0 views

Uploaded by Murali

4e

- The Problem of Algebra Instruction
- 13093790-AF-Booklist
- Real.numbers
- Math May 2005 Exam C4
- middle school syllabus - moynihan
- inverse operations lesson plan
- 8 mathematics day 1-2 lesson overview on calendar unit 2
- equals lesson plan template
- basic plan-asma shedewa
- nm6sb026
- 18681858 Math o Level Solution of Quadratic Equation
- Geometry Proof Packet Chapter 4_on Your Own
- CMI Ugmath2012
- Framework of the Syllabus
- Algebra Classified
- 50266-26129-IIT JEE Maths Sample Paper-2
- lesson plan
- Numerical Analytical Computational Mechanics Analysis 1420093568
- 9709_s10_qp_32
- 1291708072 Topper Sureshotsummativeassesment Classix-sample 10

You are on page 1of 6

Olympiad Corner

Functional Equations

The Fifth Hong Kong (China) Kin Y. Li

Mathematical Olympiad was held on

December 21, 2002. The problems are as

follow. A functional equation is an equation Solution. Step 1 Taking x = 0 = y, we get

whose variables are ranging over f (0) = f (0) + f (0) + f (0) , which implies

functions. Hence, we are seeking all f (0) = 0.

Problem 1. Two circles intersect at points

possible functions satisfying the

A and B. Through the point B a straight Step 2 We will prove f (kx) = k f (x) for

equation. We will let ℤ denote the set of

line is drawn, intersecting the first circle at k∊ ℕ, x∊ℚ by induction. This is true for

all integers, ℤ+ or ℕ denote the positive

K and the second circle at M. A line k = 1. Assume this is true for k. Taking y

integers, ℕ0 denote the nonnegative

parallel to AM is tangent to the first circle = kx, we get

integers, ℚ denote the rational numbers,

at Q. The line AQ intersects the second

ℝ denote the real numbers, ℝ+ denote f ((k+1) x) = f (x + kx) = f (x) + f (kx)

circle again at R.

the positive real numbers and ℂ denote = f (x) + k f (x) = (k+1) f (x).

the complex numbers.

(a) Prove that the tangent to the second Step 3 Taking y = –x, we get

circle at R is parallel to AK. In simple cases, a functional equation 0 = f (0) = f (x+ (–x)) = f (x) + f (–x),

(b) Prove that these two tangents are can be solved by introducing some

which implies f (–x) = – f (x). So

concurrent with KM. substitutions to yield more information

or additional equations. f (–kx) = – f (kx) = – k f (x) for k∊ℕ.

Problem 2. Let n ≥ 3 be an integer. In a

Therefore, f (kx) = k f (x) for k ∊ℤ, x∊ℚ.

conference there are n mathematicians. Example 1. Find all functions f : ℝ → ℝ

Every pair of mathematicians such that Step 4 Taking x = 1/ k, we get

communicate in one of the n official 2 4

languages of the conference. For any x f (x) + f (1 – x) = 2 x – x f (1) = f (k (1/ k)) = k f (1/ k),

three different official languages, there for all x ∊ℝ. which implies f (1/ k) = (1/ k ) f (1).

exist three mathematicians who

communicate with each other in these Step 5 For m∊ℤ, n∊ℕ,

Solution. Replacing x by 1 – x, we have

three languages. Determine all n for f (m/ n) = m f (1/ n) = (m/ n) f (1).

which this is possible. Justify your (1– x)2 f (1– x) + f ( x ) =2 (1–x) – (1–x)4.

claim. Therefore, f (x) = cx with c = f (1).

Since f (1 – x) =2 x – x4– x2 f (x) by the

(continued on page 4) given equation, substituting this into the Check: For f (x) = cx with c∊ℚ ,

last equation and solving for f (x), we

f (x+y) = c(x+y) = cx + cy = f (x) + f (y).

Editors: 張 百 康 (CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK get f (x) = 1– x2.

高 子 眉 (KO Tsz-Mei)

梁 達 榮 (LEUNG Tat-Wing) Check: For f (x) = 1 – x2, In dealing with functions on ℝ, after

李 健 賢 (LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST 2 2 2 2 finding the function on ℚ, we can often

吳 鏡 波 (NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU

x f (x) + f (1–x) = x (1– x )+(1– (1– x) )

finish the problem by using the

= 2 x – x4.

Artist: 楊 秀 英 (YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU following fact.

Acknowledgment: Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept., HKUST For certain types of functional equations, Density of Rational Numbers For every

for general assistance.

a standard approach to solving the real number x, there are rational

On-line: http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/

problem is to determine some special numbers p1, p2, p3, … increase to x and

The editors welcome contributions from all teachers and values (such as f ( 0 ) or f ( 1 ) ), then there are rational numbers q1, q2, q3, …

students. With your submission, please include your name,

address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if available). inductively determine f ( n ) for n ∊ ℕ0, decrease to x.

Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word, are encouraged. follow by the values f ( 1 / n ) and use

This can be easily seen from the decimal

The deadline for receiving material for the next issue is density to find f ( x ) for all x ∊ ℝ. The

February 28, 2003. representation of real numbers. For

following are examples of such

For individual subscription for the next five issues for the 02-03 example, the number π = 3.1415… is the

academic year, send us five stamped self-addressed envelopes. approach.

limits of 3, 31/10, 314/100, 3141/1000,

Send all correspondence to:

31415/10000, … and also 4, 32/10,

Dr. Kin-Yin LI Example 2. Find all functions f : ℚ → ℚ

315/100, 3142/1000, 31416/10000, ….

Department of Mathematics such that the Cauchy equation

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong f(x+y)=f(x)+ f(y) (In passing, we remark that there is a

Fax: (852) 2358 1643 similar fact with rational numbers

Email: makyli@ust.hk holds for all x, y ∊ℚ.

replaced by irrational numbers.)

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb 03- Mar 03 Page 2

Example 3. Find all functions f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) ≥ f (x), = f (x). Since f (x) is not the zero

f :ℝ→ℝ such that function, f (1) = 1. Setting z = 0, t = 0,

which implies f is increasing. Now for

we get f (x) f (y) = f (xy) for all x,y. In

f ( x + y) = f ( x ) + f ( y ) any x∊A∖ℚ, by the density of rational

particular, f (w) = f (w1/2)2 ≥ 0 for

for all x, y ∊ ℝ and f (x) ≥ 0 for x ≥ 0. numbers, there are pn, qn∊ℚ such that pn

w > 0.

< x < qn, the pn’s increase to x and the

Solution. Step 1 By example 2, we qn’s decrease to x. As f is increasing, we

Setting x = 0, y = 1 and t = 1, we have

have f (x) = x f (1) for x∊ℚ. have pn = f (pn) ≤ f (x) ≤ f (qn) = qn.

2 f (1) f (z) = f (−z) + f (z), which

Taking limits, the sandwich theorem

Step 2 If x ≥ y, then x – y ≥ 0. So implies f (z) = f (−z) for all z. So f is

gives f (x) = x for all x∊A.

even.

f (x) = f ((x–y)+y) = f (x–y)+f (y )≥ f (y).

Fact 2. If a function f : ( 0, ∞ ) → ℝ

Hence, f is increasing. Define the function g: (0, ∞) →ℝ by

satisfies f (xy) = f (x) f ( y) for all x, y >

g(w)= f (w1/2) ≥ 0. Then for all x,y>0,

Step 3 If x ∊ℝ, then by the density of 0 and f is monotone, then either f(x)=0

rational numbers, there are rational pn, for all x > 0 or there exists c such that g (xy) = f ((xy)1/2) = f (x1/2 y1/2)

qn such that pn ≤ x ≤ qn, the pn’s f (x) = xc for all x > 0. = f (x1/2) f (y1/2) = g (x) g (y).

increase to x and the qn’s decrease to x.

So by step 2, pn f (1) = f (pn) ≤ f (x) ≤ Proof. For x > 0, f (x) = f (x1/2)2 ≥ 0. Also Next f is even implies g (x2) = f (x) for

f (qn) = qn f (1). Taking limits, the f (1) = f (1) f (1) implies f (1) = 0 or 1. If all x. Setting z = y, t = x in the given

sandwich theorem gives f (x) = x f (1) f (1) = 0, then f (x) = f (x) f (1) = 0 for all equation, we get

for all x. Therefore, f (x) = cx with c ≥ 0. x > 0. If f (1) = 1, then f (x) > 0 for all x >

( g (x2) + g (y2) )2 = g ( (x2 + y2)2 )

The checking is as in example 2. 0 (since f (x) = 0 implies f (1) = f (x(1/x))

= g ( x2 + y2 )2

= f (x) f (1/x) = 0, which would lead to a

Remarks. (1) In example 3, if we contradiction). for all x,y. Taking square roots and

replace the condition that “f (x) ≥ 0 for letting a = x2, b = y2, we get g(a)+g (b)

x ≥ 0” by “f is monotone”, then the Define g: ℝ→ℝ by g (w) = ln f (ew ). = g(a+ b) for all a, b > 0.

answer is essentially the same, namely Then

f (x) = cx with c = f (1). Also if the By fact 1, we have g (w) = w for all w

g (x+y) = ln f (ex+y) = ln f (ex ey)

condition that “f (x) ≥ 0 for x ≥ 0” is > 0. Since f (0) = 0 and f is even, it

=ln f (ex) f (ey)

replaced by “f is continuous at 0”, then follows f (x) = g (x2) = x2 for all x.

