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WORKING DRAFT

A STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT


LEARNING IN KOSOVO FOR THE MEDIUM-TERM FROM
2005 - 2015

Madeleine Gunny
With the support of Kosovo Stakeholders
Table of Contents Page

PART 1

Introduction
1. A strategy for adult learning
2. Closer integration with the region of South East Europe and the
European Union
3. Stakeholder dialogue
4. Justification for adult learning
4.1. Kosovo at a cross-road
4.2. Need for and scope of adult learning
5. Analysis of cause and effect of adult learning problems
5.1. Problem 1: Major skills deficits and skills mismatches
5.1.1. Low investment in workforce development by enterprises
5.1.2. Difficulties sustaining management training and developing
skills of small firms
5.1.3. Legacy of the past - no value placed on learning by society
5.1.4. Large numbers of unskilled job-seekers
5.1.5. Poor motivation and few incentives for learning
5.1.6. Inadequate learning infrastructure
5.1.7. Difficulties in the learning process
5.1.8. Lack of commitment by the State to adult learning
5.1.9. Donor support and longer-term sustainability of adult learning
5.2. Problem 2 - Uncoordinated approach across relevant ministries
5.2.1. Shared responsibilities
5.2.2. Different policy agendas
5.2.3. Gaps - developing non-formal, ICT and internet learning
5.2.4. Compartmentalisation, un-coordinated approaches and poor data
5.3. Problem 3 - Lack of systemic approach in developing adult learning
5.3.1. Isolation from international debate and experience on lifelong learning
5.3.2. Key components of the system are missing
5.4. Problem 4 - Poor data, information and research base for adult learning
5.5. Problem 5 - Inadequate level of financial resources and difficulties in
raising additional finance
5.6. Problem 6 - Low value placed on adult learning
5.7. Problem 7 - Lack of sustainable partnerships in design and implementation
of adult learning

PART 11
1. Strategic Objectives
1.1. Main principles
1.2. Balancing economic and social priorities in activities and finance
1.3. Monitoring progress and evaluating impact
2. Strategic vision and mission
3. The Strategic Objectives
3.1. Key problems to be addressed
3.2. The strategic objectives
4. The Measures
4.1. Strategic Objective 1 - the increased ability of adults to survive in
the market economy through the application of knowledge and
increased competences
Measure 1: Programmes to increase basic skills
Measure 2: Programmes to upgrade skills
4.2. Strategic Objective 2 - The adoption of a unified policy approach of
government to the integrated development of adult learning
Measure 2.1 - Development of a common policy on adult learning
Measure 2.2 - Creation of a policy implementation framework
Measure 2.3 - Measures for capacity building in the field of adult learning
5.3. Strategic Objective 3 - A systemic approach adopted for the development
of adult learning
Measure 3.1 - Development and implementation of an information,
counselling and career guidance system
Measure 3.2 - Development of an occupational classification system
Measure 3.3 - Development and implementation of an integrated national
qualification system, modular course provision and a system to recognise
and validate competences acquired by adults through non-formal and informal
learning
Measure 3.4 - Development of flexible formal and non-formal adult learning
opportunities with delivery and methodology appropriate to adults where
supply and demand are balanced and equal opportunities respected
Measure 3.5. Development and implementation of a quality assurance system
5.4. Strategic Objective 4 - The creation of a sustainable data, information
and research base on adult learning
Measure 4 - Creation of a sustainable system for data gathering and analysis of
labour market skill trends, training demand and needs
5.5. Strategic Objective 5 - Raising the value of learning and promoting a
learning culture in Kosovo
Measure 5- Organisation of promotional activities to raise awareness of
the value of adult learning
5.6. Strategic Objective 6 - the creation of sustainable partnerships in adult learning
Measure 6.1 - Capacity building of stakeholders
Measure 6.2 - Development of on-going dialogue between stakeholders on
a common approach to adult learning and joint activities
6. Pre-condition and Assumptions
7. Roles and responsibilities
8. Financial Resources
9. Links with other parts of the system in the perspective of lifelong learning
10. Sustainability - Partnerships and maintaining momentum
11. Disseminating Results

Annexes

Annex 1: List of Participants - Workshop 1, Workshop 2 and Strategy Building Workshop


Annex 2:Technical proposal - to be completed
Annex 3: European Quality Indicators of Lifelong learning

A STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT LEARNING IN KOSOVO


FOR THE MEDIUM-TERM FROM 2005 - 2015

PART 1

Introduction

1. A strategy for adult learning

1.1. This document outlines an initial adult learning strategy for Kosovo for the period 2005 to
2015. It provides a justification for the focus on adult learning which is a critically important
for the development of relevant knowledge and competences for sustaining economic growth,
the development and competitiveness of Kosovo enterprises in the market economy and for
employability of job-seekers, and in particular specific population segments that are
disproportionately affected by long-term unemployment and social exclusion. In so doing, the
strategy aims also to contribute to greater social inclusion and poverty alleviation.

1.2. Although human resources is recognised as being important by the Kosovo authorities,
adult learning has not yet become a policy priority of the government and there is no strategy
for its development. This document argues the case for substantial policy intervention in adult
learning in response to the developing market economy, the privatisation process and the rapid
increase in new start- up enterprises. Given the worst employment situation, the largest
proportion of young people relative to the size of the population flowing into the labour market
each year and the highest level of income poverty in South Eastern Europe, employment
intensive growth is critically important for Kosovo’s survival and prosperity in the twenty- first
century. The quality of Kosovo’s human resources will be a determining factor in Kosovo’s
ability to share in the benefits of the global knowledge economy and technology age which is
based on the exploitation of ideas and technology, rather than on the availability of natural
resources or low wages. A decade of repression followed by war, economic collapse, social
dysfunction and large scale migration has had a devastating impact on the level and quality of
the skills of the Kosovo people and on the supply and quality of adult learning provision.

1.3. This document aims to fill an important gap in strategic planning for human resources
development. It analyses the problems, outlining a series of strategic objectives, identifying
principles and support measures for substantially improving the capacity of Kosovo’s citizens
to adapt to the market economy, to remain employable in the new labour market and to build a
more cohesive society. It identifies key areas for the development of a high quality adult
learning system over the next decade. In so doing, it aims to contribute to economic and social
regeneration and progress and the strengthening of democracy. It also provides initial
suggestions for increasing financial resources from the European Union‘s CARDS programme,
through co- finance mechanisms and fiscal incentives for the development of adult learning.

2. Closer integration with the region of South East Europe and the European Union

2.1. Although Kosovo’s political status is unresolved and Kosovo remains under the
international authority of UNMIK, administrative responsibilities are being handed over to the
national authorities and Kosovo’s provisional institutions are taking on greater responsibility
for economic and social reforms including education and training and their implementation.
The development of adult learning is set within the wider perspective of the Stabilisation and
Association process and the fullest possible integration of the Western Balkans into the
political and economic mainstream of Europe and closer integration of Kosovo within the
region. In this context, a parallel development on adult learning is also being made in other
areas of the Western Balkans.

