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Ancient Science of Life, Vol. 28, No.

2(2008) Pages 33-39

Historical perspective on the usage of perfumes and scented


Articles in ancient Indian literatures

Dr Goli Penchala Abstract : In India perfumes and scented articles were in use from
Prasad* pre Vedic and Vedic periods for religious practices, social
G. Penchala Pratap ** customs, and domestic rituals and later gradually became part
M. Neelima ** and parcel of human life. Perfumes were also used in cosmetics
Vd. Pammi and beauty aids. Medicinal values of many perfumes were well
Satyanrayanashastry*** known to ancient Indians and were used in both rituals and to
treat diseases. Medicated fumigation (dhupan) was an advanced
method for medicinal purposes. Medicated oils, collyriums,
powders were prepared from perfumes used externally in many
diseases. Perfumes were also anointed in various body parts
(Anulepan). Chewing betel leaves along with fragrant material
like nutmeg, mace, etc. (Tambulam) was used with a view to
rendering mouth clean and fragrant. usage of scented oils to
massage body(Abhyanga) which keeps the skin smooth, healthy
and invigorating; Udvartanam, massaging various body parts;
Udgarshanam, scrubbing; Utsadanam rubbing with scented
powders etc., were some of the health protective and disease
eliminating procedures. Scented drugs and perfumes enhance the
quality, activity and pleasantness of these processes.

Use of perfumes and scented articles in The word Sugandhi is used for Agni (the
Vedas, Puranas and contemporary god of fire), well-wisher of men, who carries
ancient Indian literatures 1 the oblations with his redolent-mouth
(Aasaa Sughandhinaa… R.V. Viii.19.24).
The Vedas are generally admitted to be the The fragrant mouthed Agni was also
source of Indian philosophical thought, considered as augmenter of material
religious practices, social customs, prosperity and ensures of immortality
professions and functions of different social through divine grace.
classes. In short Vedas are considered as
almost all spiritual and secular conventions,
observations and pursuits. Varied usages of *Research officer (Ay) R.R.I Vijayawada
perfumes along with individual ** S.V. University, Tirupati, Chittoor (Dt),
beautification and medicinal purposes can A.P. *** Managing trustee Achnata
be seen in Vedic literatures. In Rigveda Lakshmipati Ayurveda library trust,
(IV.38.6; V.53.4; X.184.2) Srak is used for Vijayawada
flower garlands and Aswins were called as
Pushkarasrajau, wearing garlands of Lilies.

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Tryambakam yajamahe sugandhim mukul (Hook ex stocks) Engl.), and his
pushtivardhanam Urvaarukamiva sinew into Sugandhi tejana, which was
bandhanaan mrutyormukshiya maamrutat considered as fragrant Tejana grass.3
(R.V. VII.59.12.1)
In excavations in Mohenjadaro revealed
In Rigveda collyrium (Anjana), perfumed items, which support the use of powders and
unguents (Punya gandha or Surabhi), perfumes after the bath. Excavations and
beautiful garments and flower garlands studies on many ancient literatures proved
(Suvasah) were mentioned. The word prevalent use of cosmetics and perfumes in
Punya gandha was also mentioned in all strata of society.1&4
Atharvaveda.
Valmiki Ramayana
Striyo yah punyagandhastah sarvah
svapayaamsi- R.V. VII.55.8, A.V.IV.5.3; Dasaratha’s (the king of Ayodhya) dead
body was kept in a special taila droni (a
In Rigveda (R.V.X.18.7), un-widowed wooden tub filled with oil processed in
dames were advised to use kohl and unguent medicines and aromatics) to protect the body
to become free from sorrow. from decay (Ramayan, 11.70.16-17);
In Atharvaveda (VI.102.3) use of fragrant In another reference dead body of a Brahmin
drugs like licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra was also preserved in taila droni filled with
Linn.), Kushta (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke medicated and scented oils.
); Nalada (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn)
Nash) etc. were mentioned.2 Baalasya ca shareeram…..
Ghandhaischa Paramodaaraistailaischa
In Atharvaveda Kushta (Saussurea lappa Sugandhibhih…. Ram VII.66.2, 3
C.B. Clarke - a scented rhizome) was
mentioned in many hymns as an important In cremation of Dasaratha’s dead body,
drug to relieve many diseases and to provide Candana (Sandal wood), Sarala (Pinus
eternal life.2 roxberghii Sarg), Padmaka (Prunus
cerasoides D.Don), Agaru (Aquilaria
In Kaushika sutra (35.21) a paste from agallocha Roxb.), Devadaru (Cedrus
Kushta, (Sauaurrea lappa) Tagara deodara (Roxb.) Loud) etc. were used.
(Valeriana wallichii DC.) etc. mixed with (Ramayan, 11.70, 16-17)
butter is mentioned to anoint the Partner.
Ashvalayana grihyasutra (III.7.1) mentioned Sandal paste was used to anoint the body
that a pupil was supposed to furnish flower (Ramayan11.70.4). It was described that
garland, ointment (Anulepanam), perfumed when Bharata went to the forest with his
powder and eye salve along with other army to see his brother Rama, the path was
beauty aids like earrings, necklace etc. for perfumed with sandal water and flowers.
himself and his teacher at the time of
convocation. In Shaunaka’s Brihatdevata Candanodaka samsikto nanakusuma
(400BC) VII.77-78 origin of scented drugs bhushitah- Ram.II.74.13
were described. While Agni (The god of
fire) was officiating as Hota, his bones were In another reference, during nights when the
transformed into Guggulu (Commiphora king Ravana desired to see Seetadevi, the

