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Mobile Base Station Management using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Networks

Nasrin Abazari Torghabeh Mohammad Reza Akbarzadeh Mohammad Hossein Yaghmaee


Department of Computer Engineering Totonchi Moghaddam
Islamic Azad University Mashhad Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Computer Engineering
Branch Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Mashhad, Iran Mashhad, Iran Mashhad, Iran
abazarinasrin@yahoo.com akbarzadeh@ieee.org yaghmaee@ieee.org

Abstract—Due to resource limitations in wireless sensor cluster heads to send data to the BS. Therefore, it makes
networks, prolonging the network lifetime has been of a great them to deplete their energy much faster.
interest. The energy of sensor nodes is mostly utilized for data Recently, some ideas have been proposed based on
transmission to the base station. In hierarchical routing based mobile base station; e.g. [5]-[7]. In these algorithms, the base
on clustering, it is the cluster heads responsibility to do that. station moves around in the network in order to reduce the
Thus, it makes them to deplete their energy much faster. In distance of communication and thus decrease the energy
this paper, a mobile base station approach is used to reduce the consumptions.
energy consumption of cluster heads by enclosing the base Utilizing intelligent techniques improves the efficiency of
station to them while a fuzzy logic is applied to manage the
wireless sensor network. In applications that require real time
base station move. A Critical Degree is assigned to each cluster
head by the fuzzy system based on the input parameters such
decision making, fuzzy system is a powerful tool that can
as, energy, proximity to the base station and size of cluster. make decision even if there is insufficient data; while
Then it makes the base station move toward the cluster head sufficient data (which is rare in real applications) is needed
with the most Critical Degree so that it can save much more of for making a decision in classic control.
its energy. According to the simulation results, the proposed In this paper, a mobile base station approach is used
scheme has proved its efficiency in the network lifetime, which is managed by a fuzzy logic. At the beginning, the
residual energy of network and load distribution. The nodes are organized into clusters and cluster heads are
proposed scheme also proved to have considerable efficiency in determined. A critical degree is assigned to each cluster head
different scenarios. based on three main parameters, i.e. Cluster head’s residual
energy, proximity to base station and number of members in
Keywords-fuzzy logic; mobile base station; wireless sensor the cluster. As a result, the more critical-status CH would be
network assigned more Critical Degree. The BS moves directly
towards the cluster head with the most Critical Degree.
I. INTRODUCTION In the remainder of this paper, Section 2 discusses some
related works and previous studies. Section 3 describes the
A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large
system model and Section 4 discusses proposed scheme.
number of sensor nodes and a base station (BS). These
Section 5 provides simulation results and discusses the
sensors collect data and send them to the BS via radio
efficiency of this algorithm. Finally, Section 6 gives
transmitter. They have limited power and computational
concluding remarks.
capacity. WSNs can be used in many applications such as
military, biomedical, and environmental applications. It is II. RELATED WORK
not easy to find the route and reserve it, because the limited
amount of energy and sudden change in the position of the One of the most popular cluster based routing protocol is
nodes creates unpredictable changes [1][2]. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy protocol
Hierarchical or cluster-based routing, are well-known (LEACH) that is proposed in [3]. The operation of LEACH
techniques with special advantages related to scalability and is divided into rounds and each round consists of setup phase
efficient communication. As such, the concept of and the steady state phase. In the setup phase, the clusters are
hierarchical routing is also utilized to perform energy- organized and Cluster Heads (CHs) are selected. Each sensor
efficient routing in WSNs. In a hierarchical architecture, n generates a random number between 0 and 1. If this
higher energy nodes can be used to process and send the number is less than T(n) defined by equation (1), then sensor
information while low energy nodes can be used to perform n would be selected as a cluster head.
the sensing in the proximity of the target [2]. LEACH [3], ⎧ p
⎪⎪ if n ∈ G
PEGASIS [4], TEEN [2] and APTEEN [2] are some of 1
T (n) = ⎨1 − p × (r mod )
hierarchical routing protocols. ⎪ p
For Sending data to the base station, CHs consume very ⎪⎩ 0 if n ∉ G
1
energy because base station is far away from network. In
In this equation, p is the desired percentage of CHs, r
cluster based routing techniques, it is the responsibility of
specifies the current round and G is the set of nodes which