2.2. The strategy is anchored in the frame of reference of the European Social Fund, the main
instrument for implementing the European Union’s Employment Strategy which promotes the
creation of more and better jobs across the Community, an important policy objective given the
level of unemployment in the European Union where 13.5 million people were unemployed in
2002 and 18.5 million if one also included the unemployed in the new Member States. The
European Social Fund gives priority to four pillars: employability (to enable adults and young
job-seekers to acquire competences and knowledge needed in the labour market), adaptability
(to enable businesses and their employees to upgrade and acquire new skills to meet the
changing demands of the economy and to new ways of working), entrepreneurship (to support
the development of small, micro businesses) and equal opportunities (to promote more equal
access to jobs and training for women and to reduce gender segmentation between men and
women in the labour market). These four employment pillars are equally relevant to the
economic and employment challenges that Kosovo faces to-day. The growth and survival of
Kosovo’s growing stock of small businesses is critically important for economic prosperity. In
this connection, the European Union’s Charter for Small Enterprises, which is being adopted
by Kosovo under the auspices of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, provides a useful
development framework.

2.3. At the European Union’s Lisbon Council meeting (March 2000), EU Heads of State
agreed a new strategic goal to make the European Union “the most competitive dynamic,
knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more
and better jobs and greater social cohesion”. Although the impact of the global knowledge
economy and technology developments are only gradually being felt in Kosovo, over the next
decade this will change as Kosovo competes in the open market. Substantial investment in
Kosovo’s human capital through both improvements in initial education and training and in the
effective development of adult learning will be essential. Transforming adult learning, although
a complex and costly process, is an urgent matter. The approach adopted in this strategy
reflects the European Union’s policy framework for developing comprehensive lifelong
learning strategies to reform education and training systems set out in the European
Commission’s Communication, Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality
(2001). This policy framework is structured around six building blocks: a partnership
approach, understanding the needs of the learner, adequate resourcing, facilitating access,
creating a culture of learning and striving for excellence.

3. Stakeholder dialogue

3.1. The approach to adult learning that is adopted in this document is based on dialogue with
the main Kosovo stakeholders (the Ministries of Education, Sport and Technology, Labour and
Social Welfare and Trade and Industry, KTA on privatisation, the social partners through the
Chamber of Commerce (OEK) and the Federation of Trades Unions and civil society
represented by the Kosovo Education Council (KEC) which took place during two workshops
and one strategy planning meeting between October 2002 and December 2003. In addition, the
strategy has been informed by the stock-taking report produced by KEC commissioned by the
European Training Foundation. Working in partnership is fundamental to the successful
implementation of the strategy in Kosovo.

3.2. By ensuring the strategy is firmly rooted in the needs, aspirations and wishes of the
Kosovo people, whilst also aligning these with the integrated economic, employment and
social policies of the European Union, the adult learning strategy proposed strives to meet the
dual aims of promoting the economic and social development of Kosovo within the wider
perspective of future integration with the European Union.

4. Justification for adult learning

4.1. Kosovo at a cross-road

After a decade of economic and social oppression and war, at the beginning of the twenty- first
century the Kosovo authorities face major economic and social challenges as it strives to
restructure and build a competitive market driven economy and a democratic society. Faced
with the imminent closure or privatisation of public or socially-owned companies that will
exacerbate already chronic unemployment levels, safeguarding as many jobs as possible,
creating jobs and developing human resources will be critically important. The challenges are
daunting. With a low employment rate (under 50 %1 ), a substantial grey economy and a high
unemployment rate (57%), employment intensive growth is essential if Kosovo is to provide
employment in the future for the majority of its citizens. With more than half of the population
living in poverty and 12% of them living in extreme poverty2 , getting Kosovo back to work is
vital, but major skills deficits in the adult population and young people entering the labour
market and skill mismatches will put at risk wider efforts to grow the market economy and
build a more cohesive society in the absence of a policy to develop Kosovo’s human resources.

4.2. Need for and scope of adult learning

4.2.1. Kosovo’s main policy thrust in education and training is to tackle reforms of the initial
education and training system. Whilst these reforms are of major importance, their impact will
not begin to impact on higher workforce skills for a long time. In transitional economies adult
learning is important for moving from a situation of economic recovery to economic growth in
the short and medium term. Urgent action is needed to tackle the poor level and quality of
skills of people in the labour market. This includes learning that takes place in formal
institutions and leads to a qualification, non-formal structured learning that takes place in work
that does not usually lead to a qualification and also informal or random learning that takes

1
Data is incomplete. Official statistics show that 270,000 people are employed but the figures exclude those
working in agriculture. More optimistic survey date from the Riinvest Institute for Development Research show
430,000 economically active workers, but workers in the grey economy are included.
2
World Bank, Household Archives, Poverty Assessment Summaries: Kosovo, 2001.
place in work, at home or in the community.

4.2.2. Adult learning includes continuing vocational education and training, second chance or
basic skills learning as well as liberal adult education. The strategy outlined in this document
does not focus on the latter because the main emphasis of the strategy is on employability and
the demand for new knowledge and competences in the market economy. Basic skills are
included because functional illiteracy is a barrier to employment and basic foundation skills
underpin technical competences and traditional basic skills of literacy and numeracy at higher
levels are needed in the global knowledge economy together with a wide range of other generic
basic skills including, for example, communication and process skills related particularly to
information communication technology skills and networking skills, problem solving skills,
entrepreneurship and the ability to apply skills in the work place as well as the competence of
individuals to take responsibility for their own learning. Adult learning also fosters innovation
and creativity, important qualities for business success, and, in parallel, active citizenship.

4.2.3. The universities, despite their potential as providers of adult learning a higher education
levels, are not a main focus of this strategy for several reasons. They do not yet offer advanced
vocational/technical provision, they concentrate primarily on academic learning and full-time
courses rather than on workplace competences and their ethos tends to be characterised by a
“stay away from business” mentality.3 The development of universities and tertiary level
provision generally requires a separate strategy, action plan and financial envelope. It would
involve other development areas such as technology transfer and the commercial exploitation
of innovation. The main focus of this strategy is to build the skill base of Kosovo’s workforce
and enable more equitable access to learning by adults.

5. Analysis of cause and effect of adult learning problems

5.1. Problem 1: Major skills deficits and skills mismatches

5.1.1. Low investment in workforce development by enterprises

Kosovo’s difficult economic situation constrains investment in workforce development: large


employers are faced with privatisation or closure and new small and medium- sized enterprises
are focused on the immediate problems of business survival. Workforce development is not
perceived by employers as a business investment but as a cost and the development of new
skills, the adaptation of the workforce to a the more competitive environment, the need for
higher level basic skills and technology skills are not perceived as being the responsibility of
enterprises but the responsibility of individuals, the education and training system or the
government. Enterprises are reluctant or unable to invest in workforce development because

3
KEC, Adult learning in Kosova - stocktaking report, 2003.
they lack the capacity or the financial means to do so. In addition, in-company training
facilities of socially-owned companies have collapsed the slow development of private training
providers and low capacity means that supply is insufficient and the quality is variable. Donor
investment in management training has been the main driver of raising participation in
learning, and they have provided considerable financial and technical support that is beginning
to bear fruit in areas such as modern management methods. However, opportunities for all
workers including older workers and workers with poor educational attainment levels to have
access to training are severely limited by finance and in-company capacity.

5.1.2. Difficulties sustaining management training and developing skills of small firms

The managerial, technical and innovative capabilities of small businesses are weak and
sustained support is needed. A recent MTI questionnaire revealed that the use of on- line
services is low, despite an upward trend, partly because the services are in their infancy,
internet connections are poor and costs are high, but also because many small businesses find it
difficult to use electronic business techniques and adapt to new technology. Also, the
development of e-commerce is low. Relying on donor support is not a long-term solution for
financing and developing management and skills training for small businesses. Kosovo needs
to develop its own expertise, but current capacity in Kosovo to provide high quality business
training, to carry out skills needs analyses and to supply customised training programmes for
individual companies is not well-developed. There are also no incentives for small businesses
such as training vouchers, training grants or subsidies or tax concessions to encourage
investment in workforce skills.

