Land cover change in Bangladesh- a knowledge based classification approach

Kabir Uddin1 Deo Raj Gurung2 Abstract: Bangladesh is one among the highly populated countries in the world with population density of 2,910 /m2. Population dynamics is a major driver in bringing the land cover change as land based resources gets exploited to meet the supply to sustain the livelihood and accommodate developmental activities. Land cover also play important role in interaction between atmospheres with land as land cover is interface for the interaction. Land cover is one of the important variables in the global climate modeling. Scientific management of land cover is important from the point of controlling untoward impact of land cover change on our ecosystem. This warrants adequate policies and plans to ensure sustainable resource management, formulated on credible scientific data. This study deals with the land cover change analysis using remote sensing data over the whole of Bangladesh, from the period 1977 – 2001. Landsat MSS (1977) and Landsat ETM (2001) images are classified using knowledge based classification approach using Expert Classifier in Erdas Imagine 9.2. The image post-classification comparison method is adopted to detect change in land cover. Keywords: GIS, Remote Sensing, Land Cover, Landsat, ETM+, MSS. Introduction: During the past few decades Bangladesh has experienced rapid change due to various drivers: economic growth, development, population dynamics, climate change impact, etc. Expansion in education and health services, the development of roads and electricity, improvements in irrigation and agriculture and related technologies, and the penetration of commercial forces are drastically affecting land cover and ecosystems of many parts of the plane areas. Land cover analysis is one of the main focuses of environmental monitoring since it plays a major role in the interaction between the atmosphere and earth surface. Satellite remote sensing is widely accepted as a technique for land cover mapping and land cover change dynamic analysis. Image classification based on supervised approaches commonly used till recently employ only spectral signature for characterizing land cover types and thus had several limitations. The knowledge based approach enables integration of several variables applied using rules, and output classes of interest and create the hierarchical decision tree. The expert classification module provides a rules-based approach to multispectral image classification and post-classification refinement. In essence, an expert classification system is a hierarchy of rules, or a decision tree, that describes the conditions under which a set of low level constituent information gets abstracted into a set of high level informational classes.
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GIS Analyst, ICIMOD,, E-mail: GIS Analyst, ICIMOD,, E-mail:

the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The southern part of the delta is occupied by the Sundarbans.52 .1.0. There are two hilly regions Chittagong Hills in southeast.52µm (blue) 0.0. a region of marshes and swamps.52 .45 . Data Used: Monsoon in Bangladesh is manly cloudy and winter days are usually relatively cloud free.90µm (nir) 1.0.Study Area: The study area (see Fig. 1) covers whole of Bangladesh and fall between latitudes 20~34' and 26~38' north and latitudes 88~01' and 92~41' east.4 . Bangladesh has a tertiary hill region which is a part of the Himalayan range.90µm (pan) ETM+ Date 17/02/2002 28/02/2000 24/11/1999 20/11/2001 17/11/2000 26/10/2001 14/02/2000 19/12/1999 MSS Date 03/11/1972 22/02/1978 09/02/1977 10/02/1977 26/03/1975 15/04/1978 08/02/1977 27/03/1975 Landsat/ ETM+ .2.35µm (nir) 0.69µm (red) 0. and similarly fourteen ETM scenes from the year 1999 to 2002 (6 out of 14 are 2000 scenes) (see Table 1).12.50µm (tir) 2. For multi-temporal (1977 and 2000) analysis of land cover fourteen MSS scenes from the year 1972 to 1977 (7 out of 14 are 1977 scenes) are used.08 .60µm (green) 0.0. Thus winter scenes of Landsat ETM+ and MSS are main source of information used with 90 m resolution Shuttle Radar Transmission Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as elevation variable. Figure 1.55 .0. Location map of Bangladesh.75µm (ir) 10. Bangladesh encompasses lowlands of the Indo-Gangetic Plain that terminate in the alluvial plain of two great rivers. Low Hills in northeast and modest-elevation highlands in north and northwest.63 .75 . Satellite/ Sensor Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8 Band 0.

