2 views

Uploaded by Anonymous CO7aaHr

NEPSI SPREADSHEET

- Uniform Labour Data -Kseb- Board Order
- Impact of Floating Neutral in Power
- proto
- Ti Toroidais GE 2007
- Troubleshooting Commercial Lighting Loads
- Manual Medidor de Energia MA400
- 07 TT 02 Using-The-protection
- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Inspection of GroundFault Protection Systems
- Fault finding in meter
- Ct Metsect5dd125
- 400 KV Switchyard Testing Schedule
- Impact of Floating Neutral in Power Distribution _ Electrical Notes & Articles
- A Sensitive ANN Based Differential Relay for Transformer Protection With Security Against CT Saturation and Tap Changer Operation[#144465]-125888
- Fico
- Instrument Transformer
- Automatic Circuit Recloser Broch
- boq 4.3.14.docx
- Errahulsharmafeederprotection 141017104620 Conversion Gate02
- ELK 1304 195 Manuscript 1
- short_71_capacitor_unbalance_protection_for_blocks_in_double_star_connection_v1.0.pdf

You are on page 1of 38

Split-Wye Neutral Current Relay Settings Sheet for Use Current Sen

Project Information

Stage Number(s) Enter Stage #

Stage kvar Enter stage kvar

Background Information

This spreadsheet provides calculation assistance for determing blown fuse trip and alarm setpoints for overcurrent relay

split-wye connected capacitor banks and harmonic filter banks. The relay works with a signal derived from a current tra

the neutral between two wye-connected capacitor banks as shown in the figure to the right. Relay calibration should be d

injection at the neutral CT or secondary current injection at the CT.

Capacitor Banks are normally equipped with blown fuse detection for the following reasons:

To prevent capacitor damage on the remaining capacitors on a capacitor bank with one or more fuse operatons. This is tr

due to a capacitor neutral shift that occurs from a missmatch in capactive reactance between each phase. The neutral sh

stages or banks that have less than 4 capacitors per phase. Grounded banks and Delta connected banks are not subjected

event should the blown fuse detection system allow the capacitor voltage to exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage c

the equations below.

To alert plant personnel of a blown fuse condition.

To prevent unbalance var support that can lead to system voltage unbalance. Typically, power systems should not be oper

voltage unbalance.

To prevent harmonic filter bank de-tuning. Generally, NEPSI's filter banks are designed to trip on the operation of a single

this concern.

Equations from IEEE C37.99-1980 – IEEE Guide for Protection of Shunt Capacitor Banks provide a simple means for the ca

voltage shift, and current flow between wye connected capacitor banks for for one or more failed capacitors. Formulas ar

(VOLTS)

�_(𝑅𝐸𝑀𝐴𝐼𝑁𝐼𝑁𝐺 𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 �𝑂𝐿𝑇𝐴𝐺𝐸 )=(�_(Ø ×) 𝑁×3)/

(AMPS)

𝐼_(𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑇𝐻𝑅𝑂𝑈𝐺𝐻 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅

(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS) 3×𝐹)/(6𝑁−𝐹) (AMPS)

(VOLTS)

�_( 𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅𝐴𝐿−𝑇𝑂−𝐺𝑅𝑂𝑈𝑁𝐷 )=(�_(Ø (AMPS)

𝐼_𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿=𝐼_(𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅

×) 𝐹)/(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS) 𝑅𝐴𝑇𝐼𝑁𝐺)/(1.73× 〖𝐾�〗 _𝐿𝐿 ) (AMPS

Page 1 of 38

Where

ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT = Current in amps through CT for one or more capacitor fuse operations

INOMINAL = Phase Current of Entire Capacitor Bank (Both Wye-Connected Banks Combined in amps)

VØ = Nominal Phase-to-Neutral System Voltage (volts)

F = Number of Failed Capacitors per Phase

N = Number of Capacitors per Phase (this includes both sides of wye for split wye banks)

VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = Voltage remaining on capacitor after fuse operation (volts)

VCAP BANK NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND = Voltage from Capacitor BAnk neutral to ground after fuse(s) operation.

The relay should be set to trip at 60% of CT secondary current for the condition that results in more than 10% over-voltag

recommended. For relays with two setpoints, NEPSI recommends that one setpoint be used to alarm on the first fuse ope

off line that results in excessive over-voltage (10% over-voltage based on capacitor voltage rating). Filter banks should be

capacitor) as filter detuning can occur.

Contact NEPSI at 518-792-4776 or paul.steciuk@nepsi.com for additional assistance in setting neutral current/voltage rel

banks.

This value is the line to

Enter Capacitor Bank Line-to-Line Voltage (kV) 12.47

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase outp

Enter effective kvar output of filter/capacitor bank stage (kvar) 600

voltage.