5.1.3. Legacy of the past - no value placed on learning by society

The period of repression in the 1990s not only had an adverse impact on the supply of learning,
and its distribution across Kosovo, the value placed on learning by society declined, no
learning culture developed, people became deskilled and many disadvantaged people were left
with unsatisfactory levels of foundation skills on which to build new workplace competences.
The collapse of the former system meant that there was no innovation and development and
structured links between vocational training institutions and the business community were not
established.

5.1.4. Large numbers of unskilled job-seekers

Kosovo already suffers chronic unemployment and the situation is expected to deteriorate
further as privatisation bites, enterprises close and others down-size. Major skills deficits
compound the problem of unemployment. Of the 257,505 jobseekers registered in the Kosovo
Office of Employment network in 2002, more than half (56.6%) were unskilled. MLSW
unemployment statistics, broken down by skills and educational attainment levels, show that
employment is much more difficult for unskilled men than for men who are skilled or semi-
skilled and/or have ?? completed high school or university. The unemployment statistics for
women, who make up 44.5% of job-seekers, show that they have difficulty in obtaining
employment irrespective of whether they are unskilled or semi-skilled and their educational
attainment level appears to have little impact on their chances of employment. The statistics
point to the difficulties in obtaining employment generally and to gender imbalances in the
labour market, with semi- skilled and skilled women finding it more difficult to access jobs than
their male counterparts.

5.1.5. Poor motivation and few incentives for learning

Motivating adults to learn is problematic given that there are too few incentives. With few job
opportunities and limited scope for career progression the return on learning is also low and
there are also few incentives to learn. With very limited or zero public or employer financial
support for continuing learning and low wages, many adults, who struggle to support their
families, simply cannot afford to pay. Moreover, many lack the time to do so because they
have to work long hours, despite labour laws. Among young people, there is a high incidence
of drop out from lower secondary school and high numbers leave school before they have
completed upper secondary level schooling. With less than a third of 15-19 year-olds
participating in education and training in Kosovo, the lowest level in the Western Balkans, and
only about 17.3% of these ?? (or 17.3% of the 19/20 cohort?) going on to tertiary level studies,
large numbers of unskilled young people with low educational attainment levels join the
growing numbers of adult job-seekers every year with little prospect of finding employment.
Given the relatively young population of Kosovo, this is a major problem which is further
exacerbated by the demand for a different set of skills and knowledge in the market economy
and the increased demand for higher level basic skills and new technical knowledge. These
young people are also ill-equipped to take responsibility for their own learning or to want to
invest in learning throughout life. The difficult economic and employment situation has also
led to a continuing brain drain as many qualified young people, despite immigration
difficulties, seek employment opportunities outside Kosovo. These factors translate into a low
demand for learning in the population.

5.1.6. Inadequate learning infrastructure

The learning infrastructure in Kosovo is also under-developed, its capacity to offer adult
learning is low and the quality is variable. The former adult education provision, for which
adults usually paid, collapsed during the 1990s as a consequence of the repression, economic
decline, rising unemployment and large-scale emigration. Formal adult learning, for which
MEST and MLSW are responsible, is provided by public institutions including the network of
eight new regional training centres and public and private higher education institutions. With
few exceptions, higher education offers mainly academic courses. Some non-statutory
provision has been developed by local NGOs and private training providers. In respect of non-
formal learning, MEST took over responsibility from UNICEF for a large-scale basic literacy
and numeracy project run by NGOs in 130 centres that aims to provide training for 2,500 for
women and girls by the end of 2004. The eight new regional training centres also work with
non-statutory providers and in 2002 they jointly provided vocational training for 1658
unemployed adults in a wide range of occupations. The insufficient supply of institutions
offering adult learning at the central and local levels has existed for many years and constitutes
a major barrier to increasing participation in learning by job-seekers. Quality is variable and
constrained also by insufficient numbers of teachers and trainers, many of whom are de-
motivated, they earn low wages and there has been a large exodus from teaching. In addition,
there is poor co-ordination of training activities.

5.1.7. Difficulties in the learning process

The Kosovo stakeholders identified two main difficulties - an acute shortage of finance and
inadequate investment in initial and in- service training of managers, teachers and trainers.

5.1.8. Lack of commitment by the State to adult learning

The Stakeholders felt that the limited offer of public adult learning opportunities and slow
development of the private training market stem from a lack of commitment by the government
to the development of adult learning, which appears to be marginalized compared with initial
education and training given the small allocations from state budgets and dependence on donor
funding for continuing vocational training and non-formal adult learning. This lack of
commitment results in the absence of an integrated policy framework, legislation and strategy
for the development of adult learning. Reforms to modernise public initial education and
training are slow to implement and inflexibilities in the system hinder innovation and
development. The lack of commitment by the state to the development of adult learning
constitutes a major problem.

5.1.9. Donor support and longer-term sustainability of adult learning

International donors have been the drivers of adult learning developments in Kosovo and they
have helped establish a better understanding of its importance in underpinning economic
competitiveness, employment growth and social inclusion. Major donor initiatives for small
and medium- sized enterprises, continuing vocational education and training and initial
vocational education and training are being taken forward by the key ministries (MTI, MLSW
and MEST). They are important developments but their longer-term sustainability remains
problematic. In addition, they are not enough to cure major skills deficits, nor will they be
sufficient to solve the mismatch between the supply and demand for skills in the labour market.
Impact of low investment and value given to adult learning and inadequate infrastructure
on skills and participation in training
Þ 56.6% of unemployed unskilled with low educational attainment level
Þ small volume of labour market training
Þ skills not relevant to market economy and poor basic foundation skills
Þ low quality of teaching
Þ lack of skilled human resources able to contribute to solving economic and social
problems and skill mismatches
Þ employers see training as a cost not an investment
Þ low demand for adult learning

5.2. Problem 2 - Uncoordinated approach across relevant ministries

5.2.1. Shared responsibilities

One of the difficulties that hinders a more pro-active approach to the development of adult
learning is that responsibilities are shared across more than one ministry and sometimes these
responsibilities are not clearly defined. The main ministries responsibilities for adult learning
are MEST and MLSW, although MTI and KTA also have an interest in some aspects. MEST ‘s
core responsibilities are the development of the initial education and training system, but it has
a role in non- formal adult learning (see for example the UNICEF basic skills project for
women and girls). Although MEST’s five-year strategy indicates that the education and
training system will be developed on the basis of lifelong learning principles, only a passing
reference is made to the development of non- formal learning in the provision of second chance
opportunities for young people who drop out to return to mainstream education and training
(see for example the project for young Roma and Ashkalia). MLSW is responsible for
continuing vocational training for job-seekers and very disadvantaged people and also for
workers at risk of being made redundant. Linkages between basic skills provision for adults as
a pathway into continuing vocational education and training have not been explored.
5.2.2. Different policy agendas

The Ministry of Trade and Industry has an important remit for business training and small
firms’ development as it supports training for the business community at national and regional
levels and is the lead authority for implementing in Kosovo the European Charter for Small
Enterprises, which outlines a policy framework of ten development areas for small businesses,
including education and training for entrepreneurship, training for managers in small
enterprises, development of quality and certification systems for them and ensuring an
adequate supply of skills adapted to their needs. Yet, the main focus of the MTI is on economic
growth and business development. The Kosova Trust Agency (KTA), which is accountable to
UNMIK, is responsible for the privatisation process that will affect 130,000 people. This has
substantial implications for training, but this falls outside the remit of KTA. Different agendas
of the two main ministries and different priorities of MTI and KTA mean that there is no co-
ordinated, consistent and comprehensive approach to adult learning and no priority given to its
development. In respect of the key ministries, MEST and MLSW, their focus is primarily on
the development of formal learning.

