Absenteeism Failure of an employee to report for duty.

He or she may face disciplinary action for not being present at the workplace at scheduled times. Ageing Population The number of older employees are more than younger ones. Applicant Tracking Action taken by organizations to monitor the process of recruitment from the time the application letter is received until the recruitment file is closed. It lists out all important particulars of the applicant's profile. Apprentice A beginner or a novice at work. Sometimes a beginner undergoes and internship. In certain cases, a novice is someone who is undergoing skill training at a certain trade such as a mechanic or technician. Arbitration The situation where a third party makes a binding decision in a dispute between two parties. An instance of this is when an industrial tribunal makes decision in a dispute between employees and their employer. Audi alteram partem Latin maxim that means "hear the other side." In simple language, this means giving adequate opportunity to a person to respond to any allegation made against him or her. This is an equitable principle. This means being impartial in order to be fair and just. Automatic progression This refers to the giving of regular salary increments that are not tied to performance.

The definitions in this HR glossary page inevitably reflect some aspects of the writer's personal experience in the field of human resource management.

HR glossary terms starting with the alphabet "B"

non-cash) such as life insurance and annual leave. given after a target is achieved. Benchmarking The act of identifying best practices that make competitors' products better in quality. Contractual bonus is not tied to any target. Bottom line The final financial result such as profit after tax. Benchmarking Human Resources The act of identifying other organizations' human resource "best practices" that contribute towards obtaining. Sometimes called "basic salary". producing and maintaining better-quality employees. Benefits Administration Management of financial rewards given in kind for the purpose of achieving a certain objective such as employee motivation. usually financial in nature.Base Salary Standard salary paid. The listing in this HR glossary will include other terms as and when necessary. Terms in this human resources glossary starting with the alphabet "C" Career Career includes all the jobs a person had held during his or her working life. Bonus A reward. Benefits These are rewards or compensation paid in-kind (that is. These practices are the ones that contribute positively to the success of organizations. . Benefits are given as a method of motivating employees. Performance bonus is an example. The products are either goods or services. it is the basis in the calculation of allowances and benefits.

play in helping organizations to achieve their overall goals. Changing Role of Human Resources This refer to the new role that human resources . Sometimes benefits are given in addition to payment of salaries. Organization may do this under its succession plan. concluding collective agreements with unions. It is related to knowledge management. Compensation The pay given to employees for work done. Competency-Based Human Resources This is the method of managing the skills and knowledge of employees for the purpose of performing the job to the required standard. skills. And employees must continue to learn for as long as they are working. They are treated as assets. abilities and behaviours of an individual. Closed Shop The situation where an employer will not hire or cannot engage a person who is not a member of a certain union. Alternative titles include Managing Director and Executive Chairman. Coaching A management development approach where the manager helps an employee to find solutions to his or her work-related problems and implement them.that is. CEO (Chief Executive Officer The CEO is the top executive in an organization. workers . Some organizations had accepted that human resource is their most important asset.Career Development and Planning This is an act of a person to realize his or her career goals. Collective Bargaining Unit This is the section in an organization assigned with the important task of negotiating. not liabilities. This also refers to an employer's plan to develop the potentials of employees as a form of strategy to motivate and retain employees. . ultimately responsible for its success. and to effectively manage such agreements. This involves training activities intended to improve the knowledge. This type of organizational culture encourages learning among employees.

These include competent people. It is binding like enacted laws. Collective Bargaining Process in which management representatives and union representatives meet to negotiate an employment agreement. You will note that some of terms in this HR glossary page are defined while giving an example. Core Competencies The skills and knowledge that every employee within a certain group must possess such as problemssolving skills by managers.Some writers refer to it as "competency-based training". Competitive Advantage Something that distinguish organizations from others in superior performance. It can comprise of cash and non-cash compensation. this is the type of law developed by the court system. The definition of words in this HR Glossary will also change to reflect this. Compensation This is what employees get in return for work performed. Consultancy Services provided by someone who is an expert in a certain field to help organizations to formulate improvement plans. HR glossary terms starting with the alphabet "F" . This is to assist in understanding the words better. This is so because the training given is intended to enhance employees' competencies or to provide them with new competencies in order to perform the job better. For human resources terms starting with the alphabet "E" click HERE. Common law Called "case law". For human resources terms starting with the alphabet "D" click HERE. Words can change in meaning as time passes.

HR Information System HR Information System (HRIS. The definitions given in this HR glossary is intended to give you some idea how others define such words. These regulate employer-employee relations. Focus Groups Groups of employees brought together to discuss or provide data on topics concerning HR. HR Automation HR Automation refers to the use of computers in managing employee matters. An example of this is the human resource development (HRD) system. in short) is defined as "the use of computers in generating timely and relevant information to assist decision making. . Grievance A dispute between parties such as an employer and a union. Federal Labor Laws Federal-enacted regulations that govern workplace conditions and usually impose minimum terms and conditions of employment. It is something desired by an individualor an organization such as high productivity. Human resources glossary terms starting with the alphabet "G" Goal This has the same meaning as target or objective or aim. HR Associations HR Associations are bodies the memberships of which comprise of HR services-based organizations and HR professionals. Functional Competency The skills." HR Outsourcing HR outsourcing occurs when an organization asks an external organization to manage certain activities under the HR function. and payroll system.Federal Employment Laws These are the laws governing employment enacted by a federal legislature. knowledge and experience required to perform a specific job.