Normal Phase Current (INOMINAL) 27.8 (amps)

(This includes caps on b

Number of Capacitors per Stage (N) per Phase 2 Assumes all capacitors

Neutral CT Ratio 20 (primary divided by seco

Page 2 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

Split-Wye Neutral Current Relay Settings - Enter Name, Enter Project Name Project - Page 2 Settings for

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 1

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

8649.7

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 1441.6 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 7.59 (Amps) This is the prima

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 20.13% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 0.23 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 2

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

10812.1

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 3604.0 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 16.69 (Amps) This is the prima

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 50.17% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 0.50 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 3

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

14416.2

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 7208.1 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 27.81 (Amps) This is the prima

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 100.22% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 0.83 (amps) Based on 60% o

Page 3 of 38

Results for 4 Failed Capacitors

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 4

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

21624.3

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 14416.2 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 41.72 (Amps) This is the prima

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 200.34% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 1.25 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 5

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

43248.6

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 36040.5 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 59.60 (Amps) This is the prima

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 500.67% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 1.79 (amps) Based on 60% o

Page 4 of 38

Phone: (518) 792-4776 Fax: (518) 792-5767 www.nepsi.com

trip and alarm setpoints for overcurrent relays used in conjunction with

works with a signal derived from a current transformer (CT) mounted in

ure to the right. Relay calibration should be done using primary current

lowing reasons:

nk with one or more fuse operatons. This is true for ungrounded banks

actance between each phase. The neutral shift is more prevalent with

and Delta connected banks are not subjected to this concern. In no

o exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage can be determined from

designed to trip on the operation of a single fuse to elleviate or lesson

tor Banks provide a simple means for the calculation of expected capacitor voltage, neutral-to-ground

or one or more failed capacitors. Formulas are as follows:

(AMPS)

𝐼_(𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑇𝐻𝑅𝑂𝑈𝐺𝐻 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅𝐴𝐿 𝐶𝑇)=(𝐼_(𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿 ×)

3×𝐹)/(6𝑁−𝐹) (AMPS)

AMPS)

_𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿=𝐼_(𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇)=(𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 3∅ 𝐾�𝐴𝑅

𝐴𝑇𝐼𝑁𝐺)/(1.73× 〖𝐾�〗 _𝐿𝐿 ) (AMPS)

Page 5 of 38

r fuse operations

s Combined in amps)

t wye banks)

volts)

fuse(s) operation.

tion that results in more than 10% over-voltage on the remaining capacitors. A time delay of 10 seconds is

etpoint be used to alarm on the first fuse operation. The second set-point should be used to trip the bank

pacitor voltage rating). Filter banks should be set to trip and alarm for the first fuse operation (one failed

sistance in setting neutral current/voltage relays for the purpose of blown fuse protection on capacitor

This value is the line to line voltage in kV that the capacitor bank or harmonic filter

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase output kvar of the stage (enter as kvar not Mvar) at nominal system

voltage.

(amps)

(This includes caps on both sides of wye - on a per phase basis - i.e. caps in parallel).

Assumes all capacitors are equal in size.

(primary divided by secondary)

Page 6 of 38

me Project - Page 2 Settings for Stage -Enter Stage #

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

Page 7 of 38

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

Page 8 of 38

Neutral Current Relay Settings

Relays Should Be Set to Trip Before Remaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage

Voltage Cap Voltage Current Secondary Current Relay Setting

Caps out (Volts) (Volts) (amps) (amps) Primary Amps *

1 1441.62 8650 7.6 0.38 4.55

2 3604.05 10812 16.7 0.83 10.01

3 7208.09 14416 27.8 1.39 16.69

4 14416.18 21624 41.7 2.09 25.03

5 36040.46 43249 59.6 2.98 35.76

Nominal Cap Voltage 7200 Volts * Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on firs

Maximum Voltage 7920 Volts operation.

Page 9 of 38

Neutral Current Relay Settings

emaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage Rating

Recommended

Relay Setting Factory

Secondary amps Setting

0.23 ALARM

0.50 TRIP

0.83 N/A

1.25 N/A

1.79 N/A

* Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on first capacitor fuse

operation.

Page 10 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

66 Carey Road, Queensbury, NY Phone: (518) 7

Split-Wye Neutral Current Relay Settings Sheet for Use with Voltag

Project Information

Stage Number(s) Enter Stage Number

Stage kvar Enter stage kvar

Background Information

This spreadsheet provides calculation assistance for determing blown fuse trip and alarm setpoints for relays used in co

connected capacitor banks and harmonic filter banks. The relay works with a signal derived from a current transformer

neutral between two wye-connected capacitor banks as shown in the figure to the right. The relay may be an over-curren

based on current or may be an over-voltage relay with trip settings based on voltage. When a voltage relay is used (such a

59NC, a burden resistor is connected accross the CT secondary to convert the CT secondary current signal to a voltage sig

should be done using primary current injection at the neutral CT or secondary current injection at the CT.