5.2.3. Gaps - developing non-formal, ICT and internet learning

The development of non- formal learning in enterprises or in the community does not appear to
be a policy priority for the two main ministries. It is not clear where responsibility lies for
stimulating the development of non- formal learning, particularly in companies and in the
community, or for expanding flexible and open and distance learning, both formal and non-
formal. The exploitation of information communication technologies and the expansion of
internet learning have an important role to play in opening up learning for adults and offering
them the opportunity to learn at a pace, place and level that fits their needs. This is an
important area of development for the future.

5.2.4. Compartmentalisation, un-coordinated approaches and poor data

Lifelong learning, in particular adult learning, crosses ministerial boundaries, private and
public divides and employment and unemployment divides. Ministry officials need to move
outside specific ministerial compartments and/or mindset if effective adult learning systems are
to be developed. This is difficult in the absence of plans for economic and social development
with an integral human resource development component. Currently, individual ministries are
responsible for only a part of a more comprehensive human resources agenda and the social
and professional responsibility for adult learning are under-developed and the lines of authority
and individual responsibilities are unclear. This impact on the development of an integrated
and comprehensive adult learning policy, results in less optimal co-operation and co-ordination
at different levels and between adult learning institutions on the ground and development gaps.
The development of integrated adult learning policies is also hampered by the poor data and
the lack of information on, for example, skill trends, analysis of learner needs, especially of
disadvantaged segments of the population, and of appropriate learning methodologies for
adults. This contributes to fragmented policies which impact on institutions, on standards for
adult learning not being defined and result in poor coverage.

Problems of an uncoordinated approach


Þ no integrated, comprehensive policy for adult learning
Þ fragmented policies, gaps and compartmentalised approaches
Þ open and distance learning for adults and ICT and internet-based learning
undeveloped?
Þ no economic and social development plan with integral human resources component
Þ professional responsibilities for adult learning underdeveloped and/or unclear
Þ impact on whole system
Þ paucity of data, information and analysis to provide strategic steer
Þ lack of clarity on priorities

5.3. Problem 3 - Lack of systemic approach in developing adult learning

5.3.1. Isolation from international debate and experience on lifelong learning

Kosovo was not able until quite recently to follow international debate on lifelong learning and
has not had sufficient exposure to the positive experience of other countries. This lack of
exposure and the paucity of information and analysis of adult learner demand have contributed
to low awareness of the importance of adult learning in enterprises, who hesitate to invest in
workforce learning, and in the population generally and in government.

5.3.2. Key components of the system are missing

Basic mechanisms and components of an adult learning system are missing. The classification
of occupations has yet to be developed, along with an integrated system for vocational
qualifications, which is planned. The latter not only impacts on certification of formal learning,
but it also means that there is no mechanism to accredit prior and experiential learning
acquired, for example, at work, and modular courses have not yet been developed so that
adults can reduce the time needed to acquire new competences and new qualifications.
Although the development of the vocational qualification framework is the first phase, it needs
to be designed in such a way that it can be adapted in the future to recognising and validating
prior learning and experience. Similarly, a vocational counselling and guidance system for all
has to be developed, although this will be hampered by insufficient information on vocational
training opportunities. There is an urgent need to improve quality of learning, but quality
assurance mechanisms, standards and indicators consistent with international standards have to
be developed and the system implemented. There are no policies for training VET teachers and
trainers, although there are discussions with the Faculty of Education on this matter. The
distribution of adult learning is uneven and insufficient and learning opportunities are not
geared sufficiently to labour market demand. They tend to be supply-driven rather than
demand driven. In general, equal opportunities principles are not respected. The potential of
information communication technologies and internet-based learning for expanding flexible
open and distance formal and non- formal adult learning has not been tapped.

Systemic issues
Þ low awareness among partners of importance of adult learning
Þ no classification of occupations
Þ no integrated system of vocational qualifications
Þ no system to recognise and validate prior learning and experience
Þ no vocational information, guidance and counselling system available to all
Þ no quality assurance system consistent with international standards
Þ no policy on in-service training of vocational education and training teachers/trainers
Þ uneven and unequal distribution of learning
Þ equal opportunities not respected
Þ supply-driven learning opportunities
Þ no development of open learning, ICT and internet-based learning for adults

5.4. Problem 4 - Poor data, information and research base for adult learning

One of the difficulties in Kosovo is the lack of a national data collection system because there
is no central institution to collect relevant data. This means that basic information on, for
example, education attainment and skills levels of employees, workers in the grey economy or
unregistered unemployed is lacking and there is no tracking system of school drop-outs or
numbers of those who participate in non- formal adult learning and little information on who
benefits from adult learning, on outcomes or on who pays. There is also no catalogue of non-
formal learning opportunities and no research base into inter alia labour market trends, demand
for learning, learner needs and characteristics or on motivating adults to learn.
Issues
Þ No national data collection system, central institution for collecting adult learning data
or research base, limited information on learning opportunities
Þ basic information missing
Þ no knowledge of potential learners
Þ young people who drop out not offered alternative progression routes
Þ no sustainable system of analysis of skill trends, labour market change and skill needs
of employees or workers in the grey economy and no capacity to forecast skill trends
Þ no management information system to inform strategic development of adult learning
Þ no research base

5.5. Problem 5 - Inadequate level of financial resources and difficulties in raising additional
finance

The root cause of insufficient funds in Kosovo lies in the collapse of industry and the economic
crisis. However, the severe shortage of finance for the development of adult learning is a major
constraint and over-dependence on donor funding puts at risk longer-term sustainability of
developments sponsored by donors. Kosovo stakeholders expressed concern that the
concentration of funding on initial education and training and small state budgets allocated to
adult learning did not constitute the most optimal use of public funds. This would suggest that
public funding for learning in Kosovo is not considered from the perspective of the lifelong
learning continuum and that, although difficult, no consideration of redistributing public
funding, for example, to disadvantaged adults with low educational levels or who lack basic
foundation skills, has taken place.

Kosovo stakeholders identified a number of difficulties in raising adequate levels of finance for
adult learning. They point to the lack of co-operation of institutions in establishing an adult
learning fund, lack of a legal framework for financial contributions from employers or
individuals and the lack of funding for adult learning from employers and individuals. They
highlight the insufficient budget line for continuing vocational education and training, and that
adult learning has not been properly prioritised in the budget planning process. The lack of co-
financing mechanisms has meant that the disbursement of public funds for adult learning has
also not been optimised. From the perspective of enterprises, despite the low value placed on
investment in their human capital, the difficult economic environment in which they operate
also restricts their capacity to pay.

5.6. Problem 6 - Low value placed on adult learning

A combination of several factors (e.g. poor returns on learning, lack of systemic developments,
un-coordinated approaches and inadequate levels of finance) have contributed to a low value
placed on adult learning. At the same time, there has been a slow transformation of society
which has contributed to a lack of awareness of the importance of adult learning, scepticism
even that learning leads to tangible returns, and hindered the development of a learning culture.
Some of the adverse consequences of this situation are shown in the box below.