Methodology: Prior to performing expert classification unsupervised classification (ISODATA clustering method) was performed as a result of which 50 isoclusters were generated. mean water mask.10 (nir) 07/02/2001 19/12/1999 17/11/2000 26/11/2000 26/10/2001 17/11/2000 08/02/1977 23/04/1978 10/02/1977 09/02/1977 05/12/1975 03/01/1977 Table 1. Using the clumped image.Landsat/ MSS Band 4 Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 0.) were generated and used as an input for expert classification. Ratio Zone Agriculture Grass Land Hue Mean Hue Zone Shrubland Image Isodata Image Band 1 to 4 Zone Open Forest Closed Forest Mangrove Forest Water Mask Mean Water Zone Bare Land DEM Slope Mean Slope Zone Waterboies NDVI Mean NDVI Zone Zone Figure 2. etc.0.1. water mask per zone.70 (red) 0. Using standard formula.70 .50 . Ratio Mean B. 2). The Knowledge Classifier provides an interface for a non-expert to apply developed algorithm to image and create classified output. B. shrub land. mangrove forest and agriculture were identified. The Knowledge Engineer provides the interface for an expert with first-hand knowledge of the data to develop algorithm using logic or rules into hierarchical decision tree. open forest. This process is composed of two parts: the Knowledge Engineer and the Knowledge Classifier.60 (green) 0. hue and band ratio were calculated from two sets of image. List of satellite Imagery. .0. grass land.60 . mean hue. closed forest. derivative variables such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).0.2) software. mean values of variables (like mean NDVI. Classification was done into eight classes (see Fig.80 (nir) 0. Expert Classification Flow Diagrams For this study only eight principal land cover classes: bare land.80 . The knowledge-based system was implemented to run the knowledge classifier on ERDAS IMAGINE (9.

Classified data of Bangladesh generated using expert classification .Figure 2.

6 -7800.63 1544.99 -668.53 4.45 4790.63 4122.62 Increased 4117.3 Increased 102119.77 -1373.95 Decreased 6163.49 Increased 6831. Land Cover Waterbodies Bare Land Agriculture Closed Forest Open Forest Shrubland Mangrove Forest Grass Land LCOV 1977 9818. Land cover comparison table.38 Increased 3760.49 Decreased 2961. .11 6163.12 8357. The methods compared thematic information derived from time series (1977 and 2000) satellite imagery.39 2177.49 4479.25 -1582. Figure 3. The classified lands cover information comprising of eight classes for the year of 1977 and 2000 were combined into a single map and change dynamics were analyzed from attribute table.65 Decreased Table 2.7 Decreased 1115. Major land covers change 1977 to 2000. Land cover change analysis was conducted using post-classification comparison method.14 LCOV Change Remarks 2000 (1977-2000) 17618.5 5395.23 5595.69 103664.Results and Change Analysis: The result of these studies is very complex.

