02
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130

## 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐 = 0.12𝑘 100𝜌𝑙 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1/3 𝒃𝑑

= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0040 × 25 1/3 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130 = 67376 N = 67.4 kN/m

## 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.035𝑘 3/2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130 = 64347 𝑁 = 64.3 kN/m

## VEd (38.0 kN/m)  VRd,c (67.4 kN/m)  OK

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 485
𝜌= = = 0.0037
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 130

## Reference reinforcement ratio:

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

## Since   o  Use Eq. (7.16a) in EC 2 Cl. 7.4.2

Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Factor or structural system, K = 1.3

3/2
𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜
= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1
𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

## Modification factor for span less than 7 m = 1.00

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 524
Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.08  1.50
𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 485

## (l/d)actual = 4300/130 = 33.1  (l/d)allow

Deflection OK
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Cracking

h = 160 mm  200 mm
Max bar spacing

Main bar:
Smax, slab = 3h (480 mm)  400 mm  400 mm
Max bar spacing = 150 mm  Smax, slab  OK

Secondary bar:
Smax, slab = 3.5h (560 mm)  450 mm  450 mm
Max bar spacing = 400 mm  Smax, slab  OK

Cracking OK
Example 2: Staircase with Landing &
Continuous at One End
Detailing 0.3L = 1290 mm

H10-400
H10-150

10  170 = 170 mm
H10-400
H10-150

H10-400

## 10  260 mm = 2600 mm 1500 mm

200 mm 200 mm
Example 3
STAIRCASE SUPPORTED BY
LANDING
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

200
50

1500

100

1500

50
200

## 10 @ 260 = 2600 1500

Plan View 200 200
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## • Permanent action, gk = 1.2 kN/m2

(excluding selfweight)
• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2
• fck = 25 N/mm2
• fyk = 500 N/mm2
• RC density = 25 kN/m3 h = 150
• Cover, c = 25 mm G = 260
• bar = 10 mm

R = 170

Section h = 150
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## 𝐺 2 +𝑅2 2602 +1702

𝑦=ℎ = 150 = 179 mm
𝐺 260

 Average thickness:
𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 179+(179+170)
𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟔𝟒 mm G
2 2

y R
t

y
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## For this type of staircase,

design for LANDING and
FLIGHT should be done
SEPARATELY !!!
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Action
Landing

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.150 = 3.75 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 3.75 + 1.20 = 4.95 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, landing = nd  1 m = 11.18 kN/m/m width

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Action
Flight

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.264 = 6.61 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.20 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.61 + 1.20 = 7.81 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, flight = nd  1 m = 15.04 kN/m/m width

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## La = Clear distance between supports = 2600 mm

Lb1 = The lesser of width support 1 or 1.8 m = 200 mm
Lb2 = The lesser of width support 2 or 1.8 m = 1500 mm

##  Le = 2600 + 0.5 (200 + 1500) = 3450 mm

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## Analysis for Staircase

Support 1

L1 = 2.7 m L2 = 0.75 m
Support 2
Le = Effective span
M = FL/10 = 14.0 kNm

## Note: F = wd  L = (15.04  2.7 m) = 40.6 kN

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Self Study
Moment Design

Shear Check

Deflection Check

Cracking Check

Detailing
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

w kN/m

L = 3.4 m

## w = wlanding + Load from staircase

= (11.18  1.5) + 11.8 (reaction from support 2)
= 28.6 kN/m

𝒘𝑳
𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟒𝟖. 𝟔 𝒌𝑵
𝟐
𝒘𝑳𝟐
𝑴𝒎𝒂𝒙 = = 𝟒𝟏. 𝟑 𝒌𝑵𝒎
𝟖
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Main Reinforcement

## Effective depth, d = 150 – 25 – 10/2 = 120 mm

𝑀 41.3×106
𝐾= = = 0.077  Kbal = 0.167
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎×1202
 Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾
𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.93𝑑  0.95d
1.134

𝑀 41.3×106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟖𝟓𝟒 mm2/m
0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.93×120
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑
𝑓𝑦𝑘 500
 As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013  1500  120 = 240 mm2/m

## Main bar 17H10 (As = 1335 mm2/m)

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Shear

## Maximum design shear force, VEd = 48.6 kN/m

200 200
𝑘 =1+ =1+ = 2.29 2.0  Use k = 2.0
𝑑 120
𝐴𝑠𝑙 1335
𝜌𝑙 = = = 0.0074 ≤ 0.02
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 130