Impact of low value placed on adult learning


Þ no national human resources plan and no high profile given to adult learning
Þ enterprises view adult learning as cost, not as an investment
Þ poor returns on investment in learning are disincentives
Þ poor motivation to learn
Þ unequal access to learning for many disadvantaged population groups
Þ development of a democratic society slowed down

5.7. Problem 7 - Lack of sustainable partnerships in design and implementation of adult


learning

5.7.1. Another problem in developing adult learning is that it involves partnership working, not
only among ministries, but also with a wide range of partners at different levels including
national, regional or local and also international. Partnerships for specific purposes will involve
different groupings of actors from ministries, regional and local authorities, the social partners,
NGOs and providers of services including training, counselling and guidance and research. In
Kosovo a partnership culture is not well-developed and sustaining partnerships once they are
established can be problematic. The Stakeholders mentioned fear of financial commitment, fear
of time commitment and fear of human commitment as factors that hindered sustainable
partnerships. In addition, formal (and informal) structures have to be established and the
different priorities or agendas reconciled. Sometimes, there are difficulties because of the
positions of partners or their level of responsibility. Lack of co-operation in strategic planning
stemmed from unclear responsibilities for developing adult learning at ministerial level. Lack
of experience in building and sustaining partnerships at all levels and by all partners is also a
factor.

5.7.2. Although protocols for co-operation have been signed by ministries, in practice this does
not always result in joint measures, integrated policies or agreements being implemented. A
number of partnership activities have been set up, including, for example, the consultative
Tripartite Advisory Council (TAC) on social dialogue that involves equal representation of
employers (OEK), employees (BSPK) and the Provisional Self- Government Institutions
(represented by MLSW), direct co-operation is foreseen on skills monitoring between the
employment observatory (MLSW) and SME observatory (MTI) and the development of an
assessment and certification framework for competences acquired in formal statutory
organisations will be taken forward through the work of the Interim National Skills Board,
whose membership involves representatives from MLSW, MEST and MTI as well as the social
partners. These need to be supported and strengthened. Co-operation between ministries and
partners is also facilitated through donor projects. In the field of adult learning, there are no
sustainable partnerships that engage all the relevant actors in a wider dialogue on policy
developments at the national level and on implementing adult learning developments at the
regional and/or local level, including partnerships between public and private training
providers, between training providers, local authorities, officials responsible for local economic
development and NGOs. For partners to play a full part in adult learning developments, there
must be tangible returns for them from partnership working.

Impact
Þ agreements between partners not implemented
Þ dialogue between stakeholders on a common approach to adult learning not initiated
Þ comprehensive adult learning development not initiated because sustainable structures
have not been established for the co-operation between the state, social partners,
NGOs and other relevant actors
Þ insufficient communication between adult learning providers, and with researchers

The problems outlined above are inter-dependent and a range of integrated responses will be
needed in order to reverse them and to build a high quality learning system for adults that
reflects good practice in lifelong learning. The strategy below sets out a range of strategic
objectives and measures that together will assist Kosovo in designing and implementing action
to build an effective adult learning system over the next decade that will improve workforce
skills and reduce mismatches in the supply and demand for skills. At the same time, it aims to
increase employability of job-seekers and contribute to poverty alleviation. The symbiotic
relationship between human resources development, economic growth, job creation and social
progress means that adult learning supports economic and social development and economic
and social progress leads to more incentives, higher returns on investment in learning and
higher motivation of adults and higher participation in learning. The strategy seeks to
contribute to the creation of the virtuous learning cycle.

PART 11
1 . Strategic Objectives

1.1. Main principles


A number of principles underpin the strategic objectives outlined below. Adult learning as an
essential part of human resources development supports:

Ÿ the economic process of revitalising and restructuring the economy and in particular the
development small and medium- sized enterprises;
Ÿ employment intensive growth, local economic development, and self-employment and the
reduction of reliance on the informal economy;
Ÿ equality of opportunities, greater social inclusion and poverty alleviation;
Ÿ democratic development, a reduction in societal divisions and greater social cohesion;
Ÿ and by extension quality of life improvements, health and social progress.

1.2. Balancing economic and social priorities in activities and finance

The strategic objectives, priorities and measures below seek to achieve a balance between:

Ÿ developing the knowledge and competences of people already employed including


managers of small enterprises to assist in their adaptation to the market economy and to
growing small businesses;
Ÿ job-seekers and people working in the informal economy;
Ÿ specific target disadvantaged groups to enhance their employability and to achieve a more
equitable balance in access to learning;
Ÿ continuing vocational education and training and basic skills provision;
Ÿ increasing the overall participation of adults in learning and more equal access to it and
Ÿ increasing the supply of learning opportunities and improving the quality of learning.

In terms of finance, the proposals seek to balance two principles - efficiency (e.g. increasing
participation in and distribution of learning and increasing outcomes) and equity (i.e. through
ensuring that participation in and the distribution of learning are more equal). Although
Kosovo will continue to rely on financial and technical support from international donors for
some time, particularly the European Union, it is also important that financial planning
addresses longer-term self-sustainability through sharing costs between public funds and the
enterprises and individuals who benefit from learning through the development of co- finance
mechanisms.

1.3. Monitoring progress and evaluating impact

In addition, the strategy emphasises the need to develop a monitoring and evaluation
framework to monitor progress and evaluate impact as well as to review whether the focus of
the strategy and the action plans are meeting the objectives, milestones and targets identified or
whether they have to be adapted in the light of changing circumstances. The monitoring and
evaluation frameworks are intended to be strategic tools for developing adult learning. The use
of reliable baselines and realistic targets and milestones will be necessary.

2. Strategic vision and mission

Adult learning is a panacea for solving complex economic and social problems, but, it plays an
important part, alongside wider economic and social reform measures, to reverse the cycle of
economic decline, chronic unemployment and increasing social inequalities. Access to training
and jobs has to become much more equal and benefit all citizens, not just certain segments.
The strategic vision, mission statement and strategic objectives given below reflect the
principles and balances outlined above for the development of an adult learning infrastructure
responsive to individual learners’ needs and those of the market economy so that people are
able to survive in the new labour market, contribute to its development and success and to
share in the benefits that accrue from greater economic prosperity.

At the strategy planning meeting in December 2003, participants agreed the following vision:

“To build a democratic society able to sustain economic and social progress through
developing human resources, pursuing equal opportunities for all citizens and creating and
supporting a learning society.”

(N.B. Stakeholders could consider replacing the wide human resources by the more focused
“the acquisition of appropriate knowledge and employability skills”.)

In addition, they drew up the following Mission Statement:

“To raise awareness of the value of learning and increase opportunities for all citizens to
participate in continuous learning of high quality that meets the needs of individuals and those
of the labour market through building the infrastructure for adult learning and creating
sustainable partnerships.”

(N.B. Do Stakeholders feel that a specific reference to the market economy is needed or is
labour market enough?)

3. The Strategic Objectives

3.1. Key problems to be addressed

Part I of the strategy justified the focus on adult learning and analysed seven key problems
areas showing how they collectively and individually hindered the acquisition of skills for the
internal market and employment and the development of adult learning provision. These
included:

Ÿ Major skill deficits and skill mismatches


Ÿ Uncoordinated approach across relevant ministries
Ÿ Lack of systemic approach to developing adult learning
Ÿ Poor data, information and research base for adult learning
Ÿ Inadequate level of financial resources
Ÿ Low value given to adult learning
Ÿ Lack of sustainable partnerships in the design and implementation of adult learning.