Job Enrichment Job enrichment is an aspect of employee motivation where the job is made more interesting and . This is one of the methods adopted by organizations to attain a paperless working environment. Job Design The various elements of a job. bonus is given if the company's revenue exceeds a certain level. Manipulation of data to make it useful is usually done by using computer software. For example. or to enable employees to communicate with management. Job Assignment This is a specific task that an employee is required to do and to complete within a given period of time. Some argue that Emotional Intelligence is more important. Job Description This is a written statement of the duties and responsibilities of a job holder. abilities and knowledge required to perform the job well. Incentive An incentive is a reward given when a specified objective is achieved. and where and when the job holder must perform them. Job Analysis Investigation into the duties and responsibilities of a job. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) This is the level of an individual intelligence. Information Data that have been collated and processed to convey a certain message. unions. how he or she is to perform them. Industrial Relations The relationship between employer. government and industrial tribunals. the required skills.Recruitment is one example. Entities and their respective roles are emphasized. There is an over-emphasis on IQ. Intranet A network of computers enabling employees in an organization to communicate with each other. The IQ test measures a person's ability to reason. The HRIS is one.

not the job. Job Specification The qualifications. Some organizations sometimes define the tasks carried out under a particular position as "jobs". is an example of job enrichment. Job specification describes the person.challenging. enhancement and utilization of the knowledge of employees or knowledge that resides in the entire workforce. Sometimes job specification is mistaken as job description. Labor Laws Labor laws are laws governing aspects of labor or employment such as working conditions. . Know-how Knowledge and skills of a person. Jobs Works that exist in an organization. These laws indicate the parameters under which either employer or employee are allowed to act. These are the tasks that an employee is required to perform usually on a daily basis. This makes the employee more satisfied as he feels that his or her contribution is valued. especially in routine matters. Knowledge Management This is a systematic way in the provision. Jobs also refers to all the works that a person had held that make up his or her career. Labor Relations Labor Relations is understood as being the same as industrial relations. Allowing employees to make day-to-day decisions in matters relating to their job. skills. minimum terms and conditions of employment. Job This is a group of tasks that an employee perform to help an organization in achieving its objectives. competencies and knowledge required of a person to effectively perform a job.

to motivate. Examples are a marketing manager and a production manager." Manager Someone who is in-charge of an organization." It is usually compared to "managing" usually defined as achieving an objective through the utilization of other people's abilities and efforts. review and problems solving. Leadership assumes that there is follower-ship defined as "the ability to follow a leader. skills. "To manage" is traditionally defined as "to get things done through people. monitoring. implementation. Law Law consists of both the written and unwritten law governing every aspect of human life. . Line Manager A manager who is authorized to manage and direct employees within a specific job function. and direct other people in order to achieve a common objective.It refers to the relationship between the management of an organization and workers and their unions. supervision. Management The act of accomplishing goals through others in a systematic way involving goal setting. Most of these are intended to regulate human behavior including at the workplace. and capabilities. Leadership The ability to guide. a division or a department in that organization. A leader is more than a manager. Learning The act of continuously improving one's knowledge.

Merit salary increase can be understood as the opposite of automatic salary increase where everyone gets an increase without any reference to how the employee had performed on the job. An example is pay. For example. Mandatory Retirement The age at which every employee must retire from an organization. beginner. where he or she is open for discussion at any time. Some use the word "apprentice. Motivation This is something such as an incentive or a reason that makes a person act in a certain or expected way. or inexperienced". The retirement age for public sector employees may differ from that of private sector employees. Notice The time period given when an employee goes for voluntary separation. Even senior people are not accorded the privacy of a room. Novice Someone who is not yet skilled in a certain trade. Nemo iudex in causa sua This is a Latin maxim that means that there is no person who should be a judge in his or her own cause. that is. money. The least appearance of bias must be avoided. Merit Increase This refers to salary increase given based on actual performance on the job.It is understood generally as someone who is required to accomplish a certain task by himself or with the help of others. Open Office Concept This can refer to a manager's open system of managing people. a manager who has made a complaint against an employee cannot take part in whatever capacity in deciding the matter. . This also refers to the new office set-up where people including executives work within their own respective cubicle.