03 63.33 0 0 0 3963. The change map represents the spatial location of changes and the vegetation change matrix describes its dimension.97 196.69 0 244. 91 775.4 5 4790.1 1 6163.1 2 54.74 204.8 4 1221.3 7 7.68 3.9 4 8419.63 148.4 9 9818.7 3 3673. 2 (bottom) and Fig.2 5 0 4117.29 584. After deforestation Madhupur forest has been converted to banana and pineapple plantation.72 1285. Total Sqkm . Some of the deforested area has been converts to rubber garden by the government. like Madhupur and Gazipur sal forest. The principal cause of deforestation is expansion of agricultural land resulting clearing of forest cover especially in the plane areas with the highest population density.2 3 5595. southeast and southwest part of the country: a small tract of closed forest in Chittagong area.83 2.43 5.71 6163.44 116.8 6 798.4 3760.1 258.15 17618.7 7 4.87 3589. Land cover change matrix. 3). The right column of vegetation change matrix represents the total area of origin.83 106. Shifting cultivation is also another cause of deforestation especially in the CHT area. 6 712.35 15.56 14.19 34.32 0 0.3 9 2177.6 9 103664 .59 1231. Forests are situated mainly in remote areas in the east.5 3 13.4 1 4573.6 4 33.2 3 0. Habiganj. see Fig. open forest in central part of the country and mangrove forest in the Sundarban area. Since rivers in Bangladesh are prone to erosion and siltation it often changes course due to which char land (bare land) are converted to waterbodies.76 Table 3.7 5 90150.42 6831.5 3 3.21 0 626.12 8357.41 844. flooding and tide even the agricultural field is shown as waterbodies as in around Sylhet.6 3866.43 4.74 1115.9 954.79 2. Agriculture is economic mainstay of the country and multiple cropping is practiced in most stretch of the country.7 2 102119 .7 2 2225.63 7.01 2953. whereas the bottom row represents the total area of destination Mangrove Forest Closed Forest Waterbodies Open Forest Grass Land Agriculture Bare Land Shrubland Land Cover Waterbodies Bare Land Agriculture Closed Forest Open Forest Shrubland Mangrove Forest Grass Land Total SqKm 7039.49 1035.The land cover changes in Bangladesh were presented by change detection map (Figure 3) and change matrix (Table 3). The mangrove forest in Sundarban is the largest tract of mangrove forest in the world.9 9 1658. Rice and jute are two principal crops.93 0 0 0 2961.26 283.1 4 144688 .5 242.6 3 4122. Sunamganj and Maulvi Bazar (north-eastern part of Bangladesh. It is important to consider that due to the rainfall. Population and economic pressures are two prominent factors leading to clearing of forests.72 5 14.8 257.16 12.2 5 139.

As a damage control mechanism Bangladesh government developed coastal fringes as green belt and converted to forest. Bangladesh has been experiencing more frequent and intense natural disasters since last two decades. Forest is also degraded since forest woods are used in brick field as fuel wood. Many forest cover areas are converted for settlements and used for cultivation. . most prominent in CHT area. which is exposed to many damaging weather events attributing to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Forest area also gets cleared for plantation of rubber as in Madhupur. Shifting cultivation is major reason for the degradation of closed forest and open forest. Chart-1: Class based land covers status of Bangladesh.Result show that significant portions of closed forest were converted either into open forest or agricultural land during the span of 23 years (1977 to 2000). Its southern coastal frontier is one of the most vulnerable regions of the world.

Ministry of Planning. Statistics Division..II. (eds.W. Ali. Prasong. 1993. Knowledge based image classifications are new technique for image classifications and it has give good results. 1993. Global Change Report No. A. Navanugraha.T. 1992. IGPB. Improved Global Data for Land Applications.Siam.. and Meyer. Clark. 1989. Bangladesh for the Bangladesh administration boundary and necessary field information required for the validation. The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Turner.M. Switzerland. 1989. Richards. Mathews. Statistics Division.. National Conservation Strategy for Bangladesh. Sura. This provided a broad view (8 principal classes) of land cover change over the whole country between two specific times (1977-2000) and gives an immediate measure of the nature. Gland. Switzerland. Asia Pacific Remote Sensing Journal. J. Gland. Pattanakiat. Quadir. J. Ministry of Planning.20.. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action.L.) 1990. Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council/IUCN.B. Bangladesh: Balancing Numbers and Needs.A. ICIMOD for the encouragement and support extended to bring out this paper. . 1. Head. 1987.F. A Study of Vegetation Patterns in Bangladesh with AVHRR Data.. Acknowledgements: We acknowledged support and assistance from the colleagues in the Mountain Environment and Natural Resources Information Systems (MENRIS) division. Cambridge University Press. 1989. O.Charlie. R. Statistical Pocketbook Bangladesh 1993. Vol. 2. No. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. and Huh. extent and rates of change. W.. IGBP. MENRIS. B. BAARC. Lawawirojwong. Bangladesh. IUCN The World Conservation Union Bulletin Vol. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Sanguantham. D..K. Draft Prospectus (phase I). 37-57. Kates. pp. 24 No. Stockholm. 2. A. This paper demonstrated Knowledge based image classifications using Landsat ETM+ and MSS imagery as a useful technique for classification. Our gratitude goes especially to Mr.Conclusion: Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. W. Basanta Shrestha.. Thanks are also offered to Local Government Engineering Department (LGED).C. Chaudhury. References: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. For planning and informed decision making land cover is very important.

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