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paths were lit with many lamps filled with
perfumed oils. In pre Buddistic period, people were trained
in 64 arts. Gandhayukti (The art of
“Deepikaabhiranekabhih blending perfumes) is one among them.
samantaavabhasitam Lalitavistara mentioned that the young
gandhatailaavasiktaa…” Ram. V.16.18. Bodhisatva had excelled in 64 arts.5
Sikkhapadas of Khuddaka Pada contain
Many other scattered references of the use few restrictions for Buddistic monks. The
of perfumed water, scented waters, scented monks are prohibited from use of pomade
oils, scented powders and other cosmetics (Perfume oil), perfumes and anointing the
can be observed in Valmiki Ramayana. body.

Mahabharata In another Buddistic text in Pali, namely,


Brahmajala sutta, a list of procedures for
In Mahabharata 3 types of Dhupas bedecking, dressing, Uccaadana (anointing
(incense) were mentioned. with perfumes), Maalaa Vilepana (applying
pomade and anointing and wearing flower
1. Dhupa (fumes) by burning Niryasa garlands), Mukhacunaka (applying fragrant
(aromatic resin exudation from trees) talcum powder to face) etc. were described.
like Guggulu (Commiphora mukul
(Hook ex stocks) Engl), Shallaki Vatsayana Kamasutra (1st Adhikarana,
(Boswellia serrata Roxb.) etc. is 3rd Adhyaya)6
considered as dearer to Gods and
Godesses. Vatsayan kamasutra states that both male
and female should learn 64 arts.
2. Dhupa by burning of leaves of trees like Gandhayukti (the technique of making
Sara (Pinus roxberghi Sarg), Agaru perfumes) is one among them.
(Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), Shallaki
(Boswellia serrata Roxb) etc. is dearer to Kalika Purana6
Yakshas and Rakshasas.
68th chapter of Kalika purana describes in
3. Kritrima (artificial) Dhupa produced
detail, 10 types of Gandha dravyas Viz. 1.
from fermented substances like Molasses
Isthagandha, 2. Anishthagandha, 3.
etc. is dearer to Daanavas, (demons)
Madhuragandha, 4. Amlagandha, 5.
Bhutas (ethereal beings) and men. (
Kathugandha, 6. Nirharigandha, 7.
M.B. XIV.49.41-42)
Samhatgandha, 8. Snigdhagandha, 9.
Rukshagandha and 10 Vishadagandha
During these periods lamps were filled with
according to the smells.
perfumed oils; fragrant powders were used
for face and body; bed sheets were
Pleasant smell like musk, sandalwood etc. is
variegated and scented; arrows and weapons
considered as Isthagandha; unpleasant
were worshiped by applying sandal paste
smell like carcass (dead body) is considered
and decorating with flower garlands. (M.B.
as Anishthagandha; sweet smell of flowers
VI.93.70; VIII.8.16; XIII.57.40; VII.121.31)
etc is Madhuragandha; sour smell of
Citrus fruits etc. is Amlagandha; pungent
Budddistic and Pre Buddistic literatures smell of pepper etc. is Kathugandha;