c
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have not been selected as cluster head in the past 1/P rounds. to which CH it should approach. In other words, BS must
After cluster head election, the CHs broadcast an determine the most critical-status CH and then approach to it.
advertisement message and other nodes select the closest Based on the received information from CHs, the BS is able
CHs based on the received signal strength. to determine the distance to the CHs.
In [5] an average energy based routing algorithm with Decision making is performed by a fuzzy system at the
mobile base station is proposed. In this approach clustering is BS. Therefore, we define a fuzzy system with three
performed like LEACH [3]. The BS move by random way parameters as inputs:
point to collect some information about the positions of the 1) CH’s residual energy: The less energy the CH has,
CHs and provides the information in a table. Then it starts the more critical-status CH it is.
moving to the CHs based on their priority in the table and 2) Proximity to base station: The more distant the CH is
gathering their data. When the BS is positioned in the range from the base station, the more energy is required for data
of a CH, data communication is performed to the BS. In
communications, and consequently the more critical-status
addition, there may be an information loss if the CHs’
internal memory is full. This algorithm has two main CH it is.
weaknesses: 3) Number of members in the cluster: The more
• Data communication takes place when the BS is in members in the cluster, the more data
range. Therefore, it is not real-time. gathering/processing/forwarding is required and thus the
• This algorithm has many overheads. more critical-status CH it is.
In [6], Sun et. al proposed an approach to manage the We used proximity to base station and number of
base station movements. In this approach, the network is members for determining Critical degree because these
divided into eight parts and base station select node with parameters play important role to consume energy of CHs.
maximum energy as destination node and approaches to it. The membership functions of these parameters are shown in
This algorithm just considers the energy factor as the main Figures 2 to 4. The if-then fuzzy rule base is also shown in
parameter managing the movements of the base station. Table 1. The output of the fuzzy system is the Critical
A random movement of the base station is considered in Degree specified to each CH whose membership function is
[7]. In this algorithm access points are used to forward the depicted in Figure 5. As a result, the more critical-status CH
data to the base station in each time slot. The information of would be assigned more Critical Degree.
the location of the base station is not broadcasted in the
network; but it is updated in the access points in a distributed
manner.
In this paper, we consider more effective parameters for Figure 1. Status Packet structure
managing the movements of the base station.
After assigning a Critical Degree to each CH, the BS
III. SYSTEM MODEL determines the most critical-status CH and moves towards it.
We make some assumptions about the sensor nodes and If two or more CH have the same Critical Degree, BS
the underlying network model: randomly select one of them. The movements of the base
• There is a BS (i.e., data sink) which is mobile. station are limited to a predefined step size. After cluster
• Sensors are all stationary after deployment. formation in each round and receiving all status packets, the
• All sensors can adjust their power transmission BS determines its new location and move towards it.
based on distance to the base station. Situating in the position, the BS broadcasts the location
• All nodes are homogeneous (i.e. the same energy across the network, so that CHs would know it. Now, CHs
resources). can adjust their power control according to their proximity to
the BS and send their data to it.
IV. PROPOSED ALGORITHM The fuzzy system consists of a fuzzifier, fuzzy rules,
fuzzy inference engine and a defuzzifier. We used Mamdani
As mentioned before, in hierarchical routing algorithms, method for fuzzy inference technique and center averaging
CHs are responsible for gathering, compressing and for defuzzification.
forwarding the data to the base station. Thus, they will The membership functions of CH’s residual energy,
become exhausted very soon if the load remains on them. In Proximity to base station and number of members in the
the proposed algorithm, the strategy is to manage the base cluster depend on initial energy, the position of BS and the
station movements in each round so that it can approach to a network’s density respectively. The maximum range of
specific CH and reduce the CH’s load in the sense of energy membership functions are determined by maximum values of
consumption. input parameters. Maximum value of Proximity to BS
We formed the clusters based on LEACH algorithm parameter can be derived as below,
proposed in [3]. After organizing nodes into clusters and at
the beginning of each round, the CHs report their status MPBS = x BS 2 + y BS 2 (2)
Where (xBS,yBS) is the position of BS. Maximum values
(such as location, number of members and energy) to the BS
of energy and cluster members are initial energy and total
via a single packet called “Status Packet”. This packet
nodes minus one node as cluster head respectively.
structure is shown in Figure 1. At this point, BS must decide

