Chapter 1

Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form

a 1.1 (a) cosa = 10PI '

a = 101'1 cos a

b cosP = 10PI '

b=IOPlcosp

c cosr=-

101'1

c=IOPicosr

a2 +b2 +c2

(b) cos' a + cos" 13 + cos' r = IOPI2

but IOPI2 = a2 + b2 + c2

.. cos" a + cos" 13 + cos" r = 1

(c)

a p

OP

=

IOPI

= aa +ba +ca

x y z

= IOPicosaax +IOPicosf3ay +IOPicosf8z IOPI

= cos aa + cos f3a + cos f8

x y z

(d) OP=aa +ba +ca =IOPI(cosaa +cosf3a +cosja )

x y z x y Z

Op· OQ = 10PIIOQI( cos a cos al + cos 13 cos PI + cos r cos r.)

2

CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

and OP· OQ = IOPlOQlcosO

:. COsO=cosacosa, + cos f3cos f3, +COSrCOSr,

1.2

z

(a) B=QP OP=QP+OQ

:. B = QP = OP - OQ

= (-2a)' +2aJ-(2ax + a)' +3a,) = -2a -3a -a

x y z

(b) Assume the smaller angle between A and B is (). The magnitude of projection of B on A is IBlcos().

:. A· B = IAliElcos()

:. IElcos() A·B (ax +2a\. -3aJ-2a, -3ay -a,)
= =
IAI ~12 +22 +(_3)2
1· (-2) + 2· (-3) + (-3)( -1)
= -JI4
-5 -1.336
= -JI4 = (c) cosO = IEicosO = -1.336 = -0.357

lEi ~(_2)2 +(_3)2 +(_1)2

:. 0=110.9'

3

(d)

AxB = 2 3

a a a

x y Z

-2 -3 -1

= (-2-9)a +(6+1)a +(-3+4)a

x y Z

= -lla +7a +a

x y z

:. unit vector = IA x BI = -O.841a + 0.535a + 0.0765a

AxB x y z

1. 3 At x = 1, y = 2, z = 4

A=a +4a +12a

.l' y Z

A

unit vector = =

IAI

a +4a + 12a

x y z

-V12+42+122

= 0.0788a +0.3152a +0.9457a

.x y z

1.4 At x = 2, y = 3

A = 3a +2a +3a

x y z

B=4a +4a

x y

(a) A· B = (3 x 4) + (2 x 4) + (3 x 0) = 20

A·B 20

(b) cosO = IAIIBI = -V32 + 22 + 32 . -V42 + 42 = 0.7538

:. 0 = 41.08'

(c) The projection ofB along the direction of A is IBicosO

1.5 If A, B, and C are perpendicular to each other, then

A·B=O

B·C=O

A·C=O

4

CHAP1ER 1. VEcrOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

A·C =

(5a + 2a + 3a ). (3a + C a + a )

x y Z x yy z

=

15+2C +3=0

y

~ C =-9 r

A·B

= (5a + 2a + 3a ). (B a + 2a + B a )

x y z xx y zz

= 5B +4+B =0

x z

B·C

= (B a + 2a + B a ). (3a - 9a + a )

xx y zz x y z

= 3B -18+B =0

x z

~ B = 14.5

x

B = -25.5

z

1.6 (a)

a a a
x y z
BxC = 2 3
0 2 6
= (6-6)a +(-12)a +4a
x y Z
= -12a +4a
y z
z
BxC BxC -12a +4a

• y z

unit vector = -I q = .,J 2 2

Bx 12 +4

-O.95a + 0.316a

y z

1. 7 (a) If the two vectors are parallel, then A x B = O.

5

AxB = 3

a {3 -6

= (-6-3{3)a +(3a+6)a .. +({3-a)a =0

p ~ l

~ a=-2

{3=-2

(b) A=a + a .. +3a

p ~ z

In the Cartesian coordinate system,

A=Aa +Aa +Aa

xx yy zz

where

Ax = Apcost/>-A,sint/>=cost/>-sint/> Ay = Apsint/>+A,cost/>=cost/>+sint/> A = 3

z

:. A = (cost/>-sint/»ax + (cose + sint/»ay +3az

Now we substitute

and

x-y x+y

A= a+ a+3a

~ x2 + l x ~ x2 + l y z

1. 8 At x = 2, y = 3

p = ~ x2 + y2 = ffi = 3.6

t/> = tan-1(;) = tan-1(%) = 0.983

:. A = 0.555a + 0.832a .. + 3.6a

p ~ z

B = 3.6a + 0.983a .. + 2a

p ~ z

A· B = (0.555 x 3.6) + (0.832 x 0.983) + (3.6 x 2) = 10.03

In the Cartesian coordinate system,

6

CHAPTER 1. VECfOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

A=Aa +Aa +Aa
x x Y Y z z
where
A = Ap cos¢> - A, sin¢>
s:
A = Ap sin¢> + A, cos¢>
y
A = A
l z => Ax = (0.555 x 0.555) - (0.832 x 0.832) = -0.384 A = (0.555 x 0.832) + (0.832 x 0.555) = 0.924

y

A = 3.6

z

:. A = -0.384a. + 0.924a + 3.6a

~ Y z

B = -2a' - 4a' + 2a'

r 8 r;

z

a' = a,
r
,
8q> a' = a8
8
, Y a' = -a
ar .; r x

:. B =

-2a -4a -2a ,8,

= -2a -4a -2a ,8,

A-B = (3-2)a, +[(-7)-(-4)]a8 +[2-(-2)]a, = 5a, -3a8 +4a,

1.10 (a)

A = IAlcos45' = ..fi = 0.707
x 2
A = IAIsin45' = 0.707
y
A = 0
l :. A = A a + A a + A a = 0.707a + 0.707a

xx yy zz x y

B = 0
x
B = IBlcos30° = 2 . .f3 = 1.732
y 2
B = IBlsin30° = 2 . .!. = 1
z 2 :. B=Ba +Ba +Ba =1.732a +a

xx yy zz y

:. 0 = 52.24°

(c)

o 1.732

a a a

x y z

A x B = 0.707 0.707 0 = 0.707a - 0.707a + 1.225a

x y z

A x B 0.707a - 0.707a + 1.225a

:. n = -- = x y z = O.4472a - O.4472a + 0.7748a

IA x BI .j0.7072 + 0.7072 + 1.2252 x y z

(d) n az = InllazlcosO = cosO

:. cosO = n- a = 0.7748

z

0=39.23°

1.11 (a) If A and B are parallel to each other, then A x B = O.

a a a

x y z

A x B = 1 b c = (-8b - 3c)a + ( -c + 8)a + (3 + b)a = 0

x y z

-1 3 -8

=> -8b-3c = 0

-c+8 = 0

3+b = 0

:. b =-3, c=8

7

8

CHAPTER 1. VECfOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

(b) If A and B are perpendicular to each other, then A· B = O.

A·B = [1 x (-1)]+ (b x 3)+[cx (-8)] = 0

:. 3b-8c=1

or

b= 1+8c 3

x = pcos¢ y = psin¢

z = z

:. A = p3 cos" ¢sin¢
x
A = p2zsin2 ¢
y
A = p2ZCOS2 ¢
z :. A = A a + A .. a .. + A a

p p .,..,. z

= (p3 cos' ¢sin¢ + p2zsin3 ¢)ap + (_p3 sin" ¢cos2 ¢ + p2zsin2 ¢cos¢)ap + p2ZCOS2 ¢la,

(b)

x = rsinOcos¢
y = rsinOsin¢
Z = rcosO
:. A = r3 sin" Ocos2 ¢sin¢
x
A = r3 sin" OcosOsin2 ¢
y
A = r3 sin" OcosOcos2 ¢
z = A sinOcos¢+A sinOsin¢+A cosO

x y z

9

1.13

z

,

IlcII

x

~-----'---1~,--.y ar

A = 2a' + a' - 3a'

r 8 •

a' = -a
8 ,
a' = a8
r
a' = a,
• AxB=-1 2 -3=13a,+5a8-a. -1 3 2

1.14

z

AT=OT-OA

BT=OT-OB

:. AT = 3a + 5a + 5a - (2a + a ) = 3a + 3a + 4a

x y z y z x y Z

BT = 3a + 5a + 5a - (a + a ) = 2a + 4a + 5a

x y Z x y x y Z

10

CHAPTER 1. VECfOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

Unit vector:

AT 3a +3a +4a

a =-= x y z =0.5145a +0.5145a +0.686a

AT IATI ..J32+32+42 x y z

BT 2a +4a +5a

a = - = x y Z = 0.298a + 0.596a + 0.745a

BT IBTI J22 +42 +52 x y z

= ~ -a

41rEo1ATl2 AT

= 1 3 . (0.5145ax +0.5145ay +0.686az)

4n·-xlO-9 x34

36n

= 0.409 x 109a +0.409 x 109a + 0.545 x 109a

x y z

= Q1 -a

41rEo1BTf BT

= 1 1 . (0.298ax +0.596ay +0.745az)

4n·-xlO-9 x45

36n

= 0.0596x109a +0.1192x109a +0.149xl09a

x y z

:. E I =EAT+EBT =0.469xl09a +0.528xl09a +0.694xl09a

Iota x y z

(1.6 X 10-19)2

1.15 IFI= 1 2 =2.304xl0-8N

4nx-xlO-9 X(10-IO)

36n

1.16

z

x

AP = OP - OA = (2.5 - l)a + 2a = 1.5a + 2a

y z y z

BP=OP-OB=(2.5-4)a +2a =-1.5a +2a

y z y z

11

Unit vector:

AP

a AP = IAPI = 0.6ay + 0.8a,

BP -1.5a +2a

a =-= y '=-0.6a +0.8a

BP IBPI ~(1.5)2 + (2)2 y z

Q

= ·a

41f x _1 X 10-9 X IAPI2 AP

36"

= 0.02 X 10-9 • (0 6 0 8 )