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spreading smell of asafetida etc is continuous smoke while burning, is of
Nirharigandha, mixture of many perfumes uniform smell, absorbs heat, and is so
is Samhatgandha; sweet oily smell of ghee adhesive to the skin as not to be removable
etc. is Snigdhagandha; pungent oily smell by rubbing; Its types were mentioned as
of mustard oil etc. is Rukshagandha; Jongaka which is black or variegated black
fermented rice etc. smell is considered as and is possessed of variegated spots,
Vishadagandha. Dongaka is black and Parasamudraka is of
variegated color and smells like cuscus or
Kautilya Arthashastra7 like Navamalika (jasminum).
Arthashastra has the descriptions of many
fragrant drugs, which were used as Taila Parnika types and characteristic
cosmetics like Sandalwood, Agaru features were described in detail. They are
(Aquilaria agallocha) and Taila Parnika Asokagramika, the product of
(Eucalyptus?) (Book-II, Chapter-XI.). Asokagrama, are of the color of meat and
Candana (Sandalwood) was used as smells like a lotus flower; Jongaka is
Anulepana (external application) and as reddish yellow and smells like a blue lotus
beauty aid and fragrant material. Qualities of flower or like the urine of a cow;
Sandalwood were mentioned as light, soft, Grameruka is greasy and smells like a
moist (Asyana, not dry) as greasy as ghee, cow’s urine. Sauvarnakudyaka, product of
pleasant smell, adhesive to the skin, the country of Suvarnakudya is reddish
absorptive of heat, and comfortable to the yellow and smells like Matulunga (Citrus
skin. Various types of Sandal wood were medica Linn); Purnadvipaka, the product
mentioned. Satana is red and smells like the of the island, Purnadvipa, smells like a
earth, Gosirshaka is dark red and smells lotus flower or like butter; Bhadrasriya and
like fish; Harichandana is of the color of Paralauhityaka are of the colour of
the feathers of the parrot and smells like nutmeg; Antaravatya is of the color of
tamarind or mango. Similarly Tarnasa, cuscus- the last two smell like Kushtha
Grameruka is red or dark red and smells (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke); Kaleyaka,
like the urine of a goat, Daivasabyeya is red which is a product of Svarna Bhumi (gold-
and smells like a lotus flower; Aupaka producing land), is yellow and greasy; and
(Japaka), Jongaka and Taurupa are red or Auttara-parvataka (a product of the north
dark red and soft; Maleyaka is reddish mountain) is reddish.
white; Kuchandana is as black as Agaru
(Aquilaria agallocha) or red or dark red and Vishnu Dharmottara Purana (450-650
very rough; Kalaparvataka is of pleasant A.D)8
appearance; Kosakaraparvataka (bud Sixty fourth chapter of 2 nd Khanda of
shaped and is a product of a mountain by Vishnu Dharmottara Purana has the
that name) is black or variegated black; chapter Gandhayukti, in which 8 phases in
Sitodakiya is black and soft, and smells like manufacturing perfumes were described.
a louts flower; Nagaparvataka (that which They are 1. Sodhanam, 2. Vaasanam, 3.
is the product of Naga mountain) is rough, Virechanam, 4. Bhaavanam, 5. Paaka, 6.
possess the color of Saivala (Vallisneria) Bhodanam,7. Dhupana and 8. Vaasana.
and Sakala is brown. Gandhataila, Gandhajala, Dhupa,
Varnakara dravya, Mukhavaasas and
Agaru was said as heavy, soft, greasy, karna patra were also described.
smells far and long, burns slowly, gives out