= ln f (ex) + ln f (ey)

steps 2 and 3 in example 3 are not = g(x) + g(y).

necessary. We can take rational pn’s Check: If f (x) = x2, then the equation

increase to x and take limit of pn f (1) = Since f is monotone, it follows that g is reduces to

f (pn) = f (pn–x) + f (x) to get x f (1) = f (x) also monotone. Then g (w) = cw for all w.

(x2 + z2)(y2 + t2) = (xy−zt)2 + (xt+yz)2,

since pn–x increases to 0. Therefore, f (x) = xc for all x > 0.

which is a well known identity and

(2) The Cauchy equation f ( x + y ) = As an application of these facts, we look can easily be checked by expansion

f ( x ) + f ( y ) for all x, y ∊ ℝ has at the following example. or seen from | p |2 | q |2 = | pq |2, where

noncontinuous solutions (in particular, p = x + iz, q = y + it ∊ℂ.

solutions not of the form f (x) = cx). Example 4. (2002 IMO) Find all

This requires the concept of a Hamel functions f from the set ℝ of real The concept of fixed point of a

basis of the vector space ℝ over ℚ numbers to itself such that function is another useful idea in

from linear algebra. solving some functional equations.

( f (x) + f (z))( f (y) + f (t))

Its definition is very simple. We say

The following are some useful facts = f ( xy − zt ) + f ( xt + yz )

w is a fixed point of a function f if and

related to the Cauchy equation. for all x, y, z, t in ℝ. only if w is in the domain of f and

f (w) = w. Having information on the

Fact 1. Let A = ℝ, [0, ∞) or (0, ∞). If Solution. (Due to Yu Hok Pun, 2002 fixed points of functions often help to

f :A→ℝ satisfies f ( x + y ) = f ( x ) Hong Kong IMO team member, gold solve certain types of functional

+ f (y) and f (xy) = f (x) f (y) for all medalist) Suppose f (x) = c for all x. equations as the following examples

x, y ∊ A, then either f (x) = 0 for all x Then the equation implies 4c2 = 2c. So c will show.

∊ A or f (x) = x for all x ∊ A. can only be 0 or 1/2. Reversing steps, we

can also check f (x) = 0 for all x or f (x) = Example 5. (1983 IMO) Determine

Proof. By example 2, we have f (x) = 1/2 for all x are solutions. all functions f : ℝ+ → ℝ+ such that

f (1) x for all x∊ℚ. If f (1) = 0, then f ( x f (y) ) = y f (x) for all x, y ∊ ℝ+

f (x) = f (x·1) = f (x) f (1)=0 for all Suppose the equation is satisfied by a and as x → + ∞ , f (x) → 0.

x∊A. nonconstant function f. Setting x = 0 and

z = 0, we get 2 f (0) (f (y) + f(t)) = 2 f (0), Solution. Step 1 Taking x = 1 = y, we

Otherwise, we have f (1) ≠ 0. Since which implies f (0) = 0 or f (y) + f (t) = 1 get f ( f (1)) = f (1). Taking x = 1 and y

f (1) = f (1) f (1), we get f (1) = 1. for all y, t. In the latter case, setting y = t, = f (1), we get f ( f ( f (1))) = f (1)2.

Then f (x) = x for all x ∊ A ∩ ℚ. we get the constant function f (y) = 1/2 Then f (1)2 = f ( f ( f (1))) = f ( f (1)) =

for all y. Hence we may assume f (0) = 0. f (1), which implies f (1) = 1. So 1 is a

If y ≥ 0, then f (y) = f ( y1/2 )2 ≥ 0 and fixed point of f.

Setting y = 1, z = 0, t = 0, we get f (x) f (1) (continued on page 4)

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb 03- Mar 03 Page 3

Problem Corner In the last issue, problems 166, 167 and = ∠SRK imply ∆SMB ~ ∆SKR and

We welcome readers to submit their 169 were stated incorrectly. They are MB/KR = BS/RS. Replacing M by A and

solutions to the problems posed below revised as problems 171, 172, 173, K by Q, similarly ∆SAB ~ ∆SQR and

for publication consideration. The respectively. As the problems became AB/QR = BS/RS. Since AB = 2MB, we

solutions should be preceded by the easy due to the mistakes, we received get QR = 2KR. So K is the midpoint of

solver’s name, home (or email) address many solutions. Regretfully we do not QR.

and school affiliation. Please send have the space to print the names and

submissions to Dr. Kin Y. Li, affiliations of all solvers. We would like to Problem 169. 300 apples are given, no

Department of Mathematics, The Hong apologize for this.

one of which weighs more than 3 times

Kong University of Science &

Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon. any other. Show that the apples may be

Problem 166. Let a, b, c be positive

The deadline for submitting solutions integers, [x] denote the greatest integer divided into groups of 4 such that no

is February 28, 2003. less than or equal to x and min{x,y} group weighs more than 11/2 times any

denote the minimum of x and y. Prove or other group.

