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# Coupled-Field Guide | Chapter 3.

## 3.5.1. Problem Description

This example illustrates a transient induction heating problem. The problem demonstrates the use of the
ANSYS Multi-field solver using an electromagnetic harmonic analysis stagger and a time-transient heat
transfer stagger. A similar problem using APDL command macros to perform the solution staggering is
shown in Example Induction-heating Analysis Using Physics Environments. Please refer to it for a
description of the problem. A summary is given below along with details on using the ANSYS Multi-
field solver for this application.

A simplified geometry considers only a finite length strip of the long billet, essentially reducing the
problem to a one-dimensional study as shown in the following figure.

## Figure 3.26 Axisymmetric 1-D Slice of the Induction Heating Domain

PLANE53 elements model the electromagnetic field solution. Boundary conditions and loads are shown
in the following figure.

## Figure 3.27 Nominal Electromagnetic Physics Boundary Conditions

PLANE55 elements model the thermal problem. Radiation at the outer billet surface is modeled using the
Radiosity Solver, assuming radiation to the open domain at 25° Celsius. Boundary conditions are shown
in the following figure.

## Figure 3.28 Nominal Thermal Physics Boundary Conditions

The following figure illustrates the ANSYS Multi-field solver solution sequencing for this problem.

Figure 3.29 ANSYS Multi-field solver Flow Chart for Induction Heating
The electromagnetic analysis is defined as field number 1 (MFELEM) with element types 1 and 2. The
thermal analysis is defined as field number 2 (MFELEM) with element type 4. The stagger order is field
1 followed by field 2 (MFORDER). The final solution time is defined (MFTIME) as well as the stagger
loop time increment (MFDTIME). The electromagnetic analysis options for the harmonic analysis are
defined for field 1 and written to a file (MFCMMAND). The thermal analysis options for a transient
analysis are defined for field 2 and written to a file (MFCMMAND). The thermal analysis includes auto
time-stepping within the stagger time loop. Volumetric load transfer is defined for two variables. First,
the heat generation is passed from field 1 (electromagnetic) to field 2 (thermal). Second, the temperatures
from the thermal solution (field 2) are passed to the electromagnetic field (field 1) so that temperature
dependent properties may be evaluated. Heat generation loads and temperatures are passed at the
sychronization time points defined at the stagger loop time increments (MFDTIME).

3.5.2. Results

The following figures show the temperature of the surface and the centerline over time and a temperature
profile after 3 seconds.

## Figure 3.31 Temperature Profile at 3 Seconds

3.5.3. Command Listing

The command listing below demonstrates the problem input. Text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is
a comment.

/batch,list
/title, Induction heating of a solid cylinder billet
/prep7
shpp,off
/com,
/com,

## row=.015 ! outer radius of workpiece

ric=.0175 ! inner radius of coil
roc=.0200 ! outer radius of coil
ro=.05 ! outer radius of model
t=.001 ! model thickness

## freq=150000 ! frequency (Hz.)

pi=4*atan(1) ! pi
cond=.392e7 ! maximum conductivity
muzero=4e-7*pi ! free-space permeability
mur=200 ! maximum relative permeability
skind=sqrt(1/(pi*freq*cond*muzero*mur)) ! skin depth

## ftime=3 ! final time

tinc=.05 ! time increment for harmonic analysis
time=0 ! initialize time
delt=.01 ! maximum delta time step

! Electromagnetic model
et,1,53,,,1 ! PLANE53, axisymmetric, AZ dof
et,2,53,,,1

## emunit,mks ! set magnetic units

mp,murx,1,1 ! air relative permeability
mp,murx,3,1 ! coil relative permeability
mptemp,1,25.5,160,291.5,477.6,635,698 ! temps for relative permeability
mptemp,7,709,720.3,742,761,1000
mpdata,murx,2,1,200,190,182,161,135,104 ! steel relative permeability
mpdata,murx,2,7,84,35,17,1,1
mptemp
mptemp,1,0,125,250,375,500,625 ! temps for resistivity
mptemp,7,750,875,1000
mpdata,rsvx,2,1,.184e-6,.272e-6,.384e-6,.512e-6,.656e-6,.824e-6
mpdata,rsvx,2,7,1.032e-6,1.152e-6,1.2e-6 ! steel resistivity