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Preparation of Incenses:- powder by mixing with Khadirasara
Nakha (perfumed shell of land snail Helix (Catechu) and Kanyasara (juice of Aloe
aspera9), Kushtham (Saussurea lappa C.B. barbadensis). These tablets render the mouth
Clarke), Ghanam (Cyperus rotundus fragrant and healthy.
Linn10), Mamsi (Nardostachys jatamansi
DC), Sprukka (Delphinium zalil Aitch & Manasollasa of King Someswara (1130
Hemsl10), Saileyakam(Parmelia perlata A.D)11
Ach.), Jalam (Baalakam- Valeriana Twenty types of royal enjoyments were
hardwickii wall10), Kumkuma (Crocus mentioned in this text. Among them
sativus Linn.), Laaksha (lac), Candana perfumes and scented articles were used in
(Santalum album Linn.-sandal wood), Snaana bhogah (enjoyment of bath),
Agaru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), Natam Tambula bhogah (enjoyment of betel leaf
(Tagaram- Delphinium brunonianum chewing), Vilepana bhogah (enjoyment of
Royle10 or Valeriana wallichii DC9), Sarala anointing the body), Maalyopabhogah
(Pinus roxberghii Sarg), Devakashtham (enjoyment of flower garlanding) and
(Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud), Karpura Dhupa bhogah (enjoyment of incense).
(Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm),
Guggulu (Commiphora mukul (Hook ex Snaanabhogah:-
stocks) Engl.),etc. were used in the Sesame oil scented with flowers of Ketaki
preparation of incenses. Mixing two of these (Pandanus odoratissimus Roxb.), Jati
drugs along with Sarja (Shorea robusta (Jasminum officinale Linn.), Punnaga
Gaertn.f.) and Liquid storax (Pinyaka) (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.) and
various types of Dhupsticks can be prepared Campaka (Michelia champaka Linn.) was
(ref- Vishnu Dharmottara Purana used for Abhyanga (oil massage). After oil
II.64.20-23). Perfume oil can be prepared by massage Udvartana (massage or rubbing
keeping the oil extracted from sesame seeds the oily body with dry powder in the
sandwiched in between scented flowers (ref- opposite direction of hair follicle) was
Vishnu Dharmottara Purana II.64.32). indicated with scented and medicated
powder prepared from the roots of
Mukhavasas:- Kushtham (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke),
Ela (cardamom), Lavanga (cloves), Kakkola Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn), Patola
(Piper cubeba Linn.f.), Jaatiphala (Trichosanthus dioica Roxb.), Nisha
(Myristica fragrans Houtt.), Nishakara (Curcuma longa Linn.), Pushkara (Inula
(camphor?), Jaatipatrika (Mace), were used recemosa Hook.f.); leaves of Nimba
as mouth fragrant or Mouth fresheners. (Azadirachta indica A. juss.), Tulasi
(Ocimum sanctum Linn.) etc.; seeds of Ela
Karpura (camphor), Kumkuma (saffron), (cardamom), Sarshapa (Brassica nigra
Kaantam (Badrela- Amomum subulatum Linn.), Bakuchi (Psoralia corylifolia
Roxb), Mrugadarpam (Musk), Harenuka Linn.), Cakramarda (Cassia tora
(scented drug mentioned in Susruta’s Linn.)etc.; stems of Padmakam (Prunus
Eladigana), Kakkola (Piper cubeba Linn.f), cerasoides D.Don), Lodhra (Symplocos
Lavanga (cloves), Jaatikosa (Mace), recemosus Roxb.), Sreekanda (sandal
Drukpatra (?), Truti (cardamom), Musta wood), Saral (Pinus roxberghii Sarg) etc.;
(Cyperus rotundus Linn), Latakasturi flowers of Nagakesara (Mesua ferrea
(Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn.) are ground to Linn.), Punnaga (Calophyllum inophyllum
fine powder. Tablets are prepared from this Linn.), Kumkuma (saffron), Campaka