## 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐 = 0.12𝑘 100𝜌𝑙 𝑓𝑐𝑘 1/3 𝒃𝑑

= 0.12 × 2.0 100 × 0.0074 × 25 1/3 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120 = 114350 N = 114.4 kN/m

## 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.035𝑘 3/2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑

= 0.035 × 2.03/2 25 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120 = 89095 𝑁 = 89.1 kN/m

## VEd (48.6 kN/m)  VRd,c (114.4 kN/m)  OK

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Deflection

𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 854
𝜌= = = 0.0047
𝒃𝑑 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 × 120

## Reference reinforcement ratio:

𝜌𝑜 = 𝑓𝑐𝑘 × 10−3 = 25 × 10−3 = 0.0050

## Since   o  Use Eq. (7.16a) in EC 2 Cl. 7.4.2

Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

## Factor or structural system, K = 1.0

3/2
𝑙 𝜌𝑜 𝜌𝑜
= 𝐾 11 + 1.5 𝑓𝑐𝑘 + 3.2 𝑓𝑐𝑘 −1
𝑑 𝜌 𝜌

## Modification factor for span less than 7 m = 1.00

𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 1335
Modification for steel area provided = = = 1.56  1.50
𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 854

## (l/d)actual = 3400/120 = 28.3  (l/d)allow

Deflection OK
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Cracking

h = 150 mm  200 mm

Main bar:
Smax, slab = 3h (450 mm)  400 mm  400 mm
[1500−2 25 −10]
Max bar spacing = = 90 𝑚𝑚  Smax, slab  OK
16

Cracking OK
Example 3: Staircase Supported by Landing

Detailing

LETS DO IT
Example 4
TWO SPANS OF STAIRCASE
INTERSECT AT RIGHT ANGLES
Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
200 1500 10 @ 255 = 2550 200

200

1500

A A

10 @ 255 = 2550

## Plan View 200

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles

## • Permanent action, gk = 1.0 kN/m2

(excluding selfweight)
• Variable action, qk = = 3.0 kN/m2
• fck = 25 N/mm2
• fyk = 500 N/mm2 G = 255

• RC density = 25 kN/m3
• Cover, c = 25 mm
• bar = 10 mm R = 170

h = 150

h = 150

Section A-A
Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Determine Average Thickness of Staircase

## 𝐺 2 +𝑅2 2552 +1702

𝑦=ℎ = 150 = 180 mm
𝐺 255

 Average thickness:
𝑦+(𝑦+𝑅) 180+(180+170)
𝑡= = = 𝟐𝟔𝟓 mm G
2 2

y R
t

y
Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Action & Analysis
Landing

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.150 = 3.75 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 3.75 + 1.00 = 4.75 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, landing = nd  1 m = 10.91 kN/m/m width

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Action & Analysis
Flight

## Slab selfweight = 25.0  0.265 = 6.63 kN/m2

Permanent action (excluding selfweight) = 1.00 kN/m2
Characteristics permanent action, gk = 6.63 + 1.00 = 7.63 kN/m2

## Consider 1 m width, wd, flight = nd  1 m = 14.80 kN/m/m width

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Analysis

landing  2.
WHY? 5.46 kN/m

L1 = 1.6 m L2 = 2.65 m

## Note: F = wd  L = (5.46  1.6 m) + (14.80  2.65 m) = 48.0 kN

Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Main Reinforcement

## Effective depth, d = 150 – 25 – 10/2 = 120 mm

𝑀 20.4×106
𝐾= = = 0.057  Kbal = 0.167
𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝒃𝑑 2 25×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎×1202
 Compression reinforcement is NOT required

𝐾
𝑧 = 𝑑 0.25 − = 0.95𝑑  0.95d
1.134

𝑀 20.4×106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 𝟒𝟏𝟐 mm2/m
0.87𝑓𝑦𝑘 𝑧 0.87×500×0.95×120
Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles
Minimum & Maximum Area of Reinforcement

𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 2.56
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.26 𝑏𝑑 = 0.26 0.0013𝑏𝑑 ≥ 0.0013𝑏𝑑
𝑓𝑦𝑘 500
 As,min = 0.0013bd = 0.0013  1000  120 = 160 mm2/m

## As,max = 0.04Ac = 0.04bh = 0.04  1000  120 = 6000 mm2/m

Secondary Reinforcement

## Main bar H10-175 (As = 449 mm2/m)

Secondary bar H10-400 (As = 196 mm2/m)
Example 4: Two Spans of Staircase
Intersect at Right Angles

Self Study
Shear Check

Deflection Check

Cracking Check

Detailing
Other Types
Other Types