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School of Engineering, Design and Manufacturing Systems

Mathematical Analysis - Feedback Sheets

These sheets are designed to provide feedback and to help you with the tutorial

worksheets.

They should not really be accessed until you have attempted the questions in the

tutorial.

Should you have any problems then you should contact your tutorial tutor in the first

instance or the module coordinator.

Help is also available in the Centre for Academic Success on level 4 (Millennium

Point)

Mathematical Analysis Fourier Worksheets Working out

2.a)

a) f(x)

x

2 3 4 5 6 7

f(x) = f(x + 2π) (repeats itself every 2π, i.e. the period is 2π)

1 1 1

π

a0 = f(x)dx

π

an = f(x)cos(n x)dx and bn = f(x)sin(n x)dx

π

1 𝜋 1 1

a0 = 𝜋 ∫0 5𝑑𝑥 = [5𝑥]𝜋0 = [5𝜋 − 5(0)] = 5

𝜋 𝜋

1 𝜋 1 5 𝜋 1 5 5

an = 𝜋 ∫0 5𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)] = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝜋) − 𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(0)] = 0 for n

𝜋 𝑛 0 𝜋 𝑛

This is because sin(nπ) is zero for all n, sin(0) = 0, sin(π) = 0, sin(2π) = 0, sin(3π) = 0,

sin(4π) = 0 and so on

1 𝜋 1 5 𝜋 1 5 5

bn = 𝜋 ∫0 5𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝜋

[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)] = 𝜋

[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(0)]

0

1 5 5

bn = [− 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + ] because cos(0) = 1 and two minuses make a plus

𝜋 𝑛 𝑛

Now = Cos(nπ) = 1 or −1 depending the value of n

5 5 5 5

If n is even then Cos(nπ) = 1 and the term[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛] becomes − 𝑛 + 𝑛 which is

zero. So bn = 0 if n is even.

5 5 5 5

If n is odd then Cos(nπ) = −1 and the term[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛] becomes 𝑛 + 𝑛 which is

10 10

So bn = if n is odd.

nπ nπ

Summary

10

a0 = 5, an = 0 for all n, bn = 0 if n is even and bn = if n is odd

nπ

We now put these constants into the general formula for our fourier series.

5 10 1 1 1 1

So F(x) = 2 + [Sin(x) + 3 Sin(3x) + 5 Sin(5x) + 7 Sin(7x) + 9 Sin(9x)and so on]

π

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 2

2.b)

f(x)

x

–/2 /2 3/2 5/2 7/2 9/2

f(x) = 4 –/2 < x < /2 (takes the value 4 between –/2 and /2)

f(x) = 0 /2 < x < 3/2 (takes the value 0 between /2 and 3/2)

f(x) = f(x + 2π) (repeats itself every 2π, i.e. the period is 2π)

1 1 1

π

a0 = f(x)dx

π

an = f(x)cos(n x)dx and bn = f(x)sin(n x)dx

π

1 𝜋/2 1 1 𝜋 −𝜋

a0 = 𝜋 ∫−𝜋⁄2 4𝑑𝑥 = [4𝑥]𝜋/2

–𝜋/2 = [4 2 − 4( 2 )] = 4π

𝜋 𝜋

1 𝜋/2 1 4 𝜋/2 1 4 4

an = 𝜋 ∫−𝜋/2 4𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)] = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝜋/2) − 𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(−𝑛𝜋/2)]

𝜋 𝑛 −𝜋/2 𝜋 𝑛

1 4 4 1 8

Now sin(–) = –sin(+) so an = 𝜋 [𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝜋/2) + 𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝜋/2)] = 𝜋 [𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝜋/2)]

Sin(nπ/2) = 0 if n = 0,2,4,6,8 etc, i.e = 0 for n even

Lets now consider for n odd

Sin(nπ/2) is 1 if n = 1,5,9,13

Sin(nπ/2) is –1 if n = 3,7,11,15 and so on

8 8

an = 𝑛𝜋 if n = 1,5,9,13 . . . . and an = − 𝑛𝜋 if n = 3,7,11,15

1 𝜋/2 1 4 𝜋/2 1 4 4

bn = 𝜋 ∫−𝜋/2 4𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [ 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)] = [ 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋/2) − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(−𝜋/2)]

𝜋 𝑛 −𝜋/2 𝜋 𝑛

1 4 4

Now cos(–) = cos(+) so an = 𝜋 [𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋/2) − 𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋/2)] = 0 for all n

Summary

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 3

8 8

a0 = 4π, an = 𝑛𝜋 if n = 1,5,9,13 . . . . and an = − 𝑛𝜋 if n = 3,7,11,15

bn = 0 for all n

We now put these constants into the general formula for our fourier series.