~xlO 9 x6.25xl0-4 . ay + . a,

= 172.8a + 230.4a

y z

Q

EBP = 1 B -9 I 12. aBP = -86.4a + 115.2a

41f x 36" X 10 x BP Y'

z

E 1= 86.4a +345.6a

tota y Z

1.17

AT=OT-OA=(6-3)a +(3-1)a +(2-1)a =3a +2a +a

x y z x y Z

BT=OT-OB=(6-0)a +(3-1)a +(2-0)a =6a +2a +2a

x y z x y Z

Unit vector:

AT 3a +2a +a

a = -- = x y , = 0.802a + 0.535a + 0.267a

AT IATI ~32+22+12 x y z

BT 6a +2a +2a

a - - - x y '0.905a + 0.302a + 0.302a

BT -IBTI- ~62 + 22 + 22 x y z

12

CHAPTER 1. VEcrOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

Q

= 41C . _1 X 10-9 .IA 7'12 • a AT

36,.. .L I

10-9

= 1 -9 -4 X (0.802a + 0.535a + 0.267a )

9"xlO x14x1O x y z

= 5155.7a +3439.3a +1716.4a

x y Z

= Q8 -a

41C. _1 X 10-9 .IB7'l2 BT

36,. .L I

2 X 10-9 ( )

= 1 -4. 0.9058 + 0.302a + 0.302a

9"x44xlO x y z

= 3702.3a + 1235.5a + 1235.5a

x y z

E 1= 8858.0a + 4674.8a + 2951.9a

tota x y Z

1.18 Assume at p( - x, 0, 0), E = 0, as shown in the figure. p

+Q

-2Q

-"._~.----4."_--~.-_'~ X

P A

o

B

Q ()

E - ·-a

Ap - 41rE (x-a)2 x

o

-2Q 2Q

EBP= 41rE (a+x)2 .(aJ= 41CE (a-x)2 ·ax

o 0

Q (-1 2)

E =E +E =-_. + a =0

total Ap Bp 41CEo (a-x)2 (a+x)2 x

-1 2 0

~ +--~

(a-x)2 (a+x)2

2(a-x)2 -(a+x)2 =0

6±"-'36-4

x= -a

2

13

Xl =5.83a

X2 = 0.17 a where x2 is invalid

:. There is a point (-5.83a,0,0) where E = O.

1.19 After two balls are separated, they have the same charges:

1.20

Unit vector:

AT a +2a

aAT =_1_21 = J 2 ~ =O.4472a +0.8944a

1 AJ; 1 + 2 x y

BT AT -AB a +2a -3a -2a +2a

a = __ 2 = 2 = x y Z = x Y =-0707a +0.707a

BT, IBJ;I IBJ;I IBJ;I _../22 + 22 . x Y

= 0.805a + 1.61a

x Y

14

CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

= ~ -a

41rEoIB7;12 BT,

4 X 10-9 ( )

= 1 9 . 0.707a +0.707a

9" X 10- X 8 x y

= -3.182a +3.182a

x y

:. ET. =EAT. +EBT. =-2.38a +4.79a

1 2 1 X Y

1.21 (a) IF Icos a = mgsin a

• 2 2

«n mg

mg

Q2 a . a

( )2 cos- = mgslO-

4 2· a 2 2

1rE SlO-

o 2

4sin3 ~

Q2 = 41rE mg a 2 = 5.284 X 10-14

o COST

:. Q = 2.30 X 10-7 (C)

(b) For Q = 0.5,uc = 5 X 10-7 (c)

a=75.2°

15

1.22

y

1 2

3 4

Note all components in the y direction should go to zero.

IT=OT-OI =4a -a

x ,

2T=OT-02 = 2a -a

x ,

3T,=OT-03 =4a +a

x ,

4T=OT-04= 2a +a

x ,

Unit vector:

IT 4a-a

a =-= x '=0.97a -0.24a

IT IITI ...}42 + 12 x ,

2T 2a-a

a2T = -I -I = ...} x , = 0.894a - 0.447a

2T 22 + 12 x ,

and

a3T = 0.97ax + 0.24a,

a4T = 0.894ax + 0.447a,

= Q -a

41rEo11T12 IT

10-{i

= 1 9 .(0.97a -0.24a )=513.53a -127.06a

"9 x 10- x 17 x , x ,

= Q -a

41rEo12T12 2T

1O-{i

= 1 9 . (0.894a - 0.447a ) = 1609.2a - 804.6a

"9 x 10- x 5 x , x ,

and

16

CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

E3T = 513.53ax + 127.06ay E4T = 1609.2a +804.6a

x y

1.23

r: a a

x y z

F=q(E+ V +B)= qVxB=qV V V ={qV B)a +(-qV B)a

x Y z yo x xo y

o 0 B

o

.. ma

x

= qVB

y 0

rna y

E =-14VBa

y 0 0 y

E =-7VBa

zoo z

a = _.1. V B

y m x 0

1.24 F = q(E + V x B) = 0

a a a
x y z
VxB= 3V -V 2V = 14 V B a + 7V B a
0 0 0 o 0 y o 0 z
B 2B -4B
0 0 0
:. Ea «s « «e« +14VBa +7VBa =0
x x y y z z o 0 y o 0 Z 1.25 F= q(E+ VxB) = 0

a a a
x y z
E+VxB=-Ea + 0 -V o = {-E - VB)a + V B a
x x y x yzx yxz
B B B
x y z .. B = 0
x
E
B = __ x
z V
x The magnetic field in the y direction has no effect on electrons.

1.26 (a)

1

5

y

This integral can be broken up into five different parts:

IF. dl = 1"'/3 _p(Z2 + l)sin<fJ. pd<fJ + J:2p2Z cos cpdz

+JP, 2p(Z2 + l)coscpdp + fO _p(Z2 + l)psincpd<fJ + J~p2zcoscpdZ

5 ~ 5

r i5 JP, fO JO

=- 2Ssincpd<fJ+ 2Szdz+ 26pdp- 26p!sincpd<fJ+ 2p!zdz

° ° 5 ,,/3 5

= -25( -cos~)I:' + 2s( ; X + 26( ~T - 26P. (-cOS~)~ + 2P;( ; X

= -2S+p!

(c) :. JF.dl+ JF.dl=(P!-2S)+(2S-p!)=o

c c,

:. The field F is conservative.

17

1

I

t

f I

!

I

f

I

18

CHAPTER 1. VEcrOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

1.27

w = IF.ndl=qIE.ndl=q[i(5XY-6X2)dx+ iC2Y-4X)dY] = q[i(5X4-6X2)dx+ i(2Y-4y1I3)dy]

= q[(XS - 2X3)1~ + l- 3l/31~] = 35q = 35 x 10-{i(J)

1.28 A = Idi = r~xdx + r~ dy = 4a

( J1 J1 y y

w = q[1;r2cosf)sinOar ·ardr+ f~>sintfJa, .a,rsincpdq,] = q[ fo;r2 dr - IP sin cpdq, ] = q[8 + 4 - 8] = 4q( J)

1.29

1.30 w = q IE. df.. This integral can be broken up into two parts.

F(r,f),q,) = rSinOar + a8 + a,

1.31 Flux =tF(r,f),q,).dS

.It f .r l

19

J2"'JI 12'" II

:. Flux S2 = 1· rsinOdqxlr = diP rdr = 11:

~=o ~o 0 0

f 11:2

:. Total Flux F· ds = - + 11:

s 2

1.32 B = xa + ya + za

x y z

ds=dxdya

z

1.33 B = zya + xa + Z2xa

x y z

(a)

z

,-

ds= dzdya"

.. J B . ds = J4 J2 zydydz = £14 .i12 = 12

z=O y=-I 2 0 2_1

(b)

-4

z=5

x

20

CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

ds=dxdye:

z

.. f B· ds = f z2xdxdy = f 25xdxdy

{X = pcosq, dxdy = pdtfJdp

f J3 J.2" 313

:. B· ds = 25· p2 costfJdtfJdp = 25f!_ . sinq,I~'" = 0

p=o ,=0 3 0

:. E=O es p « a

1.34 Select as a Gaussian surface a cylinder which has radius = p and length = .e.

(a) p < a

Since aU the charge is on the surface of the cylinder, no charges are enclosed by the Gaussian surface.

(b) a-c p c b

In this region, only the charge from the inner cylinder will be enclosed by the Gaussian surface.

a<p<b

There will be charge contributed by both cylinders.

(c) p > b

Q = J. P" dSI + J. PSl dS2

= ;~ l~J::oa:~z - Ps 1~J,2:bdtfJdz = (a - b)ps' 2nf

21

I.e E·ds=21tfe E p

'1 0 0 p

(a - b)p 21tf (a - b)p

. E - - S p>b

•• p - 21tfeop - eop ,

1.35 Select as a Gaussian surface a sphere of radius = r.

(a) r < a

There will be no charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface. Therefore,

:. E=O, r<a

(b) a-c r c b

a<r<b

(c) r> b

1.36 (a) E = Erar for a < r < b

a<r<b

22

CHAPTER 1. VECfOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

For r> b,

:. E=O

a<r<b

d a2

J = -(e E) = -2 X 104 -2 sin(105t)a

P dt ° r r

1.37

:. Pv is spheric symmetry

:. E = E a

r r

For r « a

f. J 14 ( r2 ) 4;rp 4;rp rS

e E·ds= p dv= P 1-2 4trr2dr=--o r3 0 2

,0 Vv 0° a 3 5 a

:. E=Ea =( Po r- Po ~)a, r « a

r r 3E 5e a2 r

° °

For r » a

J 1" ( r2 ) 4;rp 4;rp 8;rp

P dv = P 1- - 4trr2 dr = __ 0 a3 0 a3 = __ 0 a3

v v 0 2 a2 3 5 15

23

2p a3

. E-Ea 0 - r>a

• • - r r - 15e r2 '

o

1.38 feoE.dS= IpydV

I 10-2 1

J = _JL = = -x 104 = 3183 (A/m2)