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(Michelia champaka Linn) etc.; Niryasa Various types of incenses (Dhupa bhogah)
(exudations) of Guggulu (Commiphora were described. Those are, Churna dhupa
mukul (Hook ex stocks) Engl.), Bola (incense in the form of powder); Pinda
(Commiphora myrrha Holmes), Sarjaras dhupa (incense in the form of paste); Varti
(Shorea robusta Gaertn.f) etc. dhupa (incense in the form of sticks);
Samputa dhupa (incense burnt in a censer)
Tambula bhogah etc. Methods of aromatizing living rooms,
harems, garments, beds, and cloths with the
Areca-nuts obtained from Nailaavartti, help of handled censors of different shapes
Isvarpura and Kandikapura were considered were described. All these descriptions
best. Betel leaves collected from one year indicate the extensive, imaginative and
old creeper nourished with river water are ingenious manner of application of incenses
considered best. Areca nuts were dried in and advanced stage of civilization and royal
shade and perfumed with Musk water. Musk enjoyments.
camphor, Kakkola (Piper cubeba Linn.f.), Brihatsamhita12
nutmeg, Khadirasara (Catechu powder) Chapter LXXVII (77) of Varahamihra’s
blended with musk, sandal and camphor Brihat samhita is on Gandhayukti
water were used as ingredients of (preparation of perfumes). Perfumes and
Tambula.(Pan) scents said to have been manufactured for
the benefit of royal personage and inmates
Vilepana bhogah of harems. Common people also used some
Based on seasons different ointments were of them.
advocated to anoint the body. During spring
(Vasanta kaala), ointment prepared from Royal head bath
Sandal wood, Agaru (Aquilaria agallocha Scented water fit for washing of king’s head
Roxb), Camphor, Musk, Saffron etc was is prepared with equal quantities of Twak
prescribed. To get rid from bad odors (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), Kushtha
anointing armpits, thighs, belly and ears (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke), Renuka
with scented ointments and incenses was (Amomum subulatum Roxb?), Nalika
advocated. (Gandha dravya vishesha-Ref-9), Sprukka
(Delphinium zalil Aitch & Hemsl), Rasa
Malyopa bhogah (Bola- Commiphora myrrha Holmes),
Wearing garlands was advised after Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC), Balaka
dressing. Based on individual taste various (Valeriana hardwickii Wall), Nagakesara
combinations of flower garlands were (Mesua ferrea Linn.) and Patra (leaf of
advised. They are, Campaka (Michelia Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm)
champaka Linn) and Mallika (Jasminum);
Campaka and Utpala (Nymphaea stellata Scented hair oil
Willd); Campaka and Surabhi (Ocimum Hair oil having the perfume of Champaka
sanctum Linn.); Campaka and Patala (Michelia champaka Linn) flower is made
(Stereospermum suaveolens DC); Mallika by mixing together the powder of
and Patala; Mallika and Bakula (Mimusops Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.),
elengi Linn.); Vyagranakha (scented shell of sea animal),
Nakha (shell of Helix aspera), Kushta
Dhupa bhogah (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke) etc. along
with sesame oil and sun heated.

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Candana (sandal wood) are mixed by
Other scented oils and incenses:- selecting any four drugs to obtain 96
varieties of incenses.
Mode of preparation of perfume named
Smaroddipana from Patra (Cinnamomum Ayurvedic Literatures13
tamala Nees & Eberm), juice of Turushka
(Liquid storax), Baala (Valeriana hardwickii Many of the scented drugs, those used in
Wall) and Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC). contemporary literatures, were also
The above ingredients being fumigated with mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic texts. In
Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth) Caraka samhita, Susruta samhita, Ashtanga
and Guggulu (Commiphora mukul (Hook ex hridaya, Ashtanga sangraha etc., many
stocks) Engl.) yield a scent named Bakula. scented drugs and perfumes were used for
improving the complexion and as deodorant.
Similarly Costus (Kushtha) generates lotus These were used as ingredients in the
scent; same with Sandal wood Campaka preparation of oils, powders, collyriums,
scent; nutmeg (Jaatiphala), Twak tablets (Vatis), Vartis (sticks) etc. Sugandha
(Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) and tailas (scented oils) were used to anoint
coriander produces jasmine scent. body in many skin diseases. Dhupas
Preparation of delightful perfumes by (incenses) were used for disinfecting the
mixing Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz), body or the room. Various scented powders
Shanka (Conch shell), Ghana (Cyperus were used for Udvartanam (massage with
rotundus Linn?), Bola (Commiphora myrrha dry powder in the opposite direction of hair
Holmes), Costus, Benzoin etc in different follicle). Sugandha Paniya (Scented waters)
proportions was also explained. were used for Pariseka (sprinkling of
medicated liquid over body surface).
Clothes and body were perfumed using,
powder of Twak (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Peculiar descriptions regarding perfumes
lume), Usira (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn) and scented articles in ancient literatures
Nash), Patra (Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Sarangadhara samhita mentioned that by
Eberm), Cardamomum are mixed with musk drinking the fragrant waters with
and camphor. Sandalwood, Cardamomum, Usira
(Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn) Nash) and
Sixteen substances namely Ghana (Cyperus Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC.) one’s
rotundus Linn?), Baalaka (Valeriana body becomes redolent. Drugs which give
hardwickii Wall), Saileyaka (Parmelia the body the smell of Campaka (Michelia
perlata Ach), Karpura (Camhor), Usira champaka Linn) flowers; incense that
(Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn) Nash), destroys reptiles, mice, bugs and lice in the
Nagakesara (Mesua ferrea Linn.), house were also described. In this text
Vyagranakha (scented shell of sea animal), preparation of various incenses dearer to
Sprukka (Delphinium zalil Aitch & Hemsl), gods and kings were described.14
Agaru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.),
Madanaka (Randia dumetorum Lam?), In Bhaishajya ratnavali purification of
Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC), aromatics by washing (Kshalana) in the
Dhanyaka (Coriander), Karchura juice or decoction of Pancapallavas 9, 15
(Hedychium spicatium Ham.ex Smith), (five shoots or tender leaves of Amra-
Coraka (Angelica glauca Edgw) and Mangifera indica Linn.; Jambu-Syzygium