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medium far medium medium large
Low
1
Med High
medium far high ratther large
high close low very small
high close medium small
0.5
high close high small
high medium low small
high medium medium ratther small
high medium high ratther small
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
high far low ratther small
high far medium medium small
Figure 2. Membership functions of Energy high far high medium small
The procedure is shown in Figure 6 and summarized to
following steps:
Close
1
Med Far
Step1 (S1): Cluster formation. Sending status packet to
the BS and determining new location.
Step2 (S2): The BS moves to the new location.
0.5
Step3 (S3): The BS broadcasts its location.
Step4 (S4): CHs adjust their transmission power and send
0
data to the BS.
0 50 100 150

Figure 3. Membership functions of proximity to base station

Low Med High


1

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Figure 6. Example of base station movement


Figure 4. Membership functions of number of members

V. SIMULATION AND EVALUATION


v-small Small r-small med-small med med-large r-large large v-large
1
In this section, we evaluate the performance of our
proposed algorithm in MATLAB. 100 nodes are randomly
0.5
distributed in a 100×100 m2 network. Simulation was
performed for 5000 rounds. Other simulation parameters are
shown in Table 2. We compare our proposed algorithm with
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
LEACH [3], An Average Energy based routing protocol for
mobile sink(AAEB)[5] and Random movement strategy in
Lifetime, network’s residual energy, variance of energy and
Figure 5. Membership functions of Critical Degree
average distance between the dead sensors. In “Random
movement” case, the base station moves around in a random
TABLE I. FUZZY IF THEN RULES manner.
We used a simplified model proposed in [8] for the radio
Energy Proximity to BS Member Critical Degree
hardware energy dissipation as follows. To transmit an l-bit
low close low medium large data to a distance d, the radio expends.
low close medium medium large
⎧lEelect + lε fs d 2 d < d co
low close high ratther large ⎪
low medium low ratther arge Es = ⎨
4
low medium medium ratther arge ⎪⎩lEelect + lε mp d d ≥ d co
low medium high Large 3
low far low large The first item presents the energy consumption of radio
low far medium ratther large dissipation, while the second presents the energy
low far high very large
medium close low medium small consumption for amplifying radio. Depending on the
medium close medium medium small transmission distance both the free space εfs and the multi-
medium close high medium small path fading єmp channel models are used. When receiving
medium medium low medium small this data, the radio expends:
medium medium medium medium
Er = lEelect 4
medium medium high medium large
medium far low medium large

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A. Network life time E. Scalability
Although various definitions has been proposed in the The scalability of the proposed scheme was also tested by
literature, in this paper, lifetime is considered as the time network size 200×200 m2 with 300 sensors. Figure 11 shows
when the first node dies. Figure 7 shows the number of alive network life time in this scenario. The proposed scheme
nodes with respect to the operation of the network in rounds. proved to have considerable efficiency in different scenarios.
Approximately the first sensor dies at 3000th round. 110
Proposed
Therefore, it improves the overall network lifetime. 100
LEACH
90 Random

B. Residual energy of network 80


AAEB

70
Residual energy of the network in each round gives an

Alive Sensors
60
insight of the rate of total energy consumption, which can be 50

a good metric to measure the energy efficiency of the 40

algorithms. The less steep the figure is the more clearness of 30

balance energy utilization and fairer distribution of energy on 20

10
the nodes would be. Figure 8 shows the comparison of 0
network’s energy in four algorithms. In the proposed 0 1000 2000
Round
3000 4000 5000

algorithm the residual energy of network is much more than


others. Figure 7. Network life time

C. Variance of energy in each round


100
The fairness of energy consumption can be well observed 90
Proposed
LEACH
by measuring the variance of the residual energy of all nodes 80 Random
AAEB
in each round. The less variant residual energy in each 70

Energy of Network
consequent round is the reason of the fairer energy 60

consumption. Contrary, more variance in energy 50

consumption shows that the network’s load is on some sets 40

30
of nodes. The more straight line demonstrates the less variant
20
energy consumption, which is due to the better energy 10
balancing. In Figure 9, the variance of the residual energy is 0
compared with three other algorithms. 0 1000 2000
Round
3000 4000 5000

TABLE II. SIMULATION PARAMETERS Figure 8. Energy of Network


Parameter value
Initial Energy 1J
0.09
Data packet 4000 bits Proposed
0.08
Control packet 32 bits LEACH
Random
Eelect 50 nJ/bit 0.07
AAEB
εfs 10 pJ/bit/m2
Variance of Energy