mptemp
mptemp,1,0,730,930,1000 ! temps for conductivity
mpdata,kxx,2,1,60.64,29.5,28,28
mptemp ! temps for enthalpy
mptemp,1,0,27,127,327,527,727
mptemp,7,765,765.001,927
mpdata,enth,2,1,0,91609056,453285756,1.2748e9,2.2519e9,3.3396e9
mpdata,enth,2,7,3.548547e9,3.548556e9,4.3520e9
mp,emis,2,.68 ! emissivity

rectng,0,row,0,t ! billet
rectng,row,ric,0,t ! air-gap
rectng,ric,roc,0,t ! coil
rectng,roc,ro,0,t ! outer air
aglue,all
numcmp,area
ksel,s,loc,x,row ! select keypoints at outer radius of workpiece
kesize,all,skind/2 ! set meshing size to 1/2 skin depth
ksel,s,loc,x,0 ! select keypoints at center
kesize,all,40*skind ! set meshing size
lsel,s,loc,y,t/2 ! select vertical lines
lesize,all,,,1 ! set 1 division through thickness
lsel,all

asel,s,area,,1
aatt,2,1,1 ! set attributes for billet region
asel,s,area,,3
aatt,3,1,2 ! set attributes for coil region
asel,s,area,,2,4,2
aatt,1,1,2 ! set attributes for air region
asel,all
mshape,0,2d
mshk,1
amesh,1 ! mesh billet area
lsel,s,loc,y,0
lsel,a,loc,y,t
lsel,u,loc,x,row/2
lesize,all,.001
lsel,all
amesh,all ! mesh remaining areas
nsel,s,loc,x
d,all,az,0 ! apply flux-normal b.c.
nsel,all
esel,s,mat,,3
bfe,all,js,,,,15e6 ! apply current density to coil
alls

! Thermal model
et,4,55,,,1 ! PLANE55 thermal element, axisymmetric

agen,2,1,,,,,,,1
aatt,2,1,4
ksel,s,loc,x,row ! select keypoints at outer radius of workpiece
kesize,all,skind/2 ! set meshing size to 1/2 skin depth
ksel,s,loc,x,0 ! select keypoints at center
kesize,all,40*skind ! set meshing size
lsel,s,loc,y,t/2 ! select vertical lines
lesize,all,,,1 ! set 1 division through thickness
lsel,all
mshape,0,2d
mshk,1
amesh,5
asel,,,,5
allsel,below,area
nsel,r,loc,x,row
alls
spctemp,1,25 ! Space temperature
v2dopt,1
stef,5.67e-8 ! Stefan-Boltzman constant
esel,s,mat,,2 ! select billet material
bfe,all,fvin,,1 ! define volumetric interface
finish

/solu
mfan,on ! Activate ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis
mfel,1,1,2 ! Field #1 ET;s, Emag
mfel,2,4 ! Field #2 ET's, Thermal
mfor,1,2 ! Field solution order
mfti,ftime ! Final time
mfdt,tinc ! Stagger time increment
mfco,all,1e-3 ! Convergence criteria

## antyp,harm ! Emag analysis options

harfrq,150000
outres,all,all
tunif,100
mfcm,1, ! Write Emag analysis options
mfclear,solu ! Clear analysis options

## antype,trans ! Thermal analysis options

toffst,273
tunif,100 ! initial uniform temperature
trnopt,full
autos,on ! auto time-stepping
deltim,.01,.005,.01,on ! time step control
mfcm,2, ! Write Thermal analysis options

## mfvo,1,1,hgen,2 ! Transfer hgen from Emag to Thermal

mfvo,1,2,temp,1 ! Transfer Temp from Thermal to Emag
solve
save
finish
/post26
file,field2,rth
esel,s,type,,4
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,x,row ! get node at outer radius
nsel,r,loc,y,0
*get,nor,node,,num,min
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,x,0
nsel,r,loc,y,0 ! get node at centerline
*get,nir,node,,num,min