A 1t' ·10~ 1t'

J 3183

:. P =-=-7-=3.183xlO-4 (e/m3)

v v 10

For p < a, the Gaussian surface is a cylinder with radius p and height L.

f fife oE ppdqxJz = P y1t'p2 L

P 1t'p2L P

E = r =1.59xl0-4-=1.76x107p

p 21'CEop eo

E = E a = 1.76 x 107 pa (VIm),

p p p

p<a

For p> a

fe E·ds= p .1t'a2L

o y

s

1.39 (a) emf = 1. E· d£ = -!!_JB. ds t dt s

J.B.dS = s: flfBo[I-(:':5J}inQNPldqxJp

= 2TCB sin cot rp[l- (L)2]!dPl2 = 2TCB [p2 - L]sinQN

o Jo 0.15 2 0 2 0.09

d J (p2 p4)

-- B·ds=-21t'C:oB ---- coser

dt s 0 2 0.09

24 CHAPTER 1. VEcrOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

fE. dl = 2trpE,

:. E .. = _1_[-2trroB (p2 _ L)coswt] = -5.56roB p(0.09 - 2p2)COSwt

.. 2trp 0 2 0.09 0

(b)

1.40 emf = -.!!....JB. ds = -.!!....JO.2Sin103tds = -.!!....(0.1 x 0.2sin103t) = -20 cos I03t

& s & &

1.41 ds = dxdye;

emf

d J d J 0.05 3 ( )

= -- B·ds=-- -cosIO t a +a -dxdye

dt I, dts..fi Y z z

= - :t( 0.65 x 0.; cos103t) = 22.98sin103t (VIm)

1.42

emf = -!!_JB.ds=-!!_10.310.65cos(104t-2.1x)dxdY

dt dto °

d 10.3[ 5 1°.6]

= -- --sin(104t-2.1x) dy

dt ° 2.1 °

= -! {--O.714[Sin(104t-1.26)-Sin104t]}

= 0.714 x 104[COS(104t -1.26) - cos104t]

:. V = IR, = 4.868 x 103[COS(104t-1.26)-cos104t] (Vim) 1.43 ,(_!!_. a = jJ. ds

'1c~o s

For p<0.5

I J . ds = 1: fir 4.5e-2p pdedp

= 2n x 4.5[ -~ e-2p - ±(e-2P -1)] = 7.1[-2pe-ZP - (e-Zp -1)]

B B 1.125 [1 -Zp 2 -2P]

= ,a, =-- -e - pe a"

p

p<0.5

For p>0.5

jJ.dS=7.1-2pe-ZP-(e-ZP-l)l_ =1.868

s p~5

1 :. B .. =0.297~ -

.,. up

25

26 CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

(a) p < a

(b) a c p < b

(c) p > b

:. B=O

2Jl (p3 _ a3)

B=B a = 0 a

•• 3 P •

:. B =~.~(b3_a3)=3.Jlo(b3_a3)

• 21tp 3 3 P

2 1

B = B a = -Jl (b3 - a3)-a

•• 3 0 P •

27

J,l / u /

B = _0_ = --1L.!L cos ox , 2np 2np

J,l/

B = B a = --1L.!L cos rota

"2np ,

(b) i.

J ib Jd+. ts / u / b d + a

lfI m = B . ds = --1L.!L cos oxdpdz = _0_'_' cos wt In --

sOd 2np 2n d

ii.

dlfl d[J.l/b d+a] J,l/bOJ d+a :

emf=- dtm =- dt ;; cosOJtln-d- = °2~ In-a-sIDwt

u / cosez 1.46 B =~o_-

, 2np

d J d iO.3 iO.25 ts / cos ox

emf = -- B·ds=-- ° dpdz

dt s dt 0.15 0.05 2np

d [0.15J,l /coswt 0.25]

= -- ° In-- =0.0384J,l /sinwt

dt 2n . 0.05 °

28

CHAPTER 1. vscroa ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM

O.0384co1loI

emf

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I 121t

emf is in a direction as to oppose the change in the magnetic field.

O.0384j.1. decrease: increase

I

11t

I

I 121t

'" IN decreases when emf is positive and vice versa.

1.47 (a) Place a loop of wire nearby and orient it such that a maximum voltage appears across the open loop. If the distance is known from the magnetic field and the area of the loop, the field can be determined. The direction will be in the direction of s.

(b) 1.

1 K2.

B=K ---smmta

1 p2 P .;

d J P +b

emf=-- B·ds=amK21n-1 -cosOJt

dt PI

2. As shown in the figure on the top of the next page, '" m decreases when emf is positive and '" m increases when emf is negative.

29

P +b awl(21n-l-

PI

emf

I increase: decrease I

I

I

I

I

I

I I I I

1.48 (a) A field is associated with a region in space. and we say that a field exists in the region if there is a physical phenomenon associated with points in that region.

We know an electromagnetic field exists in a certain region because a charged particle or charged particle flow will suffer a force in that region.

(b) Electric fields always have the action on charged particles. Magnetic fields only have the action on those charged particles which move. and the direction is not the same with the direction of the magnetic field.

(c)

Two forces act

on the electron: FE and FB•

The direction of FE is -8z; the direction of F B is 8z•

z

If IFEI > IFBI. the electron will have a motion of projectile as shown in line 1 of the figure. If IF BI > IF EI. the electron will have a motion of projectile as shown in line 2 of the figure.

Chapter 2

Maxwell's Equations in Differential Form

2.1

in cylindrical coordinates

a 1 a a

V=-a +--a +-a app pal/J' «>

2.2 A = - ya + xa ; find V x A.

x y

a a a
x y t
curl A = VxA = .Q_ .Q_ .Q_
ax dy ik
-y x 0 Solving determinant yields:

a (o_cn)_a (o+ay)+a (cn+ay)=a(1+1)=2a

x az y az tcnay z z

2

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

:. V X A= 28

l

Evaluate £ A . dl around x2 + l = 1.

To perform the integration around the specified contour, we must transform the vector A from rectangular to cylindrical. To change, we use:

x = pcos¢ y = psin¢

z = z

where

A =A cos¢+A sin¢

p x y

where A", =-y

whereA =x y

•• Ap = -ycos¢+xsin¢

A; = -(-y)sin¢+xcos¢

Substituting the above formulas for x and y for Ap and A;:

Ap = -(psin¢)cos¢+pcos¢sin¢=O

A; = pSin¢sin¢+pcos¢cos¢=p(sin2¢+cos2¢)=p

:. A= p8;

But p = 1 =constant

! - 2

:. rcA. df. = 2n(l) = 2n

Evaluate I V x A . ds over the surface bounded by x2 + l = 1 in cylindrical coordinates.

3

~ p

VxA=_Q_ ap

o

!.. p

a ( ap2 ) a (ap2 ) 1

i... =....e... 0-- -a (O-O)+.....L --0 =-(2p)a =2a

az paz; pap p , ,

o

rp-I r21C rp-1 12'"

:. I v x A· ds = I2a,. pdt/Jdpa, = Jo - Jo 2pdt/Jdp = Jo - 2pt/J 0 dp = 2np21~ = 2n

Stokes' Theorem states:

or

IVXA.ds +« = 2n

:. Stokes' Theorem is satisfied.

2.3 F=2pa

P

where p = 3, 0 s, t/J s, 2n, 0 S, z S, 2

The Divergence Theorem is

div F = V . F = (.!. ap . 2p +.!. a2p + a2P) = .!. a2p2 + 0 + 0 = 4p = 4

pap ppat/J az pap p

=>V·F=4

Right-hand side:

1 div F . dv = l4dV = J: f'" f 4 pdzdt/Jdp

= s: f" 4 . 2pdt/Jdp = s: 8· 2npdp = 16n p213 = 72n = fdiV F· dv 20,

Left-hand side:

But p=3:

4

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

2.4 T and M are scalar fields. Prove in Cartesian coordinates that V(MT) = 1VM + MVT.

:. By definition:

V=(!+~+~)

:. V(TM) = (! + ~ + ~)T(X,y'Z)M(X'y,Z)]=(! + ~ + ~}TM)

drM drM drM dM st dM sr dM st

= --+--+--=T-+M-+T-+M-+T-+M-

dx dy dz dx dx dy dy dz dz

(dM dM dM) (dr sr dr)

= T dx + dy +~ +M dx + dy + dz =1VM+MVT

T=T(x,y,z)

M= M(x,y,z)

Proven.

2.5 Find the curl (V x F) of:

VxA

(b) B = 3xza - ya - x2a

x Y l

VxB

a a a

x Y z

3xz -y _x2

= a (d(-X2) _ d(-y))_a (d(-X2) _ d(3XZ))+a (d(-y) _ d(3XZ))

x dy dz Y dx dz 'dx dy

= -a (-2x-3x)=5xa

Y Y

5

1

(c) c= ra -v r r

Vxc =

~

r2sin9

_g_ dr

r-1/2

~~

rsin9 r

.Q_ .Q_

a9 aq,

o 0

1 1 ( ;;"-112) 1 ( ;;"-1/2)

= --a (O-O)---a 0--- +-a 0--- =0

r2 sinO r rsinO ' otfJ r' 00

a a a

x y z

(e) E = xza + yza _y2a

x y ,

VxE

xz yz -l

= a (o(-l) _ O(YZ))_a (o(-l) _ O(XZ))+a (O(YZ) _ O(XZ))

x ()y az yax az 'ax ()y

= a (-2y-y)-a (-x)=-3ya +xa

x y x y

(0 F= Krna , K is a constant
r
a ~ ~
---L---
r2 sin9 rsin9 r
VxF = _g_ .Q_ .Q_
dr a9 aq,
s-: 0 0 = _1_a (0-0) __ 1_a (0- O(Krn))+.!.a (0- O(Krn))=o

r2 sinO r rsinO 9 otfJ r fI 00

6

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

(a)

a a

x y

a

a' =a (0- a(-l)]_a (0- a(z2)]+a (a(-l) _ dz2]=2za

ik x dz y dz 'ax dy y

o

.. JVXF.ds= rl rl2za -a dxdz= rl2ZXlldZ=z2r =1

s Jo Jo Y Y Jo 0 0

(b)

=

J'=IJX=12zdxdz

,=0 x=o '---------v----

S, is the only one in which the dot product equals I

J'-I

= - 2zdz = z21~ = 1

,=0

2.7 F=rar;Stokes' Theorem = IVXF.ds=tF.d1

7

z

=

Jt·dl+ Jt·dl+ i~·dl

11</2 11<12 JO

raT' rd8a(J + raT' rsinOdf/Ja, + raT' rd8a(J

o 0 7</2

o because all dot products = 0

=

VxF=

_!a_

rsin8

.l_ a8

o

~

r

s. =_I_a (O-O) __ I_a (0- ar)+.!.a (0- ar)=o

~ r2 sinO T rsinO (J d¢ r _ dO

o

r

Jv xF·ds = JO.ds= O='cF .a

s s t

Proven.