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cumini Skeels T; Kapittha- Feronia hazardous perfumes. Being a country with
elephantum Correa; Bijapuraka- Citrus enormous heritage and knowledge to
medica Linn ; Bilwa- Aegle marmelos Corr.) cultivate many scented drugs like saffron,
was mentioned. Sandal wood, Camphor etc. necessary steps
should be under taken by the scientific
In Rasaratnakara of Nityaananda siddha, fraternity to develop the perfumes and
special procedures were described to make scented drugs.
sandal from the root of Nimba- Azadirachta
indica A. juss (probably to change the References
qualities of Nimba root to that of the sandal).
This is called as Chandanakaranam (Ref- 1. Gangadhara & unknown Authors.
R.R 9/89-91); In the same way making “Gandhasara and Gandavada”, edited by
camphor from boiled rice is called as Ramakrishna Tulzaram Vyas, published
Karpurakaranam (Ref-R.R 9/92-96); by Oriental Institute, Vadodara(1989).
Making Kasturi from Panasa- Artocarpus
or Madhuka- Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel oil 2. Griffith R.T. H; “The hymns of
etc. is called as Kasturikaranam; Making Atharvaveda”, 3rd edition published by
Safron from Palasha (Butea monosperma Master Khedarilal & Sons Varanasi
(Lam) Kuntze) flowers or Coconut is called (1962).
as Kumkumakaranam.
3. Macdonell, A.A. “The Brihaddevata”,
Conclusion:- PP 271 Part II, Harval University,
Cambridge (1904).
Among the vast literature on perfumes and
scented drugs, few references were quoted 4. Lefman (Ed.) “Lalitavistara” pp178-179
in this article. The aim of this article is to Royal Asiatic society, Calcutta (1877).
highlight the usage of perfumes and scented
articles of medicinal value in ancient India. 5. Bikkhu, J. Kashyap pp4
“Khuddakanikaaya” vol. I , Pali
It is not an exaggeration, that in olden days publication board, Bihar government
use of perfumes and scents was very (1959).
prevalent to maintain mental, psychological
and physical health. In contrast, the present 6. Vatsayana “Vatsayan Kamasutra”
generations are very much exposed to Telugu translation and publication by
synthetic, spurious perfumes causing ill Panchangnula Adinarayans shastri,
health. Many of the fragrant substances like Parasu Vakam, Veperi post, Madras
Saffron, Musk, Sandal wood and Camphor (1930).
etc. are on the brink of extinction and have
became costly. 7. Kautilya. “Kautilya’s Arthasastra”
translated by Maha Mahopadyaya
Traditional use of perfumes, scented R.Shama Sastry, eighth edition,
oils, garlands, incenses has also been published by Mysore printing and
restricted to marriages, festivals and other publishing house (1967).
annual ceremonies. Healthy scented oil
massage, scented water baths and other 8. Khumaray Shrikrishnadas (Ed.) “Shree
rituals have been replaced by artificial and Vishnu Darmottara purana” Vol.I pp

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220-221, Shri Venkateswara steam edition, published by Motilal Banarasi
press, Nagpublications (1985). dass publications pvt. Limited (1997).

9. Bhavamisra. “Bhavaprakash Nighantu”, 13. Susruta. “Susruta samhita”, commetry


commentary by K.C. Chunekar, edited by Kaviraja Ambikadatta Shastri 3rd
by G.S. Pandey, published by edition, published by Chowkamba
Chowkambha Bharati Academy, Sanskrit series, Varanasi (1972).
Varanasi (2002).
14. Sarangadaracharya.
10. P.V.Sharma. “Dravyaguna Kosh”, 1st “Sarangadharsamhita”, English
edition published by Chowkhambha translation by P.Himasagara chandhra
orientalia, Delhi- 110 007 (1997). Murthy, 1st edition published by
Chowkamba Sanskrit series, Varanasi
11. King Bhulokamallu Someswara. (2001).
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