Capacitor Banks are normally equipped with blown fuse detection for the following reasons:

To prevent capacitor damage on the remaining capacitors on a capacitor bank with one or more fuse operatons. This is tr

due to a capacitor neutral shift that occurs from a missmatch in capactive reactance between each phase. The neutral sh

stages or banks that have less than 4 capacitors per phase. Grounded banks and Delta connected banks are not subjected

event should the blown fuse detection system allow the capacitor voltage to exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage

the equations below.

To alert plant personnel of a blown fuse condition.

To prevent unbalance var support that can lead to system voltage unbalance. Typically, power systems should not be ope

voltage unbalance.

To prevent harmonic filter bank de-tuning. Generally, NEPSI's filter banks are designed to trip on the operation of a single

lesson this concern.

Equations from IEEE C37.99-1980 – IEEE Guide for Protection of Shunt Capacitor Banks provide a simple means for the ca

voltage shift, and current flow between wye connected capacitor banks for for one or more failed capacitors. Formulas ar

(VOLTS)

�_(𝑅𝐸𝑀𝐴𝐼𝑁𝐼𝑁𝐺 𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 �𝑂𝐿𝑇𝐴𝐺𝐸 )=(�_(Ø ×) 𝑁×3)/

(AMPS)

𝐼_(𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑇𝐻𝑅𝑂𝑈𝐺𝐻 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅

(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS) 3×𝐹)/(6𝑁−𝐹) (AMPS)

(VOLTS)

�_( (AMPS)

𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅𝐴𝐿−𝑇𝑂−𝐺𝑅𝑂𝑈𝑁𝐷 )=(�_(Ø ×) 𝐼_𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿=𝐼_(𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸

𝐹)/(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS) 𝑅𝐴𝑇𝐼𝑁𝐺)/(1.73× 〖𝐾�〗 _𝐿𝐿 ) (AMPS

Page 11 of 38

Where

ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT = Current in amps through CT for one or more capacitor fuse operations

INOMINAL = Phase Current of Entire Capacitor Bank (Both Wye-Connected Banks Combined in amps)

VØ = Nominal Phase-to-Neutral System Voltage (volts)

F = Number of Failed Capacitors per Phase

N = Number of Capacitors per Phase (this includes both sides of wye for split wye banks)

VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = Voltage remaining on capacitor after fuse operation (volts)

VCAP BANK NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND = Voltage from Capacitor BAnk neutral to ground after fuse(s) operation.

The relay should be set to trip at 60% of CT secondary current or burden voltage for the condition that results in more th

delay of 10 seconds is recommended. For relays with two setpoints, NEPSI recommends that one setpoint be used to ala

be used to trip the bank off line that results in excessive over-voltage (10% over-voltage based on capacitor voltage ratin

fuse operation (one failed capacitor) as filter detuning can occure.

Contact NEPSI at 518-792-4776 or paul.steciuk@nepsi.com for additional assistance in setting neutral current/voltage rel

banks.

This value is the line to

Enter Capacitor Bank Line-to-Line Voltage (kV) 34.5

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase outp

Enter effective kvar output of filter/capacitor bank stage (kvar) 12000

system voltage.

Normal Phase Current (INOMINAL) 201.1 (amps)

(This includes caps on

Number of Capacitors per Stage (N) per Phase 6 parallel). Assumes all ca

Neutral CT Ratio 20 (primary divided by sec

Enter resistance of burden resistor (ohms) 10.00 (ohms)

Enter Capacitor Voltage Rating (kV) 19.92 This is the nameplate v

Page 12 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

Split-Wye Neutral Current Relay Settings - Enter Customer Name, Enter Project Name Project - Page 2 S

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 1

per phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

21115.3

of the voltage rating of t

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 1173.1 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 17.23 (Amps) This is the prim

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 6.00% (Should not be greater

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 0.52 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 2

per phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

22435.0

of the voltage rating of t

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 2492.8 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 35.48 (Amps) This is the prim

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 12.63% (Should not be greater

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 1.06 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 3

per phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

23930.6

of the voltage rating of t

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 3988.4 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 54.83 (Amps) This is the prim

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 20.13% (Should not be greater

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 1.64 (amps) Based on 60% o

Page 13 of 38

Results for 4 Failed Capacitors

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 4

per phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

25640.0

of the voltage rating of t

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 5697.8 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 75.40 (Amps) This is the prim

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 28.71% (Should not be greater

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 2.26 (amps) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 5

per phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

27612.3

of the voltage rating of t

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 7670.1 (Volts)

Neutral Current Between Wye Banks (ICURRENT THROUGH NEUTRAL CT) 97.28 (Amps) This is the prim

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 38.62% (Should not be greater

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary amps) 2.92 (amps) Based on 60% o

Page 14 of 38

Phone: (518) 792-4776 Fax: (518) 792-5767 www.nepsi.com

e trip and alarm setpoints for relays used in conjunction with split-wye

h a signal derived from a current transformer (CT) mounted in the

e to the right. The relay may be an over-current relay with trip settings

n voltage. When a voltage relay is used (such as the Basler Basler BE1-

he CT secondary current signal to a voltage signal. Relay calibration

ary current injection at the CT.

ollowing reasons:

ank with one or more fuse operatons. This is true for ungrounded banks

eactance between each phase. The neutral shift is more prevalent with

s and Delta connected banks are not subjected to this concern. In no

to exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage can be determined from

citor Banks provide a simple means for the calculation of expected capacitor voltage, neutral-to-ground

for one or more failed capacitors. Formulas are as follows:

(AMPS)

𝐼_(𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇 𝑇𝐻𝑅𝑂𝑈𝐺𝐻 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅𝐴𝐿 𝐶𝑇)=(𝐼_(𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿 ×)

3×𝐹)/(6𝑁−𝐹) (AMPS)

(AMPS)

_𝑁𝑂𝑀𝐼𝑁𝐴𝐿=𝐼_(𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝐶𝑈𝑅𝑅𝐸𝑁𝑇)=(𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 3∅ 𝐾�𝐴𝑅

𝑅𝐴𝑇𝐼𝑁𝐺)/(1.73× 〖𝐾�〗 _𝐿𝐿 ) (AMPS)

Page 15 of 38

tor fuse operations

ks Combined in amps)

(volts)

r fuse(s) operation.

oltage for the condition that results in more than 10% over-voltage on the remaining capacitors. A time

recommends that one setpoint be used to alarm on the first fuse operation. The second set-point should

over-voltage based on capacitor voltage rating). Filter banks should be set to trip and alarm for the first

ssistance in setting neutral current/voltage relays for the purpose of blown fuse protection on capacitor

This value is the line to line voltage in kV that the capacitor bank or harmonic filter

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase output kvar of the stage (enter as kvar not Mvar) at nominal

system voltage.

(amps)

(This includes caps on both sides of wye - on a per phase basis - i.e. caps in

parallel). Assumes all capacitors are equal in size.

(primary divided by secondary)

Page 16 of 38

Project Name Project - Page 2 Settings for Stage -Enter Stage Number

per phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110%

of the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

Burden Watts 7.42 (watts)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

per phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110%

of the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

Burden Watts 31.47 (watts)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

per phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110%

of the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

Burden Watts 75.17 (watts)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

Page 17 of 38

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total

per phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110%

of the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

Burden Watts 142.11 (watts)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

per phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110%

of the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Amps) This is the primary current through the neutral current transformer.

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

Burden Watts 236.61 (watts)

(amps) Based on 60% of expected CT secondary current

Page 18 of 38

Neutral Current Relay Settings

Relays Should Be Set to Trip Before Remaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage R

Voltage Cap Voltage Current Secondary Current Relay Setting

Caps out (Volts) (Volts) (amps) (amps) Primary Amps *

1 1173.07 21115 17.2 0.86 10.34

2 2492.77 22435 35.5 1.77 21.29

3 3988.44 23931 54.8 2.74 32.90

4 5697.77 25640 75.4 3.77 45.24

5 7670.08 27612 97.3 4.86 58.37

Nominal Cap Voltage 19920 Volts * Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on firs

Maximum Voltage 21912 Volts operation.

Page 19 of 38

Neutral Current Relay Settings

Remaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage Rating

Recommended

Relay Setting Factory

Secondary amps Setting

0.52 ALARM

1.06 TRIP

1.64 N/A

2.26 N/A

2.92 N/A

* Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on first capacitor fuse

operation.

Page 20 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

66 Carey Road, Queensbury, NY Phone: (518)

Project Information

Stage Number(s) Enter Stage Number

Stage kvar Enter Stage kvar

Background Information

This spreadsheet provides calculation assistance for determing blown fuse trip and alarm setpoints for relays used in co

ungrounded wye-connected capacitor banks and harmonic filter banks. The relay works with a signal derived from a po

mounted in the neutral of the capacitor bank as shown in the figure to the right. The relay is typically a over-voltage relay

voltage. Relay calibration is typically done by connecting voltage test set leads to the secondary leads of the PT or by con

voltage inputs of the relay.

CAUTION - THE PT SECONDARY LEADS SHOULD BE DISCONNECTED FROM THE PT DURING RELAY CALIBRA

CAN BE TRANSFORMERED ONTO THE NEUTRAL OF THE CAPACITOR BANK DURING TESTING.

Capacitor Banks are normally equipped with blown fuse detection for the following reasons:

To prevent capacitor damage on the remaining capacitors on a capacitor bank with one or more fuse operatons. This is tr

due to a capacitor neutral shift that occurs from a missmatch in capactive reactance between each phase. The neutral sh

stages or banks that have less than 4 capacitors per phase. Grounded banks and Delta connected banks are not subjected

event should the blown fuse detection system allow the capacitor voltage to exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage c

the equations below.

To alert plant personnel of a blown fuse condition.

To prevent unbalance var support that can lead to system voltage unbalance. Typically, power systems should not be oper

voltage unbalance.

To prevent harmonic filter bank de-tuning. Generally, NEPSI's filter banks are designed to trip on the operation of a single

this concern.

Equations from IEEE C37.99-1980 – IEEE Guide for Protection of Shunt Capacitor Banks provide a simple means for the ca

voltage shift, and current flow between wye connected capacitor banks for for one or more failed capacitors. Formulas ar

(VOLTS)

�_( 𝐶𝐴𝑃 𝐵𝐴𝑁𝐾 𝑁𝐸𝑈𝑇𝑅𝐴𝐿−𝑇𝑂−𝐺𝑅𝑂𝑈𝑁𝐷 )=(�_(Ø (VOLTS)

�_(𝑅𝐸𝑀𝐴𝐼𝑁𝐼𝑁𝐺 𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 �𝑂

×) 𝐹)/(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS) (3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS)

Where

N = Number of Capacitors per Phase (included on both sides of wye connected capacitor bank)

VØ = Nominal Phase-to-Neutral System Voltage (volts)

Page 21 of 38

VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = Voltage remaining on capacitor after fuse operation (volts)

F = Number of Failed Capacitors per Phase

N = Number of Capacitors per Phase (included on both sides of wye connected capacitor bank)

VØ = Nominal Phase-to-Neutral System Voltage (volts)

VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = Voltage remaining on capacitor after fuse operation (volts)

VCAP BANK NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND = Voltage from Capacitor BAnk neutral to ground after fuse(s) operation.

The relay should be set to trip at 60% of PT voltage for the condition that results in more than 10% over-voltage on the re

recommended. For relays with two setpoints, NEPSI recommends that one setpoint be used to alarm on the first fuse ope

bank off line that results in excessive over-voltage (10% over-voltage based on capacitor voltage rating). Filter banks shou

failed capacitor) as filter detuning can occur.

Contact NEPSI at 518-792-4776 or paul.steciuk@nepsi.com for additional assistance in setting neutral current/voltage rel

banks.

Note: Ground faults on the source feeding medium voltage capcitor banks using neutral voltage sensing f

the source side ground fault results in a neutral-to-ground voltage that is seen by the neutral voltage rela

these types of events.

This value is the line to

Enter Capacitor Bank Line-to-Line Voltage (kV) 34.5

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase outp

Enter effective kvar output of filter/capacitor bank stage (kvar) 12000

voltage.

Normal Phase Current (INOMINAL) 201.1 (amps)

Number of Capacitors per Stage per Phase (N) 6 Assumes all capacitors

Neutral PT Ratio 287.5 (primary divided by seco

Enter Capacitor Voltage Rating (kV) 19.92 This is the nameplate vo

Page 22 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

Split-Wye Neutral Current Relay Settings - Enter Customer Name, Enter Project Name Project - Page 2 S

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 1

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

21115.3

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 1173.1 (Volts)

Neutral PT Secondary Voltage 4.08

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 6.00% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary volts) 2.45 (Volts) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 2

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

22435.0

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 2492.8 (Volts)

Neutral PT Secondary Voltage 8.67

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 12.63% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary volts) 5.20 (Volts) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 3

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

23930.6

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 3988.4 (Volts)

Neutral PT Secondary Voltage 13.87

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 20.13% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary volts) 8.32 (Volts) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 4

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

25640.0

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 5697.8 (Volts)

Neutral PT Secondary Voltage 19.82

Page 23 of 38

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 28.71% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary volts) 11.89 (Volts) Based on 60% o

(Normally 1 or more can

Number of failed capacitors per phase (F) 5

phase)

Voltage on remaining capacitors (VREMAINING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE) (Volts) This is the voltag

27612.3

the voltage rating of the

Neutral-to-Ground Voltage (VNEUTRAL TO GROUND) 7670.1 (Volts)

Neutral PT Secondary Voltage 26.68

Percent Over-voltage on Failed Capacitor 38.62% (Should not be greater t

Suggested Relay Setting (Secondary volts) 16.01 (Volts) Based on 60% o

Page 24 of 38

Phone: (518) 792-4776 Fax: (518) 792-5767 www.nepsi.com

ay Settings Sheet

e relay works with a signal derived from a potential transformer (PT)

ght. The relay is typically a over-voltage relay with trip settings based on

ds to the secondary leads of the PT or by connecting directly to the

ACITOR BANK DURING TESTING.

nk with one or more fuse operatons. This is true for ungrounded banks

actance between each phase. The neutral shift is more prevalent with

and Delta connected banks are not subjected to this concern. In no

o exceed its rating by 10%. Capacitor voltage can be determined from

tor Banks provide a simple means for the calculation of expected capacitor voltage, neutral-to-ground

or one or more failed capacitors. Formulas are as follows:

(VOLTS)

�_(𝑅𝐸𝑀𝐴𝐼𝑁𝐼𝑁𝐺 𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 �𝑂𝐿𝑇𝐴𝐺𝐸 )=(�_(Ø ×) 𝑁×3)/

(3𝑁−𝐹) (VOLTS)

ed capacitor bank)

Page 25 of 38

volts)

ed capacitor bank)

volts)

fuse(s) operation.

sults in more than 10% over-voltage on the remaining capacitors. A time delay of 10 seconds is

etpoint be used to alarm on the first fuse operation. The second set-point should be used to trip the

on capacitor voltage rating). Filter banks should be set to trip and alarm for the first fuse operation (one

sistance in setting neutral current/voltage relays for the purpose of blown fuse protection on capacitor

capcitor banks using neutral voltage sensing for blown fuse detection are subject to nuisance tripping as

oltage that is seen by the neutral voltage relay. The relay time delay may be increased to ride through

This value is the line to line voltage in kV that the capacitor bank or harmonic filter

bank is applied at.

This is the 3-phase output kvar of the stage (enter as kvar not Mvar) at nominal system

voltage.

(amps)

Assumes all capacitors are of equal size.

(primary divided by secondary)

This is the nameplate voltage rating of capacitor in kV

Page 26 of 38

Project Name Project - Page 2 Settings for Stage -Enter Stage Number

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Volts) Based on 60% of expected PT Voltage

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Volts) Based on 60% of expected PT Voltage

(Normally 1 or more cans are allowed to fail for banks consisting of 4 or more total per

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Volts) Based on 60% of expected PT Voltage

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

Page 27 of 38

(Should not be greater than 10% under nominal system conditions)

(Volts) Based on 60% of expected PT Voltage

phase)

(Volts) This is the voltage across the healthy capacitors. It should not exceed 110% of

the voltage rating of the capacitor.

(Volts)

(Volts) Based on 60% of expected PT Voltage

Page 28 of 38

Neutral Voltage Relay Settings

Relays Should Be Set to Trip Before Remaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage

Voltage Cap Voltage Primary Volts Seconary Volts Relay Setting

Caps out (Volts) (Volts) (Volts) (Volts) Primary Volts *

1 1173.07 21115 1173.1 4.08 703.84

2 2492.77 22435 2492.8 8.67 1495.66

3 3988.44 23931 3988.4 13.87 2393.06

4 5697.77 25640 5697.8 19.82 3418.66

5 7670.08 27612 7670.1 26.68 4602.05

Nominal Cap Voltage 19920 Volts * Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on firs

Maximum Voltage 21912 Volts operation.

Page 29 of 38

Neutral Voltage Relay Settings

emaining Capacitor Voltage Exceeds Capacitor Maxium Volage Rating

Recommended

Relay Setting Factory

Secondary Volts Setting

2.45 ALARM

5.20 TRIP

8.32 N/A

11.89 N/A

16.01 N/A

* Harmonic Filter Banks should be set to trip and alarm on first capacitor fuse

operation.

Page 30 of 38

Northeast Power Systems, Inc.

66 Carey Road, Queensbury, NY Phone: (518

Project Information

Stage Number(s) Enter Stage Number CT Part #:

Stage kvar Inter Stage kvar CT Ratio:

CT Manufacturer:

CT Relay Accuracy:

CT Meter Accuracy:

Background Information

This spreadsheet provides calculation assistance for determining the CT burden voltage on neutral current transformers a

capacitor banks for blown fuse detection. This spreadsheet calculation assumes the use of a neutral voltage relay and neu

connected accross the CT secondary. The neutral resistor developes a neutral voltage from the CT secondary current to p

voltage signal to the Neutral Voltage Relay. CT secondary lead length (distance between the CT and the relay), CT seconda

neutral relay burden resistance, and CT secondary winding resistance are required for the calculation.

The secondary burden resistance is calculated by adding the series combination of the CT winding resistance to the CT Se

to the parallel combination of the relay burden resistance and neutral CT burden resistor.

The burden voltage voltage is calculated at the CT secondary trip current rating and is calculated by multipling the total se

resistance by the secondary relay trip current.

The burden voltage should be near or less than the CT relay accuracy rating or "C" rating or within the CT Meter Accurac

example, a meter accuracy rating of 2.4B0.5 would mean that a CT connected to a total burden impedance of 0.5 ohms w

at full rated primary amps. If the burden ohms exceeds the meter burden ratings of the CT, the use of the "C" rating is nec

excitation curves at the trip current rating are necessary to calculate the ratio error of the CT.

For positive pickup, NEPSI sets its relay at 60% of the expected blown fuse value. Therefore, accuracies within 10% are con

positive relay pickup for a blown fuse condition.

Enter CT Secondary Conductor Impedance (ohms/1000 feet) 1.1 (ohms/1000') - Data from

Page 31 of 38

Enter Secondary Distance Between Relay and CT 330 (feet) This should includ

Calculated CT Secondary Lead Resistance

impedance divided by 1

Enter Neutral Burden Resistor Rating (ohms) 10.00 (ohms) - Use 0 ohms if

Enter Burden Resistance of Neutral Relay 200.00 (ohms) - if in VA, conver

Parallel combination of Neutral Burden Resistor and Neutral Relay Burden

9.52 (ohms)

Resistance

Total CT Burden Resistance 10.28 Length, and the Parallel

Burden Resistance.

Enter Relay CT Secondary Trip Current from relay settings sheet 1.06 (amps) - The value at w

Page 32 of 38

Phone: (518) 792-4776 Fax: (518) 792-5767 www.nepsi.com

on

Enter Current Transformer Part Number

Enter Current Transformer Turns Ratio

CT Manufacturer: Enter Current Transformer manufacturer

CT Relay Accuracy: Enter Current Transformer Relay Accuracy

CT Meter Accuracy: 0.6B0.1, 1.2B0.2, 2.4B0.5 (for example)

mes the use of a neutral voltage relay and neutral burden resistor

l voltage from the CT secondary current to provide the necessary

ce between the CT and the relay), CT secondary lead impedance,

uired for the calculation.

den resistor.

r "C" rating or within the CT Meter Accuracy Rationg of the CT. For

d to a total burden impedance of 0.5 ohms would have 2.4% accuracy

ngs of the CT, the use of the "C" rating is necessary or the use of

o error of the CT.

Provided by Customer

(ohms/1000') - Data from National Bureau of Standards Handbook 100, ROP 6-218

Page 33 of 38

(feet) This should include up, down, and over distance (total length in feet).

(ohms) - Value equals the product of 2 times the secondary distance and conductor

impedance divided by 1000

(ohms) - Use 0 ohms if using a current sensing relay.

(ohms) - if in VA, convert to impedance in ohms at rated sensing voltage

(ohms)

Length, and the Parallel Combination of Neutral Burden Reistor and Neutral Relay

Burden Resistance.

(amps) - The value at which the relay is expected to trip the bank offline

(volts) - product of total CT burden Resistance and relay trip current in amps

Page 34 of 38

- Uniform Labour Data -Kseb- Board OrderUploaded byVivek Kakkoth
- Impact of Floating Neutral in PowerUploaded byNorhanif Mohd Husain
- protoUploaded bydilipeline
- Ti Toroidais GE 2007Uploaded byJose de Sa
- Troubleshooting Commercial Lighting LoadsUploaded byvthiseas
- Manual Medidor de Energia MA400Uploaded byjpineda55
- 07 TT 02 Using-The-protectionUploaded byLong Leo
- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Inspection of GroundFault Protection SystemsUploaded byRobert Galarza
- Fault finding in meterUploaded byKamaludeen Ismail
- Ct Metsect5dd125Uploaded byZoran Nesic
- 400 KV Switchyard Testing ScheduleUploaded byBedabyas_dehury
- Impact of Floating Neutral in Power Distribution _ Electrical Notes & ArticlesUploaded byzarchiwin05
- A Sensitive ANN Based Differential Relay for Transformer Protection With Security Against CT Saturation and Tap Changer Operation[#144465]-125888Uploaded byAriel Chavez
- FicoUploaded byWaqar Ahmad
- Instrument TransformerUploaded byBhrugesh Rathod
- Automatic Circuit Recloser BrochUploaded bysan
- boq 4.3.14.docxUploaded bySiam Hasan
- Errahulsharmafeederprotection 141017104620 Conversion Gate02Uploaded byAnand VR
- ELK 1304 195 Manuscript 1Uploaded byBogdan Vicol
- short_71_capacitor_unbalance_protection_for_blocks_in_double_star_connection_v1.0.pdfUploaded byjoapme
- Medidor de EnergiaUploaded byamadeo_am
- GC-1F Data SheetUploaded bynhocti007
- i300gbie05_13.pdfUploaded byracso
- Sentron 12Uploaded bymohamed Anas
- 73892666-08-capacitorprotectionUploaded byMudit
- NGRUploaded byranju
- Vol06_Tab02 ManualUploaded byIsmael Gracia
- JFR Instruction Manual AVRUploaded bySugar Ray
- scan0092.pdfUploaded byButch Butch
- Ins Rum en Tat IonUploaded bysharma_anil1210