2.8 F = p8_ -zaz Stokes' Theorem = Iv x F·ds = fF.dl

8

CHAPTER 20 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

~ p

VxF= s. ap

o

pop -z

(a)

(b)

1 VxFods

= f VXFods+fVXFods

S2 S3

S2

S3

= J~ fn 2pdtfJdp = J~ 2trdp = 211:

'----v-----"

S3 is the only side for which the dot product =1

(b) B = p8.

Div B= V oB=.!..(a(O) + a(O) + a(po p)) =0

pap at{J az

9

Div D = V . D = 1 ;)2r2 . r2 sinO + ;)(0) + ;)(0)1 = 8r3 sinol = 8~ = 24

r2 sin 0 dr ;)0 lkP r=3 r2 sin 0 r=3 r=3

(e) E=3.xa +(y-3)a +(2-z)a

x y z

Div E = V . E = ;)(3x) + ;)(y - 3) + ;)(2 - z) = 3 + 1- 1 = 3

ax dy dz

2.10 F = pap + za, ; Divergence Theorem iF. ds = I div F· dv

z

di F - V F - 1 ;)(p. p) ;)(z) - 1 (2 ) 1- 2 1- 3

IV - . - + - - - p + - + -

p;)p dz p

IdiVF.dv = So" f/2f 3pdzd¢dp= So" f/23hpd¢dP

fa 1r 1r p21a 3

= 3h- pdp = 3h-- = -1d1a2

o 2 2204

10

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

Proving the Divergence Theorem.

2.11 f2p3(Z + l)sin2 ¢dt/J, where p = 2, Z = 1, 0::; t/J::; 21r

Stokes' Theorem J (V x F) . ds = f F . dl

curlA=VxA

~ !z.

p 8; p

= _g_ _g_ .Q_

ap ~ az

o p[2p2(z+l)sin2t/J] 0

= *8p( 0- ~[2P3(Z+I)Sin2t/J])-8;<O-0)+*8z(~[2P3(Z+I)Sin2t/J]-O) = _2p2 sin2 ». + 6p(z + l)sin2 ¢az

ds = pdpd¢az

Check =£F.df = rlf2p3(Z+1)Sin2¢dtPlp=2 = rlf2.S.2sin2¢dtP

z=1

= 32,£_sin2tPI2K =32n= r(VXA)'ds

2 4 0 J.

2.12 (a) A = pa"

1 ap V·A=--=O p atP

The number of flux lines in = the number of flux lines out.

:. Net flux = 0

:. Diy=O

There is more flux coming out of the test region than going into it.

:. Diy:;tO

(c) C = yax'

Flux in = flux out.

/"\. Y




'\J :. Net flux = 0

:. Div =0

11

x

12

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

1 a,.

V·D=---=O rsin8 aq,

:. Div =0

:. Net flux = 0

Flux in = flux out.

(e) E = ra,

:. Div e O

Flux in < flux out.

(f) F = zap'

z

Flux in '* flux out.

:. Div,*O

x

-z

2.13 (a) A = Kxax'

Div A = V . A = K ax = K ax

Flux in < flux out

:. Div *0

Meter struck evenly and will therefore not turn.

Curl =0

a a

x y

CurlA=VxA= ~ ~ ax ()y

Kx 0

13

y

a

aZ ( ()Kx) ( ()Kx)

- =a (O-O)-a 0-- +a 0-- =0

az x y (}z z dy

o

(b) B=Kyax'

DivB=V.B= ()Ky =0 ax

Flux in = flux out.

:. Div e O

Meter struck more as y gets larger and will therefore spin.

Curl *0

y

"-


v
.. ~
J"'-.
;......,c. x

a a

y z

.Q_ =a (O-O)-a (0- ()KY)+a (0- ()KY)=_Ka

az x y (}z Z dy z

o

a

x

CurlB=VxB= ~ ~ ax ()y

Ky 0

14

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

(c) C= Kpa"

. 1 a(Kp)

DIV C = V· C = --- = 0 p at/J

Flux in = flux out.

y

:. Div=O

Meter struck more as p gets larger and will therefore spin.

Curl ~O

~ a; !!z.
p p
CurlC = VxC= .Q_ .Q_ d_
dP ~ dz
0 (Kp)p 0 1 ( aKP) 1 (aKp2 ) 2Kp

= -a 0-- -a (O-O)+-a ---0 =--a =2Ka

p paz' p z ap p z z

(d) D=Kap'

Div D = V. D =..!. a(K)p = K

P ap p

Flux in < flux out.

:. Div e O

Meter struck evenly and will therefore not tum.

Curl = 0

~ p

CurlD=VxD= .Q_ dP

K

!!z. p

d 1 ( aK) 1 ( aK)