Problem 171. (Proposed by Ha Duy disprove that

Solution. Almost all solvers used the

Hung, Hanoi University of Education,

c [a/b] – [c/a] [c/b] ≤ c min{1/a, 1/b}. following argument. Let m and M be

Hanoi City, Vietnam) Let a, b, c be

the weights of the lightest and heaviest

positive integers, [x] denote the Solution. Over 30 solvers disproved the

apple(s). Then 3m≥ M. If the problem

greatest integer less than or equal to x inequality by providing different counter-

is false, then there are two groups A

and min{x,y} denote the minimum of x examples, such as (a, b, c) = (3, 2, 1).

and B with weights wA and wB such that

and y. Prove or disprove that

(11/2) wB < wA. Since 4m≤ wB and wA ≤

Problem 167. Find all positive integers

c c c 1 1 4M, we get (11/2)4m < 4M implying

c

ab − a b ≤ c min a , b . such that they are equal to the sum of their

digits in base 10 representation. 3m≤ (11/2)m < M , a contradiction.

Problem 172. (Proposed by José Luis similar to the following. For a positive Abderrahim Ouardini, Nice, France)

Díaz-Barrero, Universitat Politècnica integer N with digits an, … , a0 (from left For any (nondegenerate) triangle with

to right), we have sides a, b, c, let ∑’ h (a, b, c) denote the

de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain) Find

all positive integers such that they are N = an 10n + an−1 10n−1 + ⋯ + a0 sum h (a, b, c) + h (b, c, a )+ h (c, a, b).

equal to the square of the sum of their ≥ an + an−1 + ⋯ + a0 Let f (a, b, c) = ∑’ ﴾a / (b + c – a)﴿2 and

digits in base 10 representation. g (a, b, c) =∑’ j(a, b, c), where j(a,b,c)=

because 10k > 1 for k> 0. So equality holds (b + c – a) / ( c + a − b )( a + b − c ) .

if and only if an=an−1=⋯=a1=0. Hence,

Problem 173. 300 apples are given, Show that f (a, b, c)≥ max{3,g(a, b, c)}

N=1, 2, …, 9 are the only solutions.

no one of which weighs more than 3 and determine when equality occurs.

times any other. Show that the apples (Here max{x,y} denotes the maximum

Problem 168. Let AB and CD be of x and y.)

may be divided into groups of 4 such nonintersecting chords of a circle and let

that no group weighs more than 3/2 K be a point on CD. Construct (with Solution. CHUNG Ho Yin (STFA

times any other group. straightedge and compass) a point P on Leung Kau Kui College, Form 6),

CHUNG Tat Chi (Queen Elizabeth

the circle such that K is the midpoint of the School, Form 6), D. Kipp JOHNSON

Problem 174. Let M be a point inside part of segment CD lying inside triangle (Valley Catholic High School,

acute triangle ABC. Let A′, B′, C′ be the ABP. (Source: 1997 Hungarian Math Beaverton, Oregon, USA), LEE Man

mirror images of M with respect to BC, Olympiad) Fui (STFA Leung Kau Kui College,

CA, AB, respectively. Determine (with Form 6), Antonio LEI (Colchester

Solution. SIU Tsz Hang (STFA Leung Kau Royal Grammar School, UK, Year 13),

proof) all points M such that A, B, C, A′, Kui College, Form 7) SIU Tsz Hang (STFA Leung Kau Kui

B′, C′ are concyclic. College, Form 7), TAM Choi Nang

Draw the midpoint M of AB. If AB || CD, Julian (SKH Lam Kau Mow Secondary

Problem 175. A regular polygon with then draw ray MK to intersect the circle at P. School) and WONG Wing Hong (La

Let AP, BP intersect CD at Q,R, respectively. Salle College, Form 5).

n sides is divided into n isosceles

triangles by segments joining its center Since AB || QR, ∆ABP ~ ∆QRP. Then M Let x = b + c − a, y = c + a − b and z = a +

to the vertices. Initially, n + 1 frogs are being the midpoint of AB will imply K is the b − c. Then a = (y + z)/2, b = (z + x)/2 and

placed inside the triangles. At every midpoint of QR. c = (x + y)/2.

second, there are two frogs in some Substituting these and using the AM-GM

common triangle jumping into the If AB intersects CD at E, then draw the

inequality, the rearrangement inequality

interior of the two neighboring circumcircle of EMK meeting the original

and the AM-GM inequality again, we find

triangles (one frog into each neighbor). circle at S and S′. Draw the circumcircle of

Prove that after some time, at every BES meeting CD at R. Draw the f ( a, b, c )

second, there are at least [ (n + 1) / 2 ] circumcircle of AES meeting CD at Q. Let 2

triangles, each containing at least one y + z

2

z + x x + y

2

AQ, BR meet at P. Since ∠PBS = ∠RBS = = + +

frog. 2x 2y 2z

∠RES = ∠QES = ∠QAS = ∠PAS, P is on

2

2

2

yz zx xy

≥ + +

Solutions Next, ∠SMB = ∠SME = ∠SKE = ∠SKR

x

y

z

**************** and ∠SBM = 180° − ∠SBE = 180° − ∠SRE

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb 03- Mar 03 Page 4

yz zx zx xy xy yz

≥ + +

xy yz zx Other than the fixed point concept, in

Step 5 Steps 1, 3, 4 showed the only fixed

solving functional equations, the

x y z point of f is 1. By step 2, we get x f (x) = 1

= + + = g (a, b, c) injectivity and surjectivity of the

for all x ∊ ℝ+. Therefore, f (x) = 1 / x for

yz zx xy functions also provide crucial

all x ∊ ℝ+.

informations.

xyz

≥ 33 = 3. Check: For f (x) = 1/x, f (x f (y)) = f (x/y) =

yz zx xy Example 7. (1987 IMO) Prove that

y/x =y f (x). As x →∞ , f (x) = 1/x → 0.

there is no function f: ℕ0 → ℕ0 such

So f (a,b,c)≥ g(a,b,c) = max{3,g(a,b,c)} that f ( f (n)) = n + 1987.

with equality if and only if x = y = z, Example 6. (1996 IMO) Find all functions f :

which is the same as a = b = c. ℕ0 → ℕ0 such that

Solution. Suppose there is such a

f ( m + f (n) ) = f ( f (m) ) + f (n) function f. Then f is injective because

f (a) = f (b) implies

for all m, n∊ℕ0.

a = f ( f (a))−1987 = f ( f (b))−1987 = b.

Olympiad Corner Solution. Step 1 Taking m = 0 = n, we get

f ( f (0)) = f ( f (0) ) + f (0), which implies Suppose f (n) misses exactly k distinct

(continued from page 1) f (0) = 0. Taking m = 0, we get f ( f ( n )) = values c1, … , ck in ℕ0 , i.e. f (n)≠ c1, …,

f (n), i.e. f (n) is a fixed point of f for every ck for all n∊ ℕ0. Then f ( f ( n )) misses

Problem 3. If a ≥ b ≥ c ≥ 0 and a + b +

n ∊ℕ0. Also the equation becomes the 2k distinct values c1, …, ck and

c =3, then prove that ab2 + bc2 + ca2 ≤ f ( m + f (n) ) = f (m) + f (n). f (c1), …, f (ck) in ℕ0. (The f (cj)’s are

27/8 and determine the equality distinct because f is injective.) Now if

case(s). Step 2 If w is a fixed point of f, then we w≠ c1, … , ck, f (c1), … , f (ck), then

will show kw is a fixed point of f for all k there is m ∊ ℕ0 such that f (m) = w.

Problem 4. Let p be an odd prime ∊ℕ0. The cases k = 0, 1 are known. If kw Since w≠ f (cj), m≠ cj, so there is n ∊

is a fixed point, then f ((k + 1) w) = f ( kw + ℕ0 such that f (n) = m, then f ( f (n)) = w.

such that p ≡ 1 (mod 4). Evaluate

w ) = f ( kw ) + f (w) = kw + w = (k + 1) w This shows f ( f (n)) misses only the 2k

(with reason) and so (k + 1) w is also a fixed point. values c1, … , ck, f (c1), … , f (ck) and no

p −1 others. Since n + 1987 misses the 1987

2 k2 Step 3 If 0 is the only fixed point of f, then values 0, 1, …, 1986 and 2k ≠ 1987,

∑ ,

f (n) = 0 for all n ∊ℕ0 by step 1. Obviously,

k =1 p this is a contradiction.

the zero function is a solution.

where {x} = x − [x], [x] being the Example 8. (1999 IMO) Determine all

greatest integer not exceeding x. Otherwise, f has a least fixed point w > 0. functions f : ℝ → ℝ such that

We will show the only fixed points are kw,

f (x − f (y)) = f (f (y)) + x f (y) + f (x) − 1

k∊ℕ0. Suppose x is a fixed point. By the

division algorithm, x = kw + r, where 0≤ r for all x, y ∊ ℝ.

<w. We have

Functional Equations Solution. Let c = f (0). Setting x = y = 0,

x = f (x) = f (r + kw) = f (r + f (kw)) we get f (−c) = f (c) + c − 1. So c≠ 0.

(continued from page 2)

= f (r) + f (kw) = f (r) + kw. Let A be the range of f, then for x = f (y)

Step 2 Taking y = x, we get f ( x f ( x)) = ∊ A, we get c = f (0) = f (x) + x2 + f (x) −

So f (r) = x − kw = r. Since w is the least

x f (x). So w = x f (x) is a fixed point of f 1. Solving for f (x), this gives f (x) =

positive fixed point, r = 0 and x = kw.

for every x ∊ ℝ+. ( c + 1 − x2 ) / 2 .

Since f (n) is a fixed point for all n ∊ℕ0 by Next, if we set y = 0, we get

Step 3 Suppose f has a fixed point x > 1. step 1, f (n) = cnw for some cn ∊ ℕ0. We

By step 2, x f (x) = x2 is also a fixed { f (x − c) − f (x) : x ∊ ℝ }

have c0 = 0.

point, x2 f (x2) = x4 is also a fixed point = { cx + f ( c ) − 1 : x ∊ ℝ } = ℝ

and so on. So the xm’s are fixed points Step 4 For n∊ℕ0, by the division because c≠ 0. Then A − A = { y1 − y2 :

for every m that is a power of 2. Since x algorithm, n = kw + r, 0 ≤ r < w. We have y1, y2 ∊ A} = ℝ.

> 1, for m ranging over the powers of 2,

we have xm → ∞, but f (xm) = xm → ∞ , f (n) = f (r + kw) = f (r + f (kw))

Now for an arbitrary x∊ℝ, let y1, y2∊A

not to 0. This contradicts the given = f (r) + f (kw) = crw + kw

be such that y1 − y2 = x. Then

property. Hence, f cannot have any = (cr+ k) w = (cr + [n/w]) w.

fixed point x > 1. f (x)= f (y1−y2) = f (y2) + y1y2 + f (y1) − 1

Check: For each w > 0, let c0 = 0 and let

= (c+1−y22)/2+y1y2+(c+1−y12)/2 −1

c1. …, cw−1 ∊ℕ0 be arbitrary. The function

Step 4 Suppose f has a fixed point x in = c − ( y1−y2)2/2 = c − x2/2.

f(n)=(cr+[n/w])w, where r is the remainder

the interval (0,1). Then of n divided by w, (and the zero function) However, for x∊A, f (x) = (c + 1 − x2)/2.

1 = f ((1/x) x) = f ((1/x) f (x)) = x f (1/ x), are all the solutions. Write m = kw + r and So c = 1. Therefore, f (x) = 1 − x2/2 for

n = lw + s with 0≤ r, s < w. Then all x ∊ℝ.

which implies f (1 / x) = 1 / x. This will

lead to f having a fixed point 1 / x > 1, f (m + f (n)) = f (r + kw + (cs + l) w) Check: For f (x) = 1 − x2/2, both sides

contradicting step 3. Hence, f cannot = crw + kw + csw + lw equal 1/2 + y2/2 − y4/8 + x−xy2/2 − x2/2.

The Fifth Hong Kong (China) Mathematical Olympiad Solutions

December 2 1,2002 1.

Two circles intersect at points A and B. Through the point B a straight line is drawn,

intersecting the first circle at K and the second circle at A4. A line parallel to AM is

tangent to the first circle at Q. The line AQ intersects the second circle again at R.

(a) Prove that the tangent to the second circle at R is parallel to AK.

(b) Prove that these two tangents are concurrent with KM.

mathematicians communicate in one of the n official languages of the conference. For

any three different official languages, there exist three mathematicians who

communicate with each other in these three languages. Determine all n for which this

is possible. Justify your claim.

(a) (Siu Tsz Hang) Let PR be the tangent to the second circle at R. Join AB and MR. We

have LARP = LMRP + LARM = LMAR + LABK = LLQA + LABK

If aZb>c>O and atbtc=3,thenprove that ab2+bc2+ca2<y and determine

= LQBA+ LABK = 180” - LK4Q. Thus AKIIPR, i.e., the tangent to the second

the equalities case(s j. circle at R is parallel to AK.

Evaluate with reasons,

I, (b) Let the two tangents meet at J. Note that LBRP = LBAR = LBQJ

property). Thus BJRQ is cyclic. On the other hand, by (a) LKBQ = LaQJ.

means BMproduced will meet PR at J.

(tangent

This

2. (Yu Hok Pun) It is possible if and only if n is odd. The problem is equivalent to color

the edges of K,, by n colors, and such that for any three colors, there exist three

***End of Paper*** vertices such that their edges are of these three colors. Now notice that there are CT

triples of colors and there are C; triples of vertices, that means for the edges each

triple of vertices they must be colored by a unique triple of colors, and vice versa. In

particular for every triangle, the edges must be of different colors. Now fix a color S,

there exist exactly C,"-'

triangles with one edge of color S. Yet an edge of color S is

connected with n -2 vertices (hence they form n - 2 triangles). Therefore there are

c;-’ n-l

- =2 edges of color S. Now the condition that y is an integer cannot be

n-2

fulfilled if n is even.

2

Assume n is odd, denote the vertices by 1,2, e.. , n and the colors by S1,S, , . en,S, . Color b= 3(x+39 , c_ 3x By expressing a, b, and c in terms of x, y, and z , get

the edge connecting i andj by the color St with t = i + j (mod n). Then for every triple 3x+2y+z - 3x+2y+z’

of colors S,, , S(, , and St, the system 3x3 + z3 + 6x2y + 4xy2 + 3x2z + xz2 + 4y2z + 6yz2 + 18~72 2 0. As x, y, z 2 0, equality

j+k = t, (modn)

k+i = t, (modn)

4. First note that (-k)’ = (p - k)2 = k2 (modp). Also if x2 = y2(tnodp), where

has a unique solution, as the determinant of the coefficient matrix

llx,yl-- P-l then (x-y)(x+y) = 0 (modp). But 1~ x+y < p, hence x = y. These

110 110 110 2 ’

0 1 1= 0 1 1= 0 1 1 = 2 f 0, since n is odd. Therefore for each triple of

imply is a reduced residue system modulo p. Now since

1 0 1 0 -1 1 0 0 2

colors, there exists a unique triangle with edges of these colors.

p = 1(mod 4), by Euler’s criterion, = 1, hence -1 is a square. Because

3. Let f(a, b, c) = ab2 + bc2 + ca2. Then

f(a,b, c) + f(a, c,b) = ab2 + bc2 + cu2 + UC’ + cb2 + ba2 ($j=(;)(;).thus b is a square if and only if -b = p-b (modp) is. Therefore

=(a+b+c)(ab+bci-ca)-3abc

= 3(ab + bc + ca - abc)

the set {12,22,..., consists of pairs {a,,~-a,,a,,p -a2,...,ap_,,p-a,_l}

= 3[(1- a)(1 - b)(l - c) + (a + b + c) - 11 -7 -7

= 3(1- a)(1 - b)(l - c) + 6.

modulop. As l<a,,p-a, <p, we have {4)+{p-a,)=a’+p-ai = 1, thus the sum

Since a>b>c>O,wehave cllla and b<z, P P P

is P-l

If bll, then (l-a)(l-b)(l-c)_<O sothat f&b,c)+f(a,c,b)<6. 4 *

If l<b<G, then

*“*End*“”

(1- a)(1 - b)(l - c) 5 (a - l)(b - 1) I = f so that

3 27

f (a, b, 4 + f (a, c, b) 5 6 - = -. Note that equality holds if and only if c = 0 and

4 4

Now fi,c,b)-f(a,b,c)=(a-b)(b-c)(a-c)>O,

a-b

(AlternateSolutionbyYuHokPun)Put ~=~,y=~,,z=~.Then x+y+,z=:,

b 3(x+y+z)

x+y=-, x=5 Add together get 3x + 2y + z = 1. Thus a =

3 3 3x+2y+z ’

- The Problem of Algebra InstructionUploaded byGreySi
- 13093790-AF-BooklistUploaded byReggie1025
- Real.numbersUploaded bygayatrirajneeshmutha
- Math May 2005 Exam C4Uploaded bydylandon
- middle school syllabus - moynihanUploaded byapi-98377177
- inverse operations lesson planUploaded byapi-357246840
- 8 mathematics day 1-2 lesson overview on calendar unit 2Uploaded byapi-66400853
- equals lesson plan templateUploaded byapi-291355677
- basic plan-asma shedewaUploaded byapi-352285277
- nm6sb026Uploaded byapi-329316836
- 18681858 Math o Level Solution of Quadratic EquationUploaded byRickyRefandi
- Geometry Proof Packet Chapter 4_on Your OwnUploaded byr2933478
- CMI Ugmath2012Uploaded byHimansu Mookherjee
- Framework of the SyllabusUploaded byGoanengineer
- Algebra ClassifiedUploaded byImran Ahmad
- 50266-26129-IIT JEE Maths Sample Paper-2Uploaded byAmritanshu Anand
- lesson planUploaded byCher Jhets
- Numerical Analytical Computational Mechanics Analysis 1420093568Uploaded bycanwee92
- 9709_s10_qp_32Uploaded byroukaiya_peerkhan
- 1291708072 Topper Sureshotsummativeassesment Classix-sample 10Uploaded bySalam
- SolnsCayley15Uploaded byIch Khuy
- St Catherines 2016 3U Trials & SolutionsUploaded bySum
- 00986447808960470.pdfUploaded byabi
- map of barangay sun valleyUploaded byapi-294448986
- 1. MIT18_02SC_pb_1_comb.pdfUploaded byFatih Ozer
- Real Numbers ExamplesUploaded bytutorciecle123
- 4th qtr wkshtsUploaded byapi-316781445
- 101314 msabrochure 1pageversion with course descripsUploaded byapi-193719531
- algebraic eqUploaded byPriya Samprith Shetty
- Polynomials Exam QsUploaded bybsabuhkj.

- PhpUploaded byMoustafa Mehanna
- Solution to the Bulb QuestionUploaded byRiaj
- 19. r. c. MukheerjeeUploaded byMurali
- MumbaiUploaded byMurali
- Pre-RMO2016 Solution Chandigarh.pdfUploaded byMurali
- ChnTST08Uploaded byKrutarth Patel
- 2011Uploaded bysayan paul
- 5Uploaded byMurali
- GenUploaded byMurali
- Optics And Modern Physics.pdfUploaded byMurali
- 520386Uploaded byMurali
- 06 Audit in Automated EnvironmentUploaded byMurali
- 588208Uploaded byMurali
- Accounting StandardUploaded byVikash Roy
- 51075bos40771-cp6Uploaded byMurali
- leph2psUploaded bysahil
- IDirect_CorporateActionTracker_Oct18.pdfUploaded byMurali
- Regional Coordinators 2018 (1)Uploaded byMurali
- weekly_olympiad_1.pdfUploaded byMurali
- RMO-2010-Results-Telangana.pdfUploaded byMurali
- Womens EmpowermentUploaded byMohd Rashid
- Advt_English.pdfUploaded byMurali
- Maharashtra-and-Goa-C8-11.pdfUploaded byShailaja Gaikwad
- IMO bookUploaded bymywol1931
- PS7.pdfUploaded byMurali
- the_pigeonhole_principle.pdfUploaded byMurali
- Maharashtra Others (1)Uploaded bySAIKAT SENGUPTA
- sample-OMR-sheet-marking.pdfUploaded byMurali

- A Brief Intro to SMLUploaded byMaria Estrada
- Algebra EnUploaded byBishoy Akmal
- EM312_sen_lnt_03(3)Uploaded bySuvendarRajPerumal
- ABB 800xA System 800xA Engineering 6.0 Process GraphicsUploaded byman_y2k
- 2014 split_up_syllabus(all_xi_&_xii).docxUploaded bynalin mahala
- Polynomials SurveyUploaded byopenid_rO17u2aH
- PML630 Compact Load Shedding SolutionUploaded byArash Mazandarani
- 74363_CIVIL.pdfUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- 3 29 17 notes for combining and composition of functionsUploaded byapi-325344728
- euclid.bams.1183555470Uploaded bysemnan
- Math Academy See ItUploaded bygimvhughes
- Signature Based IndexingUploaded byaman.4u
- Cross tabUploaded byNeelkant Singh
- RGA.pdfUploaded byZiyad Al Abasie
- Math Notes for SPM CandidatesUploaded byAnonymous YWOake6fz
- Hermann WeylUploaded bycuiroca
- exp_to_log_intro.pdfUploaded bySaher
- Una Docena de EjerciciosUploaded byIvan Rm
- Measuring the Size of Infinite Collections of Natural NumbersUploaded byAníbal Corti
- Converting Calc Formulas to MDX, Hyperion Essbase Outlines, Block ...Uploaded byMichaela Morari
- Bruce F. Torrence-The Student's Introduction to MATHEMATICA В®_ A Handbook for Precalculus, Calculus, and Linear Algebra-Cambridge University Press (2009).pdfUploaded byDarabaGabriell
- ResoNET 2012 Sample Test PaperUploaded byAnkita Jain
- CodebookUploaded byRavshonbek Otojanov
- Matlab ODE SolversUploaded byBilal Saeed
- Errata - Second Edition of a Mathematical Introduction to Logic - Herbert B. EndertonUploaded byKelvin
- cs240Uploaded byBen Zhang
- Some_useful_math_for_the_Solow_modelUploaded byCarlos Augusto Rojas Martinez
- A Collaborative DLP on Inverse Function FinalUploaded byrensievique
- Dot Net IndexUploaded byAnonymous zsckc4j
- Prob1Uploaded bygr8veer