3.2. The strategic objectives

Six strategic objectives were agreed with the Stakeholders and include:

Ÿ increased ability of adults to survive in the market economy through the application of
knowledge and increased competences;
Ÿ a unified policy approach adopted by government to the development of adult learning;
Ÿ a systemic approach adopted for the implementation of developments in adult learning;
Ÿ a sustainable data, information and research base on adult learning created and operating;
Ÿ value of learning in society increased and a learning culture in Kosovo developing and
Ÿ sustainable partnerships in adult learning created and functioning.

The provision of adequate levels of financial resources for adult learning is about the means of
achieving the strategic objectives listed above. A discussion on issues of funding is given
below, at section 8.

4. The Measures

These strategic objectives will be taken forward through a series of measures which will
require individual action plans. An initial indication of the scope of the measures is given
under each measure below. These are not comprehensive and are provided as a guide for the
development of future action plans or programmes, which will be expected to give details of
the intervention envisaged and finance together with baseline information, targets and
milestones . In addition, action plans should include a list of monitoring and impact evaluation
and an outline of the evaluation framework (including details of timing, scope,
responsibilities).

4.1. Strategic Objective 1 - the increased ability of adults to survive in the market economy
through the application of knowledge and increased competences

This will be taken forward through two separate measures:


Ÿ Measure 1: Programmes to increase basic skills
Ÿ Measure 2: Programmes to upgrade skills

The scope of the activities outlined below takes account of the intention to adopt a systemic
approach to adult learning. What is at stake is to increase the overall level of skills of all
people to, for example, a minimum of level 2 qualification in the first instance, and to shift the
level up to level 3 and beyond. Dividing measures according to beneficiary group (job-seekers,
disadvantaged groups, employees, small businesses) may create administrative burdens at the
delivery level as the system develops if providers have mixed beneficiary groups. Important
information on employment status and skills level of beneficiaries at the start of training and
the learning outcomes and employment destination at the end can be gathered through good
management information systems.

Measure 1.1. Programmes to increase basic skills

These would include general basic skills provision, pre- vocational training and continuing
vocational training to level 2 to address employability skills that would tackle functional
illiteracy and provide adults with second chance opportunities and/or a first and second
vocational training qualification as a foundation for working life. As has been highlighted
above, over 56% of job-seekers are unskilled and have low educational attainment levels. It is
no doubt equally true, despite the absence of statistical information but based on experience in
EU Member States, that substantial numbers of people in work have low educational
attainment levels, are the least likely to find alternative employment if made redundant and the
least likely to be offered training opportunities by their employers. In addition, special
programmes for target groups, such as war veterans, unskilled young people, people with
special learning needs, ethnic minorities (e.g. Roma populations) and people living in isolated
rural areas would be included under this measure together with programmes to develop the
professional competences of teachers and trainers. Specific initiatives to tackle gender
imbalances also need to be included with a particular focus on developing leadership skills for
women.

Measure 1.2. Programmes to upgrade skills

These would include programmes to a level 3 vocational education qualification and above,
customised training programmes for employers/employees, entrepreneurship programmes for
example for managers of small businesses and their employees, members of family businesses
and people wishing to become self-employed. They could also include capacity building
programmes for people involved in local economic and social development initiatives. These
programmes would include employees, people working in the grey economy and job-seekers
and also the target groups listed above and small businesses. Special programmes related to
privatisation, women in business, small business start ups or for specific priority areas (e.g.
business and entrepreneurship skills, technology skills and the use of on-line services, or skills
for commerce) could be developed as well as full-time continuing vocational training courses.
Initiatives to develop the skills of the workforce for sectors defined as priority sectors for the
economic development of Kosovo or because they are labour intensive could also be developed
under this measure. In addition, building the capacity of trainers to use modern teaching
methods, develop methodologies for different kinds of adult learners and to develop
competence in carrying out skill needs analysis and customised programme development could
be included under this measure.

Although the development costs of vocational guidance and other support services (for
example training allowances, transport costs or child care costs) would come under a different
Strategic Objective, the on-going costs might form part of an overall package of training and
support for beneficiaries.

4.2. Strategic Objective 2 - The adoption of a unified policy approach of government to the
integrated development of adult learning

There are three measures for Strategic Objective 2:

Ÿ Measure 2.1 - Development of a common policy on adult learning


Ÿ Measure 2.2 - Creation of a policy implementation framework
Ÿ Measure 2.3 - Measures for capacity building in the field of adult learning

Measure 2.1 - Development of a common policy on adult learning and Measure 2.2 -
Creation of a policy implementation framework

Measures to develop a unified policy on adult learning would include setting up appropriate
cross- ministerial consultative structures to define responsibilities in adult learning, to agree
priorities, to draft policy and legislation. A cross ministerial and stakeholder adult learning
policy group, led perhaps by the Prime Minister’s Office, could be established to take this
agenda forward. The group could be charged with responsibility for drawing up an integrated
policy and the policy implementation framework. In the medium- term, it is anticipated that
economic development plans will be drawn up and that there will be a human resources
development chapter. Developments in adult learning policy should feed into this process.

Measure 2.3 - Measures for capacity building in the field of adult learning

For the new member states, the development of national plans for economic and social
development with an integral component on human resources development was part of the
planning process under the Phare Programme for future access to the European Structural
Funds, in particular the European Social Fund. These together with the development of Joint
Action Plans for the medium-term development of employment priorities were catalysts for
developing strategic planning capability of civil servants and/or their agencies in developing
policies and programmes for human resources development. Although it is too early for this
planning process to begin in Kosovo in the short term, it is anticipated that such a process will
begin in the medium-term. The relative lack of experience of strategic planning capability of
Kosovo officials could be overcome through the exchange of experience with new member
states. Secondly, the absence of an integrated government policy and strategic development
framework for adult learning leaves the complex matter of co-finance in a vacuum. It is
suggested that exchange of experience with EU Member States including new members on
financing adult learning would be useful. Similar exchanges of experience in systemic
developments in adult learning should also be facilitated.

5.3. Strategic Objective 3 - A systemic approach adopted for the development of adult
learning

Five measures are proposed for Strategic Objective 4. These are:

Ÿ Measure 3.1 - Development and implementation of an information, counselling and career


guidance system
Ÿ Measure 3.2 - Development of an occupational classification system
Ÿ Measure 3.3 - Development and implementation of an integrated national qualification
system, modular course provision and a system to recognise and validate competences
acquired by adults through non-formal and informal learning
Ÿ Measure 3.4 - Development of flexible formal and non-formal adult learning opportunities
with delivery and methodology appropriate to adults where supply and demand are
balanced and equal opportunities respected
Ÿ Measure 3.5. Development and implementation of a quality assurance system

Measure 3.1 Development and implementation of an information, counselling and career


guidance system

This measure would include inter alia the design of the system, its introduction through the
Employment Offices who would network with employers and training providers (via
counsellors and electronic means), the development of professional counselling qualifications
(if these are not yet available in Kosovo), an information data base (of learning opportunities
and on the labour market) and on-line services and the professional development of counselling
and guidance specialists. Services that are developed need also to be tailored to the needs of
specific learners. This development is foreseen as part of the five-year strategy of the MLSW.
It is suggested that given the focus on counselling and guidance under the Bruges-Copenhagen
process links to EU developments in this field are established to enable the exchange of good
practice (see for example the work of the European Counselling and Guidance Working
Group).

Measure 3.2 - Development of an occupational classification system

This is also in the five-year strategic plan of the MLSW and study visits have already been
undertaken as a preliminary information gathering exercise. This measure will support the
development of the occupational classification system and the updating of professionals in its
use.

Measure 3.3 - Development and implementation of an integrated national qualification system,


modular course provision and a system to recognise and validate competences acquired by
adults through non-formal and informal learning

Steps have already been taken to set up an Interim National Skills Board in Kosovo with
membership from the three key ministries (MEST, MLSW and MTI) and the social partners
(the Federation of Kosova Trade Unions and the Kosova Chamber of Commerce) as a first step
in the creation of a permanent national authority to assure quality and standards for vocational
education and training in Kosovo. The INSB will also be supported by Vocational Standards
Committees (made up of experts, employers and trades people) with the remit to provide
technical assessment of vocational curricula, vocational teachers and trainers and vocational
institutions set against the standards of other EU countries. This measure will support the work
of the INSB and the Vocational Standards Committees and the permanent bodies that will be
established in the future in the certification of vocational courses delivered by public providers,
certification of the competences of vocational teachers and trainers and the establishment and
maintenance of a register of accredited training providers. In addition, it will build on work
already started in Kosovo on the development of vocational curricula and modular course
provision.

Over the ten-year period of the strategy, a system to accredit the competences that adults have
acquired through non- formal and informal learning would be developed so that these
competences can also be recognised and validated. The measure will, therefore, promote the
exchange of experience and good practice in this field with EU member states including the
new members, especially in respect of the experience and outcomes of the Bruges process to
develop a European-wide system to recognise vocational qualifications. Whilst the current
focus of the Kosovo authorities is on developing formal public provision rather than
developments in the private training market for adults, the latter is expected to grow and it is
important, therefore, that in due course, Kosovo considers widening the remit of the INSB (or
its successor institution) to include certification of relevant private training provision.

Measure 3.4 - Development of flexible formal and non-formal adult learning opportunities with
delivery and methodology appropriate to adults where supply and demand are balanced and
equal opportunities mainstreamed

Measure 3.4 is about increasing the supply and ensuring the quality of a wide range of flexible
learning opportunities for adults in formal institutions, in enterprises and in the community.
With technology advances, the expansion of open, flexible and internet learning will develop in
Kosovo during the period of the strategy. This measure could support in addition to formal
vocational education and training the development of open learning centres in public
institutions, enterprises and in community facilities and mobile learning units for isolated rural
locations. The measure would cover set up costs, including physical infrastructure and
equipment costs, the development of learning materials and the professional updating of
teachers and trainers to manage and develop open learning centres. In addition, the measure
could support opportunities for the exchange of experience and good practice in these
developments.

These developments will need to take into account the need to improve the physical resources
(buildings, equipment and learning materials), development of methodologies suitable for
different kinds of adult learners, efforts to mainstream equal opportunities and to balance
supply-side considerations with the needs of individual learners. In this context, the continuing
professional updating of managers, teachers and trainers and researches could be supported.

Measure 3.5. Development and implementation of a quality assurance system

Some aspects of quality are being addressed in for example vocational education and training
through the assessment processes of the INSB that covers inputs and outputs (e.g. certification
of competences, accreditation of institutions). In addition, other areas could be included linked
to implementing lifelong learning principles: increasing participation of under-represented
adults, improved relevance of skills for the market economy/global knowledge
economy/technical age, in-service teacher-trainer development, universal access to high quality
information, counselling and guidance, development of systems to recognise outcomes from
non- formal or informal learning and increased ability of individuals to take responsibility for
their own learning and partnership working. The measure would support the development of a
set of quality indicators for adult/lifelong learning and opportunities to share good practice
with Member States in implementing quality assurance systems. The work of the European
Quality Working Group may be a useful reference point (see Annex 3 which list 15 quality
indicators for lifelong learning).

5.4. Strategic Objective 4 - The creation of a sustainable data, information and research base
on adult learning

Measure 4 - Creation of a sustainable system for data gathering and analysis of labour market
skill trends, training demand and needs

This measure covers action to set up a national data collection system on adult learners and a
research base that would carry out labour market analyses, skill needs analyses of economic
sectors or specific groups of learners (e.g. target groups such as people with disabilities, ethnic
minorities, people living in isolated rural areas, people working the grey economy, war
veterans) and research into issues affecting participation and motivation. The capacity to
forecast skill needs will also be developed. The measure will support the development and
introduction of management information systems.

5.5. Strategic Objective 5 - Raising the value of learning and promoting a learning culture in
Kosovo

Measure 5- Organisation of promotional activities to raise awareness of the value of adult


learning

An increase in the value placed on learning by adults is expected to stem from improved inputs
and outputs of learning and from more attractive learning environments (see the measures for
Strategic Objective 4). Measure 5 supports promotional activities and the production of
promotional materials to increase awareness of adult learning, of the potential returns on
investment in learning and to raise its value among all groups. Envisaged here are activities
such as learning festivals, learning campaigns in economic sectors to encourage and to reward
learning, mass media campaigns to stimulate learning through demonstrating the return on
learning.

5.6. Strategic Objective 6 - the creation of sustainable partnerships in adult learning

Two measures support the creation of sustainable partnerships.

Measure 6.1 - Capacity building of stakeholders

This measure supports initiatives (e.g. workshops, joint activities) to develop capacity of
stakeholders (e.g. ministry officials, regional and local authorities, Employment Office
officials, social partners, NGOs, researchers, providers of training and counselling and
guidance services, bodies responsible for local economic development initiatives) to strengthen
partnership working in adult learning at all levels.

Measure 6.2 - Development of on-going dialogue between stakeholders on a common


approach to adult learning and joint activities

Measure 6 supports the provision of technical and administrative support for key partnerships
to operate effectively.

6. Pre-condition and Assumptions

6.1. A pre-condition for the development of adult learning is the willingness of the
stakeholders to participate at all levels, national, regional and local and at the level of South
Eastern Europe and the European Union. Partnerships are pivotal to the development of adult
learning as they can provide leadership, initiative and commitment to reforms and a forum for
pooling ideas, expertise, experience as well as finance.

6.2. In addition to this pre-condition, certain assumptions have been made in terms of
implementing this adult learning strategy. These include:

Ÿ a commitment to positive change in society


Ÿ political stability
Ÿ formal education system develops in a lifelong learning perspective
Ÿ sastisfactory attendance
Ÿ financial resources for adult learning are increased

7. Roles and responsibilities - for discussion with ALST members

Government UNMIK - KTA Stakeholders:


MEST Social Partners - OEK/BSPK
MLSW EU - ETF NGOs
MTI Regional/local government

Providers:
Formal public institutions = formal learning leading to qualification
For profit and not- for-profit private training providers (NGOs) = non-formal learning
8. Financial Resources

8.1. Indicative Budgets for Adult Learning based on multiple sources - 2005-2015, 2005-2009
and 2010-2015

2005-2015 Euro
EU Funding - CARDS Adult Learning Project
State contribution - 25%
Private contributions (enterprises/individuals) - 25%
Other donor funds - 25%
Total Indicative Budget

2005-2010 Euro
EU Funding - CARDS Adult Learning Project
State contribution -
Private contributions (enterprises/individuals) -
Other donor funds -
Total Indicative Budget

2010-2015 Euro
EU Funding - CARDS Adult Learning Project
State contribution -
Private contributions (enterprises/individuals) -
Other donor funds -
Total Indicative Budget

N.B. The indicative budgets assumes lower absorption capability in the first five- year period
and the lower capacity to raise public, private and donor funds. The indicative financial
package also takes into account progress on the development of co-finance mechanisms during
the first five- year period.

