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Motivation process/cycle

Motivation cycle:

1. Needs creates behavior to reach goals


2. Goals creates new needs

Process vs. Content Two types of motivation theories

Process:
Content:
• Dynamic
• Static
• Emphasis on the process of
• Empasis on what motivates
motivation
• Concern with individual needs
• Concern with how motivation
and goals
occurs
• Herzberg, Maslow, Aldefer,
• Vroom, Porter & Lawler,
McClelland
Adams, Locke, Heider, Kelley

McClelland’s Theory of Needs


• Need for achievement - The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to
a set of standards, and to strive to succeed. Want responsibility,
feedback and some degree of risk
• Need for power - The need to make others behave in a way they
would not have behaved otherwise
• Need for affiliation - The desire for friendly and close interpersonal
relationships

About McClelland’s Theory

• High achievers are not necessarily good managers


• People driven by affiliation alone make quite weak managers.
• Affiliation and power together are closely related to managerial
success

Herzberg’s satisfiers and dissatisfiers

Motivators (intrinsic):
Hygiene factors (extrinsic):
• Sense of achievements
• Company policy
• Recognition
• Status/promotion
• Resposibility
• Salary
• Personal growth
• Job security
• The work itself
• Etc.
• Etc.

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y


• Two distinct views of people:
• Negative (Theory X) (lower needs)
• Positive (Theory Y) (higher needs)
• Managers view employees based on a group of assumptions
• Based on these assumptions, managers tend to mold their behavior
toward employees

Theory X Workers:
Theory Y Workers:
• Dislike work
• View work as natural
• Must be threatened with
• Self-directed
punishment
• Exercise self-control
• Avoid responsibilities
• Accept responsibility
• Seek formal direction
• Seek responsibility
• Require security
• Make innovative decisions
• Little ambition

Process vs. Content Two types of motivation theories

Process:
Content:
• Dynamic
• Static • Emphasis on the process of
• Empasis on what motivates motivation
• Concern with individual • Concern with how
needs and goals motivation occurs

• Herzberg, Maslow, Aldefer, • Vroom, Porter & Lawler,


McClelland Adams, Locke, Heider,
Kelley

Goal-Setting Theory
• Goals are a potent motivating force
• Specific goals lead to increased performance
• Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy
goals
• Participation in setting the goals might motivate further
• Set goals only, not the route to achieve it
FRAME
Goals should be:

• Few
• Realistic
• Agreed
• Measured
• Explicit

Expectancy theory (Vroom and others)

• Motivation = expectation*attr.
• Strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on
• Strength of expectation that the act will be followed by a given
outcome
• Attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
• Attractiveness - The importance the individual places on the
potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job;
considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual
• Performance-reward linkage - The degree to which the individual
believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the
attainment of a desired outcome
• Effort-performance linkage - The probability perceived by the
individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to
performance

Porter and Lawler’s expectancy model


Equity Theory (Adams and others)

• Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against
what they get from it (outcome)
• Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-
outcome ratio of relevant others
• If they perceive their ratio to be equal to that of relevant others, a
state of equity exists otherwise inequity

Employee recognition programs

• Using multiple sources to reward behavoiur and recognize publicly


both individual and group accomplishment
• Rewarding behavior with recognition immediately leads to its
repetition
• To maximize motivation potential, publicly communicate who and
why is being recognized
• Recognizing employee’s superior performance often costs little

Employee involvement
• A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees
related to decisions that affect them is designed to encourage
increased commitment to the organization's success
• Involve workers in decisions that will affect them
• Increase their autonomy and control over their work lives
• Include techniques with a common core
• Employee participation
• Participative management
• Workplace democracy
• Empowerment
• Employee ownership

Variable-pay programs
Forms of compensation where a portion of an employee’s pay is based on
the measure of performance either of the individual, the organization, or
both
four widely used variable-pay programs

1. Piece-rate wages - fixed sum for each unit completed


2. Bonuses - a percent of annual pay based on company earnings
3. