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This example illustrates a transient induction heating problem. The problem demonstrates the use of the

ANSYS Multi-field solver using an electromagnetic harmonic analysis stagger and a time-transient heat

transfer stagger. A similar problem using APDL command macros to perform the solution staggering is

shown in Example Induction-heating Analysis Using Physics Environments. Please refer to it for a

description of the problem. A summary is given below along with details on using the ANSYS Multi-

field solver for this application.

A simplified geometry considers only a finite length strip of the long billet, essentially reducing the

problem to a one-dimensional study as shown in the following figure.

PLANE53 elements model the electromagnetic field solution. Boundary conditions and loads are shown

in the following figure.

PLANE55 elements model the thermal problem. Radiation at the outer billet surface is modeled using the

Radiosity Solver, assuming radiation to the open domain at 25° Celsius. Boundary conditions are shown

in the following figure.

The following figure illustrates the ANSYS Multi-field solver solution sequencing for this problem.

Figure 3.29 ANSYS Multi-field solver Flow Chart for Induction Heating

The electromagnetic analysis is defined as field number 1 (MFELEM) with element types 1 and 2. The

thermal analysis is defined as field number 2 (MFELEM) with element type 4. The stagger order is field

1 followed by field 2 (MFORDER). The final solution time is defined (MFTIME) as well as the stagger

loop time increment (MFDTIME). The electromagnetic analysis options for the harmonic analysis are

defined for field 1 and written to a file (MFCMMAND). The thermal analysis options for a transient

analysis are defined for field 2 and written to a file (MFCMMAND). The thermal analysis includes auto

time-stepping within the stagger time loop. Volumetric load transfer is defined for two variables. First,

the heat generation is passed from field 1 (electromagnetic) to field 2 (thermal). Second, the temperatures

from the thermal solution (field 2) are passed to the electromagnetic field (field 1) so that temperature

dependent properties may be evaluated. Heat generation loads and temperatures are passed at the

sychronization time points defined at the stagger loop time increments (MFDTIME).

3.5.2. Results

The following figures show the temperature of the surface and the centerline over time and a temperature

profile after 3 seconds.

3.5.3. Command Listing

The command listing below demonstrates the problem input. Text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is

a comment.