- =-a (O-O)-a 0-- +-a 0-- =0

dz P p , az p z at/J

o

2.14 A = Kcos9a,. K = constant; Stokes' Theorem 1 VxF·ds =fF.dl

15

~~~~----~~y

ds = dsa, = r2 sinOdOdq, c=c1 +C2 +C3

x

(a)
a _!a_ ~
----"--
r2 sin9 rsin9 r
VxA = s. A_ _Q_
ar d9 ~ Kr cos 8 ~

o 0 (rsin9)(Kcot9)

= _1_a (d(KrCOSO) _O) __ I_a (d(KrCOSO) -o)+.!.a (0-0)

r2 sinO' dO rsinO 8 dr r '

= _1_(-KrsinO)a =_ K a

r2 sinO r r'

f i1<'2i1<'2 K 1 i1<'2 11</2 1r

VxA·ds= --a,·r2sinOdOdt/la, = KacosO dq,=-Ka-

s 00 r ,=a 0 0 2

fA.d.e = 1~·rd8a8+ 1~·rsin8dt/la9t=a + 1~·(-rdo)a8

8=1</2

= 0 + f/2K cot Or sin Odq,1 + 0 = i1<'2KrcosOdq, = Kacos 1r . 1r = 0

o r=a 0 2 2 8=1</2

(b) Stokes' Theorem fails under the above conditions because the surface and line include the point 0 = O. At this point, A has a singularity because

cosO .

cot 0 = _- + SIn 0 = 0 sinO

K

(c) Changing the contour to encircle the bottom, V x A = as above = --a.

r '

16

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

jr = a ds = -dsa9 c2 f) = tr/2

0< I/J < tr/2

£A df = I~ <batn + 1, A ,.mGl¢a.I .. ,n + I~ (-d,)aLn

q,=o r=a qJ=1</z

= L1<'2K cot Or sin Odt/>I r=a = L1<12KacosOdt/>19=1<12 = 0

9=1<12

2.15 E = Pv.!....a . For static electric fields, V x E = O. 3 8 r

o

VxE =

_!a_ ~

rsinf)

r

&.L

3 Eo

= _1_a (O-O) __ I_a (0- ap; ~J+.!a (0- ap; ;,J=o-o+o=o

r2 sinO r rsinO 9 at/> r q, ao

s. of)

o

o

:. E may represent a static field.

1 a (p r ) 8 (3r2p ) .

V . (eE) = 8 2'- _v_. r2 = -t __ v = p = charge density

or dr 38 r 38 v

o 0

2.16 (a) E=-2jEosin!3zax'

E

B = 2_0 cos!3za

c y

V·cE

= (i.a +i.a +i.a ).-2ejE sinpza

axx dyY ()zz 0 x

= ! (-2ejEo sin pz) = 0 :. Gauss satisfied

V·B

= (i.a +i.a .z, ).2 Eo cos!3za

axx dyY ()zz C Y

a E

= _(2_0 cos.f3z) = 0 :. Gauss satisfied

dy c

a a a

x Y Z

VxE =

But

13 = w~ J.LoEo and

1

c=--

~J.LoE"

. _w

··13--

c

:. V x E = -2j w E cospza

coy

but

E

B = _2_0 cospza

c Y

:. VxE = -jwB

Faraday satisfied

17

18

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

Ampere satisfied

(b) E (z.r) = 2E sin(/3z)ej(-90)a = 2E sin(/3z)cos(aN - 90)a = 2E sin(/3z)sin(aN)a

oX 0 x 0 x 0 x

2.17 B = ~sin q,cos2 Oa. To show that it may represent a static magnetic flux density vector,

r r

show V·B=O.

VIa (1. 2 2) 1

:. ·B=-- 2'smq,cos (}·r a =-·0=0

r2 dr r r r2

VxB=J.lJ

B :. J=Vx-

J.lo

:. VxB =

~~

rsin9

r

_!.__

r2 sin9

.Q_

dr sin9!cos29

s. a9

o

o

r2

= ~(0_0)_~[0_~(sinq,c2os2(})]+ a, [0_~(sinq,cos2(})]

r2sm(} rsm(} aq, r r a(} r2

= O-~( cosq,COS2(})+ a, (2sinq,cOS(}Sin(})

rsm(} r2 r r2

cosq,cos2 () 2sinq,sin(}cos(}

= a + a

r3 sin(} 8 r3 ,

B 1 (cosq,cos2 Oa ) 1 (cosq,cos2 () )

:. V x - = --3 . 8 + 2 sin esin (}cos Oa, = --3 . a8 + sinq,sin20a; = J

J.lo J.lf sm(} J.lf sm(}

2.18 E = 10 cos( aN)a x' The current crossing the square between the plates is the displacement current.

19

J = d(eoE)
at
= ; [e) 0 cos( aK)a .l 0.1 mlside
= -10coeo sin(mt)ax 2.19 E = 3p2ap + pcos¢a; + p3az. Find the volume charge density at point (0.5, ~ ,0).

V·D=pv

D=eE

o

P V·E=~

e

o

VI d ( 2 ) 1 d ( ) d (3) 1 2 1 ( . ) .

·E=-- 3p .p +-- pcosq, +- P =-9p +- -psmq, +0=9p-smq,

pdp Pdq, ik p p

But

Pv = e)V ·E) = eJ9p-sinq,)

Pv( 0.5, ~ ,0) = eo [9(0.5) - sin( ~)] = eo( 4.5 - ~) = 3.63eo

V·B=O

:.O=V·B =

1 d(B,r2) 1 d(sin 0 cos q, sin 0) 1 d(rsinq,)

__,_:..........!...+ +

r2 dr rsinO dO rsinO dq,

1 d(B r2) 1 1

2 ;_ +-. -2sinOcosOcosq,+-. -rcosq,

r ~ r~O r~O

=

1 d(B r2) 1 cosq,

.. -- ' =-2cosOcosq,+--

r2 dr r sinO

d(B r2) cosq,

:. ' = -2rcosOcosq, - r2 __

dr sinO

Integrating gives

2 2r2 r3 cosq,

B r =--cosOcosq,----+c

'2 3 sinO

20

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

r cost/J C :. B = -cos8cost/J----+-

r 3 sin8 r2

For B to remain finite as r ~ 0, C must be zero.

r

:. C=O

r cost/J B = -cos8cost/J----

r 3 sin8

2.21 For a static field ; = 0, from Faraday's law V x E = O.

(a) E = ax2la , a = constant.

A:

VxE = '; :; :z =a (O-O)-a (0

ax ()y (}z A: Y

ax2l 0 0

= 0 -0-az2ax2y = -2ax2yaz

:. E is nQ1 a static field.

VxE =

8p

P o

op

8 ....L

P o

{}z

:. E is a static field.

To find the charge density of E, use V· eE = p.'

21

:. eV·E

°

2.22 E = Eozcosrotax J = 0 B = ?

B=Ba y y

Ba I =0

o y (0,0,0)

B aeE

Vx-=J=_o_

u, at

B aeE a .

:. V x - = ~ = e :k E zcos(rot)a = -e E zeosm(rot)a

110 Ot (} at o x 0 0 x

1

-VxB =

Jlo

_~ s. .i_ Jlo ax OJ ik o B 0

y

= _1 [a (O-}_B )-a (O-O)+a (j__B -0)]= _1 [-}_B a +j__B a]

" x {)zy y zaxy u {)zYx axyZ

'-0 (}

a a a

x y z

a By a s, E' ( )

.. ---a +~.-·a =-e zeosmrota

{)z Jlo x 0.-1. Jl" zoo x

.. j__ By a = 0 ax u z

II

and

aB

.. - --y a = -e E zeosin(rot)a

()Z" x ()" x

f"'"

Integrating both sides with respect to z:

u e E Z2eo

:. B = "() " sin(rot)

y 2

2,23 E = (A)p3a , p = constant.

4e a P o

()

--

22

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

V·E

3e p

:. p =_0_0 p

v 4e a2

o

J = constant

o

aeE

V x B = /I J + p- _0_ = /I J

1""'0 0 at '-0

VxB

J

:. J =-!!..pa

a Z

2.24 (a) V x..!_ = J. Taking the divergence of both sides:

P-o

B V·Vx-=V·J

P-"

But V·VxF=O

:.O=V·J

This violates the continuity equation for charge.

B

(b) Vx-=J

P-o

23

B

=> V·Vx-=V·]

f..lo

apv ap

But V . J = - at . So V· J + atV = 0 and P, = V . eoE.

a(v . e E) a(e E)

., V·J+ at" =O=V.J+V.~

:. V.VX.!.=[V.J+V. a(eoE)]!

. at V

f..lo

B a(e E)

=> Vx-=J+-_o-

f..l" at

(c) The displacement current term stated a time-varying electric field is a source of a magnetic field. With this and Faraday's law, it states that time-varying electric and magnetic fields can produce each other and therefore allow wave propagation through free space away from the source.

2.25 E = E Z2 cos(CIX)a

° x

(a) B= B a

y y

dB VxE=-at

VxE =

a a a

x Y z

E Z2 cos(ax) 0 0

o

= a/o-o)-ay( 0- ~[E"z2COS(CIX)])+al( 0- ~[EoZ2COS(CIX)])

= : [E Z2 Cos(CIX)]a = 2E zcos(CIX)a = -emf

ere 0 Y 0 Y

dB

., --=2Ezcos(ax)a

at (} y

Integrating gives

-2E zsin{CIX)

B= " a +C

co y

But at t = 0, B = O.

24

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

:. c=o

and

(b)

-2Ez

B = --O-sin(cot)a

(J) Y

As is shown when the flux is decreasing, the emf is positive, providing an increase in flux, thus opposing the decrease.

When the original flux is increasing, the emf is negative, again producing a flux in the opposite direction of the original flux and again opposing the change in the original flux.

p( 0.5, ~ ,0.5)

1 a(Epp) 1 a(E,) a(EJ _ 1 a(3p2. p) 1 a(pcostfr) a(p3)

--'-.,...:-..:..+---+--- + +--

pap patfr az pap p atfr az

= .!..(9p2) + .!..[P( -sintfr)] + 0= 9p - sin e = Py

P P eo

V·E =

:. Py = eJ9p(-sintfr)]

and

2.27 E = k{ar (spherical coordinates)

(b) Same problem as 2.20; therefore, see solution for that problem.

B = k2pa, (cylindrical coordinates)

V ·eE= Py

1 a(ktr. r2) 1 2

V·E=- =-3r k =3k

r2 ar r2 t t

(a)

:. There may be charge associated with the field.

25

VxE=O

VxE =

~~~

r2sin9 rsin9 r

() s. _g_

iJr ao aqJ

k{ 0 0

= ~(O-O)-~[O-~(kr)]+ a;[O-~(kr)]=O-o+O=O

r2sm9 rsm9 ulP 1 r u9 1

:. satisfied

V·B=O

V·B = _!_~(k p) =0 pulP 2

:. satisfied

B Vx-=J

J.lo

~ a
a, _.z.
p P
VxB = _g_ s. s.
dP aq, dz
0 P(k2P) 0 = ap [O-~(k p2)]_a (O-O)+~[!_(k p2)_0] = 0-0+.!.2pk a = 2k a

p (}z2 ~ pUp2 P 2% 2%

:. There may be a current density associated with the B field.

(b) From above,

v . eE = Pv = 3k1 V X _!_ = J = 2k a

J.lo 2 z

26

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

(c)

E=kra

I r

:. V· E "* 0 because the flux exitmg the surface is greater than the flux entering.

V x E = 0 because the meter is struck evenly, giving no net turning.

:. V· B = 0 because the flux entering the surface equals the flux exiting the surface.

V x B "* 0 because the meter has more flux striking it at the larger p, causing a net tum of the meter.

2.28 (a) Wavelength: The distance the wave must travel such that the phase changes by 21r.

21r wavelength = A. = -

130

Phase factor: Gives the phase of a traveling wave as it travels through space.

e±ifJ.Z, ± depending on =+= direction of travel

L is(OJ.z

constant phase

Phase velocity: The velocity that a particular phase (= constant) of the propagating wave has in the direction of travel.

dz CO

v =-=- mls p dt 130

27

Intrinsic wave impedance: The ratio between E and its associated H field.

(b) E(z,t) = 37.7 cos( 6n- x 108 t + 2n:z )8z

6n- x 108

(i) frequency = f = = 3 X 108 Hz

2n-

(11··) 1 h ' 2n- 2n- 1

waveengt =/1,=-=-= m

Po 2n-

. w 6n- x 108

(iii) phase velocity = v = - = = 3 X 108 mls

p P 2n-

D

(iv) direction of propagation = -z direction because of + 2n:z

-37.7cos(ax+ P z)

(v) H(z,t) = D 8

110 y

-37.7 cos( 6n- x 108t + 2n:z) [ ]

= Nm 8

120n- y

H(z,t) = -O.lcos(6n-x 108t+ 2n:z) [Nm] 8y

2.29 H travels in the +z direction.

P = 30 radlm

o

and

1 IHl=- Nm 3n-

in 8y direction in free space.

IHlmax at t = 0

and

z=O

H = _1 cos(ax - P z) [Azm] 8

3n- 0 y

Since in free space v p = c = 3 X 108 mls = pW

(}

:. w = P"c = (30 radlm)(3 x 108 m/s] = 9 X 109 radls = 2tif

28

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

9 9

., !=-xlO Hz 21r

E = 11H where 11 = 1201r

It = 21r = 21r =!!.... m

f3 30 15

o

.. E = 40cos(9 x 109t- 30z)ax H=_1 cos(9XI09t-30z)a

31r y

j!! _j5.

2.30 E = 50e 4e 3 ax VIm

(a) Polarization is in the ax direction.

(b) E is moving in the +z direction as stated by _ 1l:Z • 3

21r 21r

(c) 1t=-=-=6m

130 ~

f3 (")(3 x 108)

(d) ! =.!!!_ = ~ = 3" = 50 MHz

21r 21r 21r

Period = T = .! = 2 X 10-8 sec

!