8 1 1 1 1 1

So F(x) = 2 + π [cos(x) − 3 cos(3x) + 5 cos(5x) − 7 cos(7x) + 9 cos(9x) − 11 cos(11x)+ . ]

Note

No even cos terms as an = 0 for n even

No Sin terms as bn = 0 for all n

2.c) f(x)

3

3 2 3 4 5 6 7 x

f(x) = f(x + 2π) (repeats itself every 2π, i.e. the period is 2π)

1 1 1

π

a0 = f(x)dx

π

an = f(x)cos(n x)dx and bn = f(x)sin(n x)dx

π

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 1

a0 = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝑑𝑥 + ∫ −3𝑑𝑥 = [3𝑥]𝜋0 + [−3𝑥]2𝜋

𝜋

𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋

1 1

= [3𝜋 − 3(0)] + [−3(2𝜋) − −3(𝜋)]

𝜋 𝜋

1

= 𝜋 [3𝜋 − 6𝜋 + 3𝜋] = 0

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 3 𝜋 1 3 2𝜋

an = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝜋 ∫𝜋 −3𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)] + 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)]

𝜋 𝑛 0 𝜋

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 4

= 0 for n because sin(nπ) is zero for all n, sin(0) = 0, sin(π) = 0, sin(2π) = 0 and so on

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 3 𝜋 1 3 2𝜋

bn = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝜋 ∫𝜋 −3𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)] + 𝜋 [+ 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)]

𝜋 0 𝜋

1 3 3 1 3 3

= [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(0)] + 𝜋 [𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝑛𝜋) − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)]

𝜋

1 3 3 3 3

= 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(0) + 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝑛𝜋) − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)]

1 6 6

= 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛]

6 6 6 6

If n is even then Cos(nπ) = 1 and the term[− 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + ] becomes − + which is

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

0

6 6 6 6 12

If n is odd then Cos(nπ) = −1 and the term[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛] becomes 𝑛 + 𝑛 which is 𝑛

12

So bn = if n is odd and 0 if n is even.

nπ

Summary

12

a0 = 0, an = 0 for all n, bn = 𝑛𝜋 if n is odd and bn = 0 if n is even

We now put these constants into the general formula for our fourier series.

12 1 1 1 1

So F(x) = [Sin(x) + 3 Sin(3x) + 5 Sin(5x) + 7 Sin(7x) + 9 Sin(9x)and so on]

π

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 5

2.d) f(x)

3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

f(x) = f(x + 2π) (repeats itself every 2π, i.e. the period is 2π)

1 1 1

π

a0 = f(x)dx

π

an = f(x)cos(n x)dx and bn = f(x)sin(n x)dx

π

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 1

a0 = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝑑𝑥 + ∫ −1𝑑𝑥 = [3𝑥]𝜋0 + [−𝑥]2𝜋

𝜋

𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋

1 1

= [3𝜋 − 3(0)] + [−(2𝜋) − −(𝜋)]

𝜋 𝜋

1

= 𝜋 [3𝜋 − 2𝜋 + 𝜋] = 2

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 3 𝜋 1 1 2𝜋

an = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝜋 ∫𝜋 −𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [ 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)] + 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)]

𝜋 𝑛 0 𝜋

= 0 for n because sin(nπ) is zero for all n, sin(0) = 0, sin(π) = 0, sin(2π) = 0 and so on

1 𝜋 1 2𝜋 1 3 𝜋 1 1 2𝜋

bn = 𝜋 ∫0 3𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝜋 ∫𝜋 −𝑆𝑖𝑛(𝑛𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)] + 𝜋 [+ 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝑥)]