/batch,list

/title, Induction heating of a solid cylinder billet

/prep7

shpp,off

/com,

/com,

ric=.0175 ! inner radius of coil

roc=.0200 ! outer radius of coil

ro=.05 ! outer radius of model

t=.001 ! model thickness

pi=4*atan(1) ! pi

cond=.392e7 ! maximum conductivity

muzero=4e-7*pi ! free-space permeability

mur=200 ! maximum relative permeability

skind=sqrt(1/(pi*freq*cond*muzero*mur)) ! skin depth

tinc=.05 ! time increment for harmonic analysis

time=0 ! initialize time

delt=.01 ! maximum delta time step

! Electromagnetic model

et,1,53,,,1 ! PLANE53, axisymmetric, AZ dof

et,2,53,,,1

mp,murx,1,1 ! air relative permeability

mp,murx,3,1 ! coil relative permeability

mptemp,1,25.5,160,291.5,477.6,635,698 ! temps for relative permeability

mptemp,7,709,720.3,742,761,1000

mpdata,murx,2,1,200,190,182,161,135,104 ! steel relative permeability

mpdata,murx,2,7,84,35,17,1,1

mptemp

mptemp,1,0,125,250,375,500,625 ! temps for resistivity

mptemp,7,750,875,1000

mpdata,rsvx,2,1,.184e-6,.272e-6,.384e-6,.512e-6,.656e-6,.824e-6

mpdata,rsvx,2,7,1.032e-6,1.152e-6,1.2e-6 ! steel resistivity

mptemp

mptemp,1,0,730,930,1000 ! temps for conductivity

mpdata,kxx,2,1,60.64,29.5,28,28

mptemp ! temps for enthalpy

mptemp,1,0,27,127,327,527,727

mptemp,7,765,765.001,927

mpdata,enth,2,1,0,91609056,453285756,1.2748e9,2.2519e9,3.3396e9

mpdata,enth,2,7,3.548547e9,3.548556e9,4.3520e9

mp,emis,2,.68 ! emissivity

rectng,0,row,0,t ! billet

rectng,row,ric,0,t ! air-gap

rectng,ric,roc,0,t ! coil

rectng,roc,ro,0,t ! outer air

aglue,all

numcmp,area

ksel,s,loc,x,row ! select keypoints at outer radius of workpiece

kesize,all,skind/2 ! set meshing size to 1/2 skin depth

ksel,s,loc,x,0 ! select keypoints at center

kesize,all,40*skind ! set meshing size

lsel,s,loc,y,t/2 ! select vertical lines

lesize,all,,,1 ! set 1 division through thickness

lsel,all

asel,s,area,,1

aatt,2,1,1 ! set attributes for billet region

asel,s,area,,3

aatt,3,1,2 ! set attributes for coil region

asel,s,area,,2,4,2

aatt,1,1,2 ! set attributes for air region

asel,all

mshape,0,2d

mshk,1

amesh,1 ! mesh billet area

lsel,s,loc,y,0

lsel,a,loc,y,t

lsel,u,loc,x,row/2

lesize,all,.001

lsel,all

amesh,all ! mesh remaining areas

nsel,s,loc,x

d,all,az,0 ! apply flux-normal b.c.

nsel,all

esel,s,mat,,3

bfe,all,js,,,,15e6 ! apply current density to coil

alls

! Thermal model

et,4,55,,,1 ! PLANE55 thermal element, axisymmetric

agen,2,1,,,,,,,1

aatt,2,1,4

ksel,s,loc,x,row ! select keypoints at outer radius of workpiece

kesize,all,skind/2 ! set meshing size to 1/2 skin depth

ksel,s,loc,x,0 ! select keypoints at center

kesize,all,40*skind ! set meshing size

lsel,s,loc,y,t/2 ! select vertical lines

lesize,all,,,1 ! set 1 division through thickness

lsel,all

mshape,0,2d

mshk,1

amesh,5

asel,,,,5

allsel,below,area

nsel,r,loc,x,row

sf,all,rdsf,0.68,1 ! Radiation

alls

spctemp,1,25 ! Space temperature

v2dopt,1

radopt,,0.01

stef,5.67e-8 ! Stefan-Boltzman constant

esel,s,mat,,2 ! select billet material

bfe,all,fvin,,1 ! define volumetric interface

finish

/solu

mfan,on ! Activate ANSYS Multi-field solver analysis

mfel,1,1,2 ! Field #1 ET;s, Emag

mfel,2,4 ! Field #2 ET's, Thermal

mfor,1,2 ! Field solution order

mfti,ftime ! Final time

mfdt,tinc ! Stagger time increment

mfco,all,1e-3 ! Convergence criteria

harfrq,150000

outres,all,all

tunif,100

mfcm,1, ! Write Emag analysis options

mfclear,solu ! Clear analysis options

toffst,273

tunif,100 ! initial uniform temperature

kbc,1 ! step loads

trnopt,full

autos,on ! auto time-stepping

deltim,.01,.005,.01,on ! time step control

mfcm,2, ! Write Thermal analysis options

mfvo,1,2,temp,1 ! Transfer Temp from Thermal to Emag

solve

save

finish

/post26

file,field2,rth

esel,s,type,,4

nsle,s

nsel,r,loc,x,row ! get node at outer radius

nsel,r,loc,y,0

*get,nor,node,,num,min

nsle,s

nsel,r,loc,x,0

nsel,r,loc,y,0 ! get node at centerline

*get,nir,node,,num,min

nsol,2,nor,temp,,outerR ! Outer radius

nsol,3,nir,temp,,inner ! Inner radius (centerline)

/axlab,y,Temperature

plvar,2,3 ! plot temperature

prvar,2,3

finish

/post1

file,field2,rth

set,last ! Solution at 3 seconds

esel,s,type,,4 ! select thermal elements

plns,temp ! plot temperature

finish

Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

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