(e) H =.!. with direction E x H = direction of travel. 110

a x H'e a

x z

H=a y

and

11 = 1201r

o

E 50 j! -j?! j! -j?!

:. H=--=--e 'e 'a AIm = 0.133e 'e 'a AIm

1201r 1201r y y

E jox 30 j(IOI,+JIz) VI

2.31 e = tte ax m

29

H jOJl H j(IO'I+/lo:) AI

e = e a m

m y

(a) The wave travels in the - z direction as shown by + {3z.

lEI -301r

(b) H =--=--=-O.25A1m

m 1]0 1201r

m m 108

f3 =-=-=--=0.33 rad/m

o v c 3x 108

p

21r 21r A,=-=-=61rm

f30 ~

2.32 Free space, f = 200 MHz,+z direction, ax' 150 v/m!,;.r In free space, vp = c. In the +z direction, use - f3 z.

o

m = 27if = 21r2oo X 106 = 4 X 1081r f3 = ~ = m = 4 x 1081r = i 1r

o V c 3 X 108 3

p

At t = 0 and z = I, the cosine term must be maximum or - i 1r + if> = O. 3

4

:. if>=-1r 3

So

2.33 (a) From Faraday's law, curl E = - jm(B a + B a + B a )

xx yy zz

-dE

--y = - jroB (eq. 2.53a)

ik x

dE. .

-=-]roB (eq.2.53b)

ik Y

O=-jmB, (eq.2.53c)

From Ampere's law, we obtain

he

30

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

-aB

--y =J.(jJ£ J.I. E (eq.2.S4a)

,1z onX'

dB

-.!.. = J·roe J.I. E (eq.2.S4b)

iJz ooy

0= jroeoJ.l.oEz (eq. 2.54c)

Differentiate 2.S3a with respect to z:

-a2E aB

iJz2 y = - jta iJzx = - jmVroeoJ.l.oEy) (from 2.54b)

a2E

•• --y +m2e J.I. E =0

iJz2 0 0 y

Let E = Ce -j{J.z + C ej{J,z with C = C

y 1 2 1 2·

From eq. 2.S3a,

-i.(E+ e -j{J.z + E- ej{J"z) = - j(tJ/3

iJz m m ..t

So

f3 1

For free space, ;; = C.

(a) Polarized in the a, direction.

(b) E propagates in the -az direction.

m 1rxl08 8

(c) j=-= =O.SxlO =SOMHz

21r 21r

31

2n 2n A.=-=-=6m

13" f

(d) H=(E)(_a )=~cos(nXI08t+ n z)a =0.04cos(nXl08t+ n z)a [Aim]

11 x 120n 3 x 3 x

2.35 E(z,t) = 2Em sin(p"z)sin(aK)ax E

H(z,t) = 2-!!l.Cos(p z)cos(aK)a

11" 0 y

Gauss' Law for Electric Field

Div (EoE) = p s = 0 for free space

Div(E"E)= ![2EoEm sin(f3"z)sin(aK)] = 0 :. satisfied

Gauss' Law for Ma~tic Field

Div (B) = 0 = Div (H,u.)

Div (H,u.) = ~[ 2,uo ~: cos(f3"z)COS(ca)] = 0 :. satisfied

Faraday's Law

curl (E) = _ as = a(H,uJ

at at

curl E = .i. .i. .i.

ax dy ik

2Emsin(p"z)sin(aK) 0 0

= ax(O - 0) - ay( 0 - ~ [2Em sin(f3"z)sin(ca)])+ az( 0 - ~ [2Em sin(f3oz)sin(aK)]) = ~ [2Em sin(p"z )sin(aK) Jay = 2Emf3" cos(f3oz )sin(ca)ay

a a a

x y z

and

32 CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

:. 2Emf3o COS{f3oz )sin{c:ot)ay :2Pom ~m cos{f3oz )sin{c:ot)ay

o

Canceling like terms,

but

1 c=--

~PoEo

m pm

(h)= t.

=>

m~ PoEo = m~ Po Eo :. satisfied

Ampere's Law

aeE curl H=J +_0_

dE

But in free space, J = O.

curlH

= .Q_ .Q_ d._

ax ay ik

o 2:om cos{f3oZ)cos(c:ot) 0

= ..(0 - ! [ 2:', cos(P.z )eos( "")]) -., (0 - 0) + .,([ 2:', oos(p., )oos( "")] - 0 )

= _~[2Em cos{f3 z)cos(c:ot)]a = 213 Em sin{f3 Z)cos(c:ot)a

dz n 0 x 011 0 x

·'0 0

a y

a z

and

So

33

Canceling like terms,

=::} me = E (0 :. satisfied

o 0

Scalar Wave Egyation

?

.. 0 ~ -2Emp;sin(poz)sin(c:ot)ax + (02,uoEo2Emsin(poz)sin(c:ot)ax

Moving the first term to the other side of the equation and canceling like terms,

?

13; ~ (02,u"E" but Po = (O~,uoEo

So

(02,u E = (02,u E :. satisfied

o (J (1 (J

So, all four of Maxwell's equations hold as well as the scalar wave equation. 2.36 Plane wave propagating in free space.

(a) 1. For uniform plane wave fronts

a(AA) a(AA)

ax E,B = ay E,B =0

2. E and H both have two independent pairs, (Ex,Hy) and (Ey,H.,J

3 . E and H are perpendicular to each other and both are perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

34

CHAPTER 2. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM

E E

4. _x = -y = 11 so E and H are in phase.

H H 0

y x

(b) A. = 3 em

211: 211:

1. P" = T = 0.03 m = 209.4 rad/m

P = 21Tf

c

fJc (21< )(3 X 108) 8

:. f =-= om = 3xlO = 10 GHz

211: 211: 0.03

.... j!

2. x-polarized Em = 200e 4 Vim

:. E = 200 cos( cot - pz + :)ax Vim

~ [5" '(ox P )] 5 ( 11:)

:. H = Re _eJ"ie' - ,z a = -cos (tJt- f3 z+- a Nm

311: y 311: 0 4 y

(b) V.P=-Pp

P» = -V· P = ~ [4.144 X 10-11 Z2ycos(108y)] = 0

(c) Jp=~ = ~[4.144XI0-11Z2YCOS(108t)ax]=-4.144Z2YSin(108t)ax (rnA)

Chapter 3

Maxwell's Equations and Plane Wave Propagation in Materials

3.1. (a) E=3Z2ycos(108y)ax

X. = e, -1 = 1.56

P = EoX.E = (8.854 x 1O-12){1.56)[3Z2ycos(108y)]ax = 4.144XI0-11Z2ycos(108y)ax

(a) From Chapter I. example 27. D = Aa 21rp p

a<p<r..

Region 1:

2 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

P = e (e -1)E = e (1.5 -1)[ P, 1 =..P..La

oro 2~1.5eop 6~p p

Region 2:

P=e (4.5-1) P,

o 2~4.5eop

In air:

D=E=P=O

(b)

P =-n.(P -p)

ps I 2

At p=a:

Atp=1j:

p p

o; =-ap' 6~ ap = 6~

(c)

p =-\i'.p =_.!.~(p, 7p, )=0

p II P ap 18~p

3.3.

Region 1: 11 = 3000

r,

2 Region 2: 11 = 1 +-

r, p

Region 3: 11 = 1

r,

3

N-tum toroid

(a)

H = NI where N is the number of turns

, 2rrp'

H is the same for all regions

Region 1:

Region 2:

Region 3:

M = (11 -1)H = 2999NI a

1 ~ 2rrp'

B2 = 1l2H = (1 +~) lloNI a, ' p 2rrp

11 NI

B =11 H=-'-' -a ,

3 3 2rrp'

(b)

J = VxM2 = __ N_13 a

mil rrp Z

(c)

At p=c,

3.4.

J = n X (m - m ) = a x (0 - NI a ) = _ NI a

m. 1 2 P rrp2, TrC2 Z

4 CHAPTER 30 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

Choose c1 such that it is a circle of radius 0 < p < a 0

ds = pdpdtfJa

z

H,(2;rp) = 005;rp2 ,

O<p<a

Choose c2 such that it is a circle of radius a < p < b 0

!Hodl=JJods=Ia IJ1odS+IP IJ2 -ds

1:, s p=o ,=0 p=a ,=0

(al _ pl a2)

H = +- a ,

11 6ap 4p'

a<p<b

(b)

O<p<a

5

a<p<b

x =/l -1

m r,

a<p<b

J = Vxm11

mil

a
_f!_ a,
p
d d
= -
dP dIP
0 mil. a _.L

(d)

[a3 _ p3 a2]

H = +-a

II 6ap 4p ~

H is continuous at the boundary between regions I and II.

H I =~a

I p=a 4'

E =E

2 0

(a)

P=E (E -1)E=E (6.1-1)~=~D

oro 6.1E 6.1 1

o

P=.418a -2.51a .. +1.67a

p v Z

6 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

p = -V. p = -_!_~(.418P) = _ .418

s pap p

(b) n.(D2-D1)=ps

=>

E 1

D =....J..D = -(-3) = -.492

2, EI I, 6.1

E 1

D =....J..D =-(2)=.328

2, EI I, 6.1

E2 = ~2 = : [(.5 +.2 x 10-6)ap - .492a, + .328a,]

2 0

Choose c such that 0 < p < a.

Solve integral separately.

=> P = a(x+ 1)

dp= adx

7

Choose c such that a < p .

K 2

H =-a p » a

, p

(b) B = JlII = ':[pae(;-'l - a,_(;-'l +a']

m = X H = (JlI -1)K[pa)~-I) - a2)~-I) + a2]a

m p ,

(c) JIlL\' =nx(ml-m2)=a.x(O-mlp=a)=-(JlI-1)Ka(1-1+1)az =-(JlI-1)Kaaz JIlL\' = (1- JlI)Kaaz

3.8. (b-1) fO.dS = Q

O=.JLa for all regions

41rr2 r '

Region I. a:S; r s 'i

(e -1) Q

P =e (e -1)E = -"- --a

I 0', I e 41rr2,

"

Region II. 'i:S; r s r2

8

CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

E = Q a

2 4n:e e r2 r

'1 0

(e -IJ Q

P = _'_1_ --a

2 e'1 4nr2,

Region III.