𝜋 0 𝜋

1 3 3 1 1 1

= [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(0)] + 𝜋 [𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝑛𝜋) − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)]

𝜋

1 3 3 1 1

= 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(0) + 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(2𝑛𝜋) − 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)]

1 4 3

= 𝜋 [− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛]

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 6

4 4 4 4

If n is even then Cos(nπ) = 1 and the term[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛] becomes − 𝑛 + 𝑛 which is

zero

4 4 4 4 6

If n is odd then Cos(nπ) = −1 and the term[− 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) + 𝑛] becomes 𝑛 + 𝑛 which is 𝑛

8

So bn = if n is odd and 0 if n is even.

nπ

Summary

8

a0 = 2, an = 0 for all n, bn = 𝑛𝜋 if n is odd and bn = 0 if n is even

We now put these constants into the general formula for our fourier series.

8 1 1 1 1

So F(x) = 1 + π [Sin(x) + 3 Sin(3x) + 5 Sin(5x) + 7 Sin(7x) + 9 Sin(9x)and so on]

2.e) f(x)

2

π 3π 5π 7π

f(x) = f(x + 2π) (repeats itself every 2π, i.e. the period is 2π)

1 1 1

π

a0 = f(x)dx

π

an = f(x)cos(n x)dx and bn = f(x)sin(n x)dx

π

1 𝜋 1 1

a0 = 𝜋 ∫−𝜋 2𝑥𝑑𝑥 = [𝑥 2 ]𝜋−𝜋 = [𝜋 2 − (−𝜋)2 ] = 0

𝜋 𝜋

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 7

1 π

an = π ∫−π 2xCos(nx)dx

dv du

This needs integration by parts ∫ u dx = uv − ∫ v dx dx

dv

Let u = 2x and let dx = Cos(nx)

du dv

We differentiate u to get dx and integrate dx to get v

1

u = 2x v = n Sin(nx)

du dv

=2 = Cos(nx)

dx dx

1 1 1 π 1 2x 2 π

an = π [(2x) n Sin(nx) − ∫ 2 × n Sin(nx)] = π [ n Sin(nx) + n2 Cos(nx)]

−π −π

1 2 π

= π [n2 Cos(nx)] because sin(nπ) = 0 for all n

−π

1 2 2 1 2 2

an = π [n2 Cos(nπ) − n2 Cos(−nπ)] [ Cos(nπ) − n2 Cos(nπ)] as cos(–) = cos(+)

π n2

an = 0 for all n

1 2𝜋 2(−𝜋)

an = 𝜋 [ 𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − 𝐶𝑜𝑠(−𝑛𝜋)]

𝑛

1 π

bn = π ∫−π 2xSin(nx)dx

dv du

This needs integration by parts ∫ u dx = uv − ∫ v dx dx

dv

Let u = 2x and let dx = Sin(nx)

du dv

We differentiate u to get and integrate dx to get v

dx

1

u = 2x v = − n Cos(nx)

du dv

=2 = Sin(nx)

dx dx

1 1 1 π 1 2x 2 π

bn = π [−(2x) n Cos(nx) − ∫ 2 × n Cos(nx)] = π [− Cos(nx) − n2 Sin(nx)]

−π n −π

1 2𝜋 2(−𝜋)

bn = 𝜋 [− 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − − 𝐶𝑜𝑠(−𝑛𝜋)]

𝑛 𝑛

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 8

Now cos(–) = cos(+)

1 2𝜋 2𝜋 1 4𝜋

bn = 𝜋 [− 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋) − 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)] = 𝜋 [− 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑛𝜋)]

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

4 4

bn = − n when n is even and n when n is odd

Summary

4 4

a0 = 0, an = 0 for all n, bn = − 𝑛 if n is even and bn = if n is odd

n

We now put these constants into the general formula for our fourier series.

1 1 1 1 1

So F(x) = 4 [Sin(x) − 2 Sin(2x) + 3 Sin(3x) − 4 Sin(4x) + 5 Sin(5x) − 6 Sin(6x)+ . . . . ]

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 9

Mjbs/MathematicalAnalysis/FeedbackFourierWorksheets 10

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