- IDMT Relay Calculation (12.10.12)Uploaded byAchmad Zaenuri Rajasa
- X-R RATIO TABLEUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Stator Core Testing.pdfUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- 87T Sepam Series 80 Protection RelaysUploaded bybxteo
- EL CID Stator Core TestUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- ELCID Evolution - Electromagnetic Core Imperfection DetectionUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Load Sharing Unit LSU-112DGUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Schneider Case StudyUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- SEPAM ProtectionUploaded byYigit Sarıkaya
- CSH 120/200Uploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Idmt Curve SpreadsheetUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Low Resistance Testing With the Megger DLRO 600Uploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Nuisance Generator Differential Protection Trips in Real Time SituationsUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- DLRO10HD new product launch.pptUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- DLRO10HD new product launch.pptUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- AnsiUploaded byproject
- Stator Ground ProtectionUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- RSO TestingUploaded byAntonio Dsfvsdc
- IECC 2018 Application GuideUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Frequency Control and Regulating ReservesUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Droop CalculationUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Cable and Circuit Breakers Sizing FormulasUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- MiCOM IDMT Curves Calculator.xlsxUploaded byYigit Sarıkaya
- Perga GeneratorUploaded byAnonymous CO7aaHr
- Motor Winding Temperature ClassUploaded byExecutive Engineer I & C, Ashuganj South

- et210 1ssy2014-15 estrada panotes sabaecoUploaded byapi-272584741
- CGV(10CS65) Question BankUploaded byAbhishek Manjunath
- Volvo EW145B Service Repair ManualUploaded byHoang Hai
- 373735303733393837343Uploaded byNick Allen
- 2017 Online LET Reviewer_General EducationUploaded byDlaniger Russorman
- 00178359 Imp VControl of Parallel Connected Inverters in Stand-Alone AC Supply SystemsUploaded bySiddaraj Uppin
- Research and Innovation News Issue 19Uploaded bytimpaa
- DEFRA Applying the Waste Hierarchy - Evidence Summary 2011Uploaded byS__H_
- Dispersed Remote Vehicle Diagnostic SystemUploaded byliezelleann
- #hmongtalk.20050903Uploaded byTengri
- Project Mgmt Assignment 1 - By ArvindUploaded byarvindkumararai
- Oracle DBA Concise Handbook 92 Pages( Good One)Uploaded byChetan Kumar
- Common Core Task Force Final ReportUploaded byConnCAN
- Use of Creep Compliance Interconverted From Complex Modulus for Thermal Cracking PredictionUploaded byLoyda Marcela
- Bopf ExerciseUploaded byPallav Gangele
- Hindustan Unilever LimitedUploaded byAlok Sharma
- 2018 UPCEA Annual Conference Onsite ProgramUploaded byUPCEA-EDU
- WS-Policy.pptUploaded byHerbert Tagudin
- TaleoCafe Best Practices ACEPrescreening_EN_Taleo ACE and Pre-screening CafeUploaded byeng_khalidseif
- Sandvik DD311Uploaded byAndrea Zagastizabal
- Communication ModelsUploaded bySam Kamau
- Micros 3700Uploaded byNikie5
- energies-07-02740 (1).pdfUploaded byMohsin Raza
- As 3961-2005 the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Natural GasUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Gas-Well-Deliverability-Fetkovich.pdfUploaded byBarbara_LFC
- ASSI_PacMan_Pol07_v4-0.pdfUploaded byRadu Patzelt
- Axway Datasheet Securetransport EnUploaded byyadav123456
- Chapter 5,Separator and Distillation ColumnUploaded bySyukri Zainuddin
- NCP1117ST33T3G.pdfUploaded byMarcos
- TR019999012181_enUploaded byAliTronic1972