Q

E =--a

J 4n:e r2 r

o

[(e -1 e -IJ Q 1 Q (e -1 e -IJ

(b-2) P =-n.(P -P)=a· _" '1_ --a =-- -"---"-

ps I 2 r e e 4m:2, 4m:2 e e

71 '1 1 I 'I '2

3.10. E = - jOJJl~H Sin(7rX)a

rr 0 a Y

H=jf3~H Sin(7rX)a +H cos(7rX)a

rr" a x 0 a Z

(a) P, =n·D

(a-i) x=o , n=a x ,
(a-2) x=a, n=-a x
(a-iii) y=o , n=a
Y => Ps =0

(a-iv) y = b ,

. aH. (7rX)

P = + JOJJ.le - SID-

s Orr 0 a

P = a . (e [- jOJJl~H Sin(7rX)a .J) = - jOJE Jl~H Sin(7rX)

s Y 0 rr" a Y o rr 0 a

(b)

J =nxH

s

(b-i) x = 0

=>

n=a x

J = a X[jf3~H Sin(7rX)a + H cos(7rX)a JI = -H a

S x rr 0 a x 0 a Z x=o 0 Y

(b-ii) x = a

=>

n=-a x

J =a X[Hcos(7rX)aJI =-Ha

S x 0 a Z oy

x=a

(b-iii) y = 0

=>

n=a Y

9

(b-iv) y= b

o=-a y

J = + jP!!"H Sin(1tX)a - H eos(1tX)a

s 1T: 0 a" 0 a"

3.11. (a) P=(J)o.fiii=74.02radlm,

21T:

A. = If = 8.49 em

(Ii 41T:(1O-7)(1.98)

(b) 11 = ~-; = 8.854(10-12)(6.3) = 209.7.Q

(e)

IE I 100eos( ox - Pz} [ ]

H(z,t)=-" a = a =0.476eos 21T:(109)t-(74.02)z a

11 y 209.7 y y

3.13. B = 1O-{i eos2m:a Wb/m2 y

J =VxM= 0

m

o ~ =+7.95(1O-4)21T:sin(2m:)ay =5.0X10-3sin(2m:)a" A/m2 o

a a a

..r y z

o M

y

3.14. p=m~[~I+(':)' +f =9.773

10 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

(() = 21ff = 61r X 106

E{z.t) = 2ooe-9.69 COS[( 61r X 106)t - 9.773z] VIm ax

(b)

H{z.t) = 11.62e-9.69z COS[( 61r X 106)t - 9.773z - 0.781 lay

(c)

x

(d) 0' ~ 0 ,

n=l =188.5

H = 200 e-j1.257z =1.061cos(61rXI06t-1.257z)a

y 188.5 y

11

x

3.1S. (b-i) At! = 20 kHz, ~ = 34130» 1 => Jc »J D

wee

o r

So, Jd can in fact be neglected.

We-a.: VIm = 10,u VIm,

In(IO,u)

z= 10 = 28.4 m

-a

(b-ii) At! = 20 GHz, ~ = 0.0341« 1 => Jc« JD

wee

o r

So, J c can in fact be neglected.

In(10,u)

z = 10 = 21.7 em

-63.6

(c-i) At!= 20 kHz, P (z) = .!.Re11E121 '

av 2 n

n=R=

.(j

e-j(0

,uo . (j = .229L4So n e e r I=:

o r (0

12 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WA VB PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

p ( )1 - '!'Re[ (10,u)2 ]

av Z E.=10p.V/m' - 2 .229L45°

p (Z)I = 1.54 x 10-10 watts

av E.=10p.V/m

(c-ii) At f = 20 GHz, n = 42.4Ll° => P (z)1 = 1.18 x 10-12 watts

av E. =IOp.V/m

3.16. (a) E=10cOSCOOl,.

Current crossing a square area of 0.01 m2

J; = -10ec:osin COOl, = -10(80)(8.854 x 10-12)(21t")(100 x 106 )sinc:ota, t1 = 40 = 8.989

Vor 4.45

a TOT = ac + aD = AJ c + AJ D = (.01)(40cosc:ot - 4.45 sin c:ot)a, = (0.4 cos ox - 0.0445sinc:ot)a, Amps

3.17. (a) tD' ds = 2mzlps •

D = aps P p

D = aps a for regions I and II p P

(b) Region I:

a<p<b

(e -1)ap

P = e (e - l)E = r .•

o r per

Region II:

b<p<c

3.18. (a)

3.19. (a)

p=O

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(b)

13

pi =a .(D -O)=a .D = aps

s p=c P 2 P 2 C

(e -1)ap

_p = a . (p _ P ) = _ r s

p p 2 1 be '

r

(e -1)ap

p = r s

P be

r

lEI

a

b

c

lEI

a

b

c

p

a ••

1 [ E2 E21t ] E2

R o· 21!X( ) . 0 • 1!X 1!X 0 • 21!X

= - e --sm - -a + ]-sm-cos-a = -sm -a

2 z a Z 2aT] a a x 2z a Z

p

a •• (TOT)

= a bE; [.! x _ ..2_sin 21!X Jla = bE; (~)a = abE;

Z 2z 2 4n a x=o 2z 2 Z 4z

f = c£ = 2 X 108 m1s = 800 MHz

It .25 m

14 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

e, = (iJ = 2.25

21r

(b) P=;:=25.13,

11

11 = F, = 251.3.0

Phasor:

E = 50e-j2S,13xa , z

H = -0. 19ge-j2S,l3xa y

Time domain:

E(x,t) = 50cos[(5.03 x 109)t - 25.13x Jaz H(x,t) = -0. 199cos[(5.03 x 109)t - 25.13x Jay

3.20. (a) Teflon: e, = 2.1 ,

0"=0,

X =1.1

e

P = 1.1Eo(3p2 cotcpap + c~fP a, }in(3 x 108t)

J p = ~ = 3.3 X 108 Eo( 3p2 =«. + cO;fP a, }OS(3 x 108t)

1 a 1 a

p p = - V' . P = - p ap pP_ - p afP ~

( 1 a 3 1 a COSfP) . ( 8 )

= 1.1E ---3p cOSfP----- S10 3x10 t

o pap p afP p

= l.1Eo[ -9pcotfP+ S~2fP }in(3x 108t)

Glass: e, = 6.3 ,

0"=0,

X =5.3

e

P = 5.3Eo(3p2 =». + cO;fP a, }in(3 x 108 t)

J p = 1.59 X 109 Eo(3P2 =». + cO;fP a, }in(3 x 108t) Pp = 5.3Eo[ -9p COS fP + S~2fP }in(3 x 108t)

Sea water: E, = 81 ,

0'=4,

X. =80

(b)

3.21. Aluminum: u, = 1.000021 :=:} Xm = .000021

1 1 1
--a --a -a
r2 sinO r rsinO 6 r '
Jm Vxm=x. d d d
= -
dr dO d¢
r2 sinO cosOcos¢ r3 sin? 0 = X [(2rcoso+ 2 1. )a -3rsin0a6-rcosOa,]

• r cotOsm¢ r

Cobalt: u, = 250 :=:} Xm = 249

m = 249[r2 sinOa, + ~cosocos¢a6 + r2 sinOa, ]

Nickel: u, = 600 :=:} Xm = 599

15

16 CHAPTER 3. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS & PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS

Jill = 599[( 2rcosO+ :2 cotOsinl{> Jar -3rsin0a9 - rcosOa. ]

High-priority iron: Jl.r = 2 x 105 ~ Xm = 2 x 105

r, = 2 x 105[( 2rcosO + :2 cotOsinl{> Jar - 3rsin0a9 - rcosOa, ]

D= Ptl a a c p <b

2rcp P

(a-2) D = 0 no enclosed charge; E = 0

D 2n:lp = -p l

P 12

D=- P12 a 2rcp P

p>b

E=-__&_a

2rcpEo P

3.24. (a) e-a(lm) =.5 ,

a = -In.5 = .693

1{>=/3=1 rad/m ,

2rc A=-=2rcm

/3

(i) 21ff 6

v =-=-=150.8xlO mls •

P /3 /3

1 G=-=l.44 m a

(b .) 377

-1 11= Fr '

P =.!.IEI2

ave 211'

377 _.!. (40rc)2 - 2 377

Fr

17

_ (2(377)2)2 = 324 er- (401r)2

4 -1r

fJ _ 3 =11.10 MHz

f = 21r~Jloeoer - 21r~Jloeoer

377

(b-iii) 11 = - = 20.94

11

(401rej~")e -/; z 4,. .4,.

j- -j-l

E a=6e6e 6a

H = 11 = 20.94 Y Y

[ 6) 41r + 41rJa

H(z,t) = 6cos (69.74 x 10 t-3z 3 Y

-

Chapter 4

Static Electric and Magnetic Fields

4.1. (a) From Gauss' Law, E = ~a 41rE r r

o

r>a

J~ Q

Then, tP = - E . dl = _a_ where tP = 0 at r = 00.

a r 41t'E r

o

Q

At r=b, tP =_"_

a 41t'E b

o

(b) For a charge Qb at b , the potential due just to the shell is Qb = ~. 41rE b

o

By superposition, tP = tPa + tPb = 4~ b (Qa + Qb)

o

4.2. (a) R=~z2+a2

p=a

(c) Following example 4.3,

2

4.3.

CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

Same as in (b).

(a)

This is due to the fact that tP = 0 at P --+ 00.

(b) E=-VtP

(d) IftP=Oatpointpo' then tP(p)=-J~.dl= 2~o In(;)

As can be seen, if Po --+ 00, then tP(Po) --+ 00.

4.4.