employees will not like it and unions are not too happy about it. usually financial in nature. government agencies and voluntary bodies are examples.Optional Retirement The age at which employees can choose to retire and still enjoy retirement benefits. In some countries. HR professionals or employees or workers in general as "strategic partners" of their organization. HR performance refers to the results of the activities of the workforce based on defined standards and measures. . Performance Gap This is the difference between the current competency level and the required competency level. Companies. communicating that information to them and making plans to improve their performance. Other countries use different names. If HR becomes partners of the organization. too. Performance The act of carrying out a certain activity or the result of that activity. OSHA Compliance The requirement for organizations to adhere to occupational safety and health regulations. The use of this word is not without criticism. the word "partner" refers to the Human Resource Manager. Performance Management Taking action to improve performance of employees. Organizations Corporate bodies that have existence apart from the people who manage them or own them. Failure to comply results in penalties. skills and efforts to carry out activities to achieve certain objectives. The Australian equivalent is Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). When used in HR. In Malaysia. every unit or department and that of the organization by linking or aligning their objectives. the terms and conditions for male and female employees may differ. Partners Individuals who have agreed to use their resources. The age differs from country to country. For example. it is OSHA. Performance Appraisal A system for determining how well employees are performing their jobs.

it is too late to take action except to carry out damage control. Performance Measures These are indicators that targets are being achieved and to what extent. Sometimes they are referred to as "key performance indicators or KPIs. By then. Pro-active Taking action in advance in anticipation of what may happen to avoid or reduce negative effects. Recruitment Recruitment refers to the activities carried out by the HR department to identify and employ the right person for the right job. Promotion The movement of an employee to a higher position in an organization either vertically within the same department or diagonally to another department.It covers HR activities such as job design. Productivity Output of either goods or services divided by the inputs required to produce that output. Re-deployment The placement of an employee to a certain job or location. performance appraisal. Planning Systematic way to accomplish a defined goal. Reactive Taking action after a problem has happened. Personnel A member of the workforce. and the reward and incentives system. . Personnel Management Carrying out activities related to the personnel function that focuses on the individuals and activities and not on the overall strategic role of the department. This is the opposite of "pro-active. training and development. recruitment. It involves preparing a step-by-step plan of action intended to accomplish certain defined goals." Performance Standard The benchmark against which organizations measure performance." This can have disastrous consequences.

people are treated as assets upon which organizations have invested. R0I of Human Resources A measure on the return from employees taking into consideration all their skills. Here. . Selection Criteria Evaluation Review of factors to determine the effectiveness of method by which the right candidate is selected to fill a vacant job or the right employees are selected for other jobs or higher level jobs.Reliability The extent of consistency and dependability. Stakeholders influence an organization in various ways and to different extent. system or method. tool. capabilities knowledge. Services Services are those things that an individual or an organization provides in return for some consideration such as fees. Staff Staff is another name for Employees or workers. and qualification. keeping them in service through proper planning and offering the right set of incentives. Retention With reference to employees. This can refer to people. among others. Strategy A step-by-step action plan directed at achieving a defined goal or target. Skilled Trades Skilled trades are careers or jobs that require personal skills for effective performance. team. process. group or corporate entity affected by or has a vested interest in an organization's financial success. Stakeholder An individual.

Unified Service Scheme A unified service scheme refers to a set of jobs that have similar characteristics such as the level within the organizational hierarchy. Under-performance is a bit better than the performance of the worst employee but below the average required for that type of job. Training Training refers to activities intended to develop and improve an employee's skills and to add to his or her knowledge of the job. the scope of the job and responsibilities. People can get easily transferred within such unified service scheme. It is agreed that there is problem of supervision. Under-Performance Job performance by an employee below the standard required for satisfactory performance. The main purpose is to help the employee perform his or her job to the satisfaction of the employer. Transfer to a different scheme may pose problems. Under-Age Worker Here. However. .Telecommute To telecommute means to Work from home. Training Needs Analysis This is the determination of the types and regularity of training needed by each employee in an organization and the skills needs of the organization. This is related to skills and knowledge needs. there are laws that allows young people to get employed subject to strict legal provisions. Value-added The phrase "value-added" refers to that something which increases worth or usefulness. There is not way that the employee is actually doing the job. One way of ensuring that the same amount of work is done is to assign tasks that require completion within a specified time limit. putting in the same number of hours. A genuine employment contract exists except that the employee is allowed to work at home. This is determined during a performance review. it is intended to refer to a person who is too young to be employed on a permanent basis.

not proven. in valued-added HR every HR activity makes positive and valuable contribution to the organization's operations and business activities. It can be in an office. Wage Wage is pay for the actual time that an employee had worked. visitors and strangers are all covered. Work-family Conflict The competing demands on employees by family and work responsibilities. Employees. attained. Workplace Safety The safe and secure condition at the place of works. For example. Verifiable Capable of being checked as being true or as having happened. that an employee consistently achieves the specified work target can be verified as being true or not. accomplished or otherwise. This can lead to stress if not properly managed. a factory or an open field. Work Work is a group of tasks or assignments that an employee must perform in return for payment. Workplace A workplace is the location or premises where an employee works or where an organization carries out its activities. examination of data and so on. Variable Pay Variable pay is that part of an employee's salary that is at risk of not being paid if the performance target is not reached. that is. You can verify by observation.For example. .

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