8.2. Decisions will need to be taken on the breakdown of the budgets for each measure. This
cannot be done at this stage and will need to be based on detailed programming with funding
details and targets.

8.3. Whilst it is reasonable to assume that there will be an increase in financial resources from
a variety of sources for adult learning in Kosovo during the 10 year period of the strategy, key
questions remain on how to increase substantially funding for adult learning in the short term
and how to move from dependency on donor funding towards greater self-sufficiency and long
-term sustainability of financial resources for adult learning. Kosovo is not alone in grappling
with this problem. Sustainable finance for adult learning will need further investigation at
different phases of development. It is recommended that technical support be provided to
enable the Kosovo authorities to consider in depth the raft of technical issues on funding
lifelong learning. The international literature on lifelong learning is quite clear that lifelong
learning, and as a central part of that, adult learning, will require substantial additional
investment in the twenty- first century by governments, enterprises, individuals and
communities. The public purse cannot meet all the costs and it is fair that the burden is shared
by those who benefit and that the basis for sharing the costs takes into account the return on
investment to enterprises and/or individuals and capacity to pay. Financial mechanisms for
learning also need to take account of efficiency and equity and they need to be transparent.

8.4. Consideration will need to be given to a variety of co-finance mechanisms for adult
learning including fiscal measures (for example tax incentives), income contingent repayment
loans, payroll levies, voucher schemes, individual learning accounts. There are several factors
to take into account. In the perspective of lifelong learning, the lifelong continuum has to be
considered in the allocation of public funds and not just in terms of increasing private
contributions. Factors such as returns on investment and capacity to pay are important in
allocating public funds. Decisions on initial and adult learning need to be taken together, not
separately. For example, in the future, Kosovo might be able to and wish to fund up to a level 3
qualification (considered to be the minimum needed for the knowledge economy) for all its
citizens, irrespective of age, but tertiary level education or training would be financed by
individuals (via, for example income contingent loans) because of the anticipated higher
returns to individuals on investment at tertiary level.

8.5. In terms of public funding for adult learning, the general consensus among OECD
countries is that governments normally target public funding on specific government priorities
(for example, on particular sectors, specific skills, or specific groups including small firms and
disadvantaged population segments). In addition, different ministerial budgets can be pooled
(in, for example, schemes for job-seekers where the costs of training are covered by ministries
of education and the subsistence costs are covered by ministries of labour out of social
benefits). These depend on specificities of line ministry responsibilities and budget lines.
Schemes that pool different ministerial budgets are not straight forward and can give rise to
tensions. For them to succeed, they need to balance different ministerial policy priorities (e.g.
education objectives and improving skills for people to return to the labour market which can
conflict).

8.6. Employers have been the main drivers of increasing participation in adult learning, partly
because they recognise that investment in their workforce can provide high returns, for
example, in increases in production and profitability and/or efficiency gains. In the global
knowledge economy, companies that succeed are those that invest heavily in their human
capital. Building this culture in Kosovo will take time, but it is essential for longer-term
economic success. Employers and shareholders need to be see an economic return on their
investment. Similarly, for individual employees, there needs also to be a visible return on
investment (such as increased responsibilities, career progression and not just increased
wages). Incentives such as employer sponsorship are important in motivating people to learn.
However, employers tend to invest in those employees who are likely to offer the biggest
returns (e.g. the higher skilled, knowledge workers) and less in older workers with low
educational attainment levels and there are also wide variations in investment at the sector
level. So, the distribution of workforce learning sponsored by employers can be uneven and
unequal.

8.7. At the level of the individual there are two direct costs - direct training costs and
subsistence costs if adult learners lose income during training - and there is a third cost of the
time to learn. Direct costs for training (for companies and individuals) can be supported by tax
concessions or new schemes such as individual learning accounts. Entitlements or agreements
on time to learn for employees often form part of social agreements and form part of
negotiations on wages and conditions of work. They have led to innovative schemes to support
workers who need leave to participate in learning. In Germany, for example, one scheme
allows individual employees to bank overtime worked against time off for learning. A key
issue in co-finance arrangements is to achieve a balance between increasing overall levels of
participation in learning with ensuring that under-represented populations, who are often those
who need learning most, also have equal access to it.

9. Links with other parts of the system in the perspective of lifelong learning

The strategy for the development of adult learning does not foresee the development of a
separate adult learning system but a single continuous and integrated learning system
extending beyond initial education and training that provides more diverse and appropriate
learning opportunities for adults. Ensuring good connections between the initial system and
adult learning is important. Recognising and validating the competences and knowledge of
adults acquired outside formal learning needs to be undertaken in relation to national standards
and qualification frameworks that apply to young people and adults alike. Linkages between
counselling and guidance for young people entering the labour market and for adults already in
the labour market are also important. Rigid definitions between formal and non-formal learning
settings will begin to blur as flexible learning opportunities for adults are developed in
enterprises and in the community and through partnerships between formal public providers,
private providers, employers and in-company tutors and civil society organisations.

The adult learning strategy proposed above builds on reforms that are planned for initial
education and training. In particular, developments of tertiary level studies to incorporate more
applied science and technology courses and advanced sub-degree technical courses linked to
the development of new semi-professional occupations (especially in medical, health and
environmental fields) that exist or are emerging in the labour market will be important. These
would provide a more diversified range of options linked to employment growth sectors for
young people and adults with appropriate general and vocational qualifications. However, the
delivery arrangements (e.g. modular courses, evening courses, distance learning courses) are
likely to be different for adults. The potential for the University of Pristina to develop
professional in-service training for VET teachers and trainers has been commented upon
above. This might also be extended more generally to the development of teachers and trainers
of adults. In addition, the University might also develop a research base in adult learning.
Unskilled young people who drop out of schooling early form a high proportion of the
unemployed. Good co-operation between initial and adult learning providers will be useful for
developing flexible, appropriate second chance opportunities for them to acquire basic and
technical skills and to compensate for earlier failure at school. In addition, the process of
developing an integrated system in initial education and training will need to be extended to
developments in adult learning in order to support social cohesion goals.

10. Sustainability - Partnerships and maintaining momentum

The long-term sustainability of developments in adult learning are dependent on raising the
policy priority of adult learning, on leadership from government and sustainable partnership
working. Given the complex nature of the challenges, maintaining the momentum of change
will be important. Continuing dialogue with counterparts in other EU Member States,
particularly on processes rather than on models, will help to reduce the time needed to build
local capacity, develop and implement reforms and will provide a necessary stimulus.

11. Disseminating results

In the interest of increasing public awareness of the importance of adult learning and the real
(or potential) returns on learning, Stakeholders are encouraged to develop a dissemination
action plan so that results of implementing the strategy measures and achieving progress in the
strategic objectives can be widely disseminated.

Annexes

Annex 1: List of Participants - Workshop 1, Workshop 2 and Strategy Building Workshop -


Vedat to include

Annex 2: Technical proposal - to be completed

Annex 3: European Commission, European Report on Quality Indicators of Lifelong


learning, Brussels, June 2002.
15 Lifelong learning quality indicators are discussed in the above report and include:

A: Skills, Competences and Attitudes


ð Literacy
ð Numeracy
ð New skills for learning society
ð Learning- to learn skills

B: Access and Participation


ð Access to lifelong learning
ð Participation in lifelong learning

C. Resources for lifelong learning


ð Investment in lifelong learning
ð Educators and learning
ð ICT in learning

D: Strategies and Systems


ð Strategies for lifelong learning
ð Coherence of supply
ð Guidance and counselling
ð Accreditation and certification
ð Quality assurance