(a)

3

~ [ d2 2d ]1/2

-= 1--·-+-COSO

r r2 r

[2d JI/2 d 3 (d)2

Using r »d, then !_ == 1 + -cosO == 1- -cosO + - - cos20

o ~ r r 2 r

using 2nd-order Taylor expansion, Similarly, ro == 1 + ~cosO + ~(~)2 cos" O.

r2 r 2 r

If the approximation given in the problem is used, then cP == 0, i.e., ~ == O. r

(b)

4.5. (a) D is continuous, therefore 1 D· ds = Q

4

CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

4> = -lEd .dl-Jc E .dl-JE .se

111 II 1

b c+d c

Q [r+d 1 JC 1 Ja 1 ]

= --- JI 2dr+ -2 dr+ 2dr

41rEo b r c+tl Err c r

= _1L[.!.IC+d + _1 IC + .!.IU]

41rE r b Err C

o r c+d

= _1L[_1 __ .!. + _!_(.!. - _1_) +.!. _.!.]

41rE c + d b E c c + d a c

o r

Q 41rE

c= 4> = _1 __ .!.+_!_(.!.~_1_)+.!._.!.

c+d b E c c +d a c

r

. 1 1 1 1

Using -=-+-+-, then c c1 c2 c3

1 1 (1 1)

c2 = 41rEoEr -;;- c+d '

4.6.

5

E = rp. r< R

r 3e

o

4

For r> R, e E 4nr2 = Q = _1CR3p

o r 3 v

E =_Q_ r>R

r 41t'E r2

o

(b)

4.7.

(a)

For the sphere with charge Q, E = ~a 41t'E r r

o

Using Equation 4.35,

6 CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

4.8. (a) From Equation 4.30, W = ~ IPv~v

The potential tfJ is constant and is equal to V. Therefore, W = ~ V IpvdV = Q2V.

(b) Substituting V = Q. W = Q2 .

C 2C

(c) Since capacitance is inversely related to the separation distance, ca~, increasing d by three times will decrease the capacitance, and hence W increases by three times.

4.9.

(a) From Laplace's equation, ~ ~2~ = O. Therefore, iP = AtfJ + B. Applying P dtfJ

boundary conditions,

This gives <1>( tfJ) = lOO( tfJ - tfJJ tfJ2 -tfJ1

(b) E = -ViP = -*: a, = - ~( tfJ:~tfJJa.

(c) p=n·D

I 110 110 A D A [ 1 100]A 100

Forpateat"'="'I'PI=n· =; --( ) v,=: ( )

P tfJ2 - tfJ1 P tfJ2 - tfJ1

For plate at tfJ = tfJ2• P2 = + ( )

P tfJ2 -tfJ1

100

4.10. (a)

Laplace's equation simplifies to V2iP = _2_1_. - : (Sin 0 a;) = 0

r smO dO 00

:O(sino~:)=o •

Applying boundary conditions,

7

This gives A- [ (9) [00 [ (9 )] ,

In tan __L - In tan ~

2 2

(b)

E = -Vcp = -! d4> a = -~a

r a8 9 rsin8 9

p =11. .DI = __ A_,

1 I 9=9, rsin8

1

A

P =+--

2 rsin82

4.11. (a)

. . (Pcp G Y a2cp a2cp

From Poisson's Equation, ()y2 = --:- assuming (}x2 = iJz2 = 0

o

G/ Cp=C +Cy-_O_

2 1 6e

o

At Y = 0, 41 = 0 => C2 = 0 ;

at y = d, 41 = V "

G d3 V G d2

V=Cd-_o _ => C =_+_0 _

1 6e 1 d 6e

o 0

( d2) 3

V G a» V G 2 3

41= _+_0_ y __ o_=_y+_o (yd _y)

d 6e 6e d 6e

o 0 0

4.12. (a)

;'.(D -D )=p

1 2 s

For the lower plate,

A [V G (2 2)] A (V G d2 )

P =a ·e 0 d -3y a =-e _+_0_

s y 0 d 6e y 0 d 6e

o y=o 0

For the upper plate,

8

CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

4.13. (a) From Poisson's Equation,

1 a (d<P) (1

pap p ap = - Eo~ ,

at[) (1 p

p-=-_o_+C,

ap Eo •

d<P (1 c.

_= __ 0+_

ap Eo p

t1J = - (1oP + c. In(p) + C2 E

°

At P = a, t1J = V; at p = b, t[) = o.

(1a

__ 0_+ C.ln(a)+ C2 = V ,

Eo

(1b --o-+C.ln(b)+C2 =0 E

°

Subtracting the two equations,

(1

__ 0 (a -b) + C.[in(a)-ln(b)] = V ,

Eo

(1 V+-o(a-b) E

C = °

• In(a)-ln(b)

Solving for C2,

[ (1 1

V+-O(a-b)

(1 b E

__ 0_+ 0 In(b)+C =0

E In(a)-ln(b) 2

°

(V + (10 (a - b))ln(b)

(1b E

C = _0 __ -,--_...;;..O __ ..;..__

2 E In(a)-ln(b)

°

9

where Ct is defined above.

Outer conductor:

Inner conductor:

A ((1 Ct)A Ctc

p =a ·c __ 0 +- a =_(1 + __ 0

s po e pp 0 a

o p=a

4.14. (a) h = .5 em solved using symmetry plane.

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 98.8 98.0 97.7
100.0 97.2 95.4 94.7
100.0 94.7 91.6 90.6 1
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 89.9 85.7 84.5
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.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 4.15. (a) C=130pP/m

10

CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

4.16. (a) Symmetry plane was used and h = 2.5 mm.

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CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

(c)

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4.21. (a) To not confuse with the angle variable t/J, '" will be used for the potential. Starting with Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates,

For circular symmetry, Z = O. This gives

2 1 d ( d",) d2",

V '" = P dP P dP + (}z2

d2"'1 '" + '" - 2",

From Equation 4.44, (}z2 = A ~ P, referring to Fig. 4.21(b).

'lfp

The first term on the right can be expanded as

13

. (p"'i '" c + '" D - 2",p

From Equation 4.44, --;--T = 2 and, referring to Fig. 4.15,

dp " h

p

a"'i = '" c + '" D Rewriting,

ap 2h

"p

V2 I = '" c + '" D + '" C + '" D - 2", p + "'A + '" B-2", p

'" v; 2hp h2 h2

Setting equal to 0 and multiplying by h2,

h h

'" - - '" - + '" + '" - 2", + '" + '" - 2", = 0

c 2p D 2p C D P A B P

4.22. (a) A program was written using the finite-difference representation of Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates (refer to problem 4.21). The computer program may be compared to the analytic expression derived below. For a uniform coaxial line, the static electric field between the conductors is given by

E=Ea

p p'

E =A_K

p 21rp - P ,

K= Pl 21r

The potential, 'If, can be found as

'" = - fE . dR. = - f :, . dp' = - K In(p')I: + C = - K In( ~ ) + C , a s p s b

where C is a constant of integration, and a and b are the inner and outer radii of the coax. Assuming Va volts on the inner conductor and 0 volts on the outer conductor,

",(p = a) = '-': = C,

",(p = b) = 0 = C - K In( ~) ,

C V

K- - 0

-In(~)-~

Thls gives ~(p) = + - ::m 1

This solution can be used as the initial guess, both for this problem and for problem 4.23.

14 CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

4.23. (a) A program was written using the results of problems 4.21 and 4.22. The uniform coaxial line solution derived above for problem 4.22 was used as the initial guess for the potential distribution, i.e., for the left (right) side of the junction

The initial guess helps in reducing the computation time.

(4.1)

(4.2)

H -H =0

Iy 2y

H =H =0

Iy 2y

Hlx =.1 +3 = 3.1

Therefore,

BI = Jl)15.5ax + 27aJ B2 = Jlo(9ax + 27aJ

~ HI = 3.1a + 5.4a

x z

4.25. (a) B=VxA,

JB.dS= JVXA.ds=1A.d.e

{Jl Nla p « a

(b) For an infinite solenoid, B = 00 Z

p>a

Contour of integration

r2,. JP r2,.

For p < a, J,=o A,pdtP = p'=oJt~NIP'dP'dtP

Jl NIp

A =_0_

, 2

4.26. (a) Equivalent circuit

+

RgJ

J

£1 =6+6+8=20 em

S = 3 em? = S = S = S

1 3 gl g3

S2 = 4 em" = Sg4 neglecting fringing effects

£3=S+S+8=18em

s; =!.L = 20 X 10-2 = 1.328 x lOs

J1.S1 4ooo,u.( 3 X 10-4 )

15

16

4.27. (a)

CHAPTER 4. STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

~ .08 4

IS = = ( --4) = 3.984 x 10

J.iS2 4OOO,uo 4 x 10

R = .2 X 10-3 = 3.984 X 104

82 ,uo( 4 x 10--4)

~ = .(8 --4) = 1.1953 x 105

4000,uo 3 x 10

The two loop equations are:

N/. - V'.(Rg• + R. + Rg2 + IS)- Ni2 + V'2(IS + Rg2) = 0 Ni2 - V'2(Rg2 + ~ + Rg3 + IS) - N/3 + V'.(Rg2 + IS) = 0

Substituting numbers, the two loop equations become

V'.( 4.781 x 105) - V'2(7.969 X 104) = 40 V'.(7.969 X 104) - V'2( 4.648 x 105) = 65

Solving yields:

V'. = 6.213 X 10-5

. V' 6.213 X 10-5

The first leg has flux density B. = _. = --4 = .207 Wb/m2

S. 3x 10

Th dl h B (V'.-V'2) 6.213x10-5+1.292x10--4 478Wbl 2

e secon eg as = = = . m

2 S 4 X 10--4

2

The third leg has B = 1V'21 = 1.292 x 10--4 = .431 Wb/m2

3 S 3x 10--4

3

B

NI = ~ HI = H l = -g l + H l

k.J I I g g Jlo gee

From Fig. 4.27(b), for Be = 1 Wb/m", He == .066 AIm. Therefore,