0.06

dco 87 m 0.05

EDA 5 nJ/bit/signal 0.04


Step size 15 m 0.03

0.02

0.01
D. Average distance between the dead sensors
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Measuring the average of distance between the dead Round
sensors provides an insight of the load distribution as well as
the efficiency of the clustering algorithm. A low average Figure 9. Variance of energy
distance may be due to the global death of several nodes in a
specific area in the network. It implies that the sensors of that 80
Average distance between dead sensors(m)

area are dying very fast which is not satisfactory since we 70

miss the events of that area. As it is shown in Figure 10, the 60

average distance of the dead sensors in the proposed 50


algorithm is much more than other algorithms. Once the 40
nodes start dying, the average distance between them in other
30
three algorithms seems to be low and this proves the above
20 Proposed
statement. In other words, the managed movements of the LEACH
base station towards low power sensor nodes makes them 10 Random
AAEB
outlasted. 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Number of dead sensors

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Figure 10. Average distance between dead sensors [1] K. Akkaya and M. Younis, “A Survey of Routing Protocols in
Wireless Sensor Networks,” In the Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal,
Vol. 3/3, pp. 325-349, 2005.
300
Proposed
[2] J. N. Al-Karak and A. E.Kamal, “Routing techniques in wireless
LEACH sensor network: A survey,” IEEE wireless communications, Vol. 11,
250
Random pp. 6-28, December 2004.
AAEB
200 [3] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-
Alive Sensors

Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor


150 Networks,” In proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International
Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '00), January 2000.
100
[4] S.lindsey and C. S. Raghavendra, “PEGASIS: Power efficient
50
gathering in sensor information systems,” In Proceeding of the IEEE
Aerospace Conference ,Montana, USA, Vol. 3, pp. 1125-1130, March
0 2002.
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Round [5] Ying-Hong Wang, Chin-Yung Yu, Wei-Ting Chen, Chun-Xuan
Wang “An Average Energy based Routing Protocol for mobile sink in
Wireless Sensor Networks,” In proceding of First IEEE International
Figure 11. Network life time for scalability testing Conference on Ubi-Media Computing, pp. 44-49, August 2008.
[6] L. Sun, Y. Bi, J. Ma, “ A Moving Strategy for Mobile Sinks in
We evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by Wireless Sensor Networks,” In proceeding of 2nd IEEE Workshop on
varing the amount of step-size. Running the simulation 50 Wireless Mesh Networks(WiMesh), pp. 151-153, September 2006.
times for different step-sizes, we calculate the average First [7] R. Zhang, M. J. Lee, S. Soon Joo, “Distributed mobile sink support in
Node Dying time as illustrated in Table 3. Best results are wireless sensor networks,” In proceeding of IEEE Military
obtained with step-size equal to 15. Communications Conference(MILCOM) ,pp. 1-6, November 2008.
[8] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An
TABLE III. FIRST NODE DIE WITH DIFFERENT STEP-SIZE Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor
Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1,
Step-size (m) 5 10 15 20 25 no. 4, pp. 660-670, October 2002.

First Node Die 2763 2778 2792 2771 2768


(round)
Step-size (m) 30 35 40 45 50

First Node Die 2779 2691 2688 2689 2684


(round)

VI. CONCLUSION
Due to resource limitations in wireless sensor networks,
prolonging the network lifetime has been of a great interest.
Networks with mobile base station have attracted the
interests of researches as an applicable approach to prolong
the lifetime. In this paper, a mobile base station approach is
used which is managed by a fuzzy system.
In proposed algorithm after cluster formation in each
round and receiving all status packets, the BS determines its
new location and move towards it. Situating in the position,
the BS broadcasts the location across the network, so that
CHs would know it. Then CHs can adjust their power control
according to their proximity to the BS and send their data to
it. Three fuzzy input parameters were considered: energy,
proximity to BS and number of members in the cluster. The
fuzzy system would provide a Critical Degree based on the
if-then fuzzy rule basis. This parameter shows the critical
status of the CH. In each consequent round, the BS finds the
most critical-status CH and approaches it. According to the
simulation results, the proposed scheme has proved its
efficiency in the network lifetime, residual energy of network
and load distribution. The proposed scheme also proved to
have considerable efficiency in different scenarios.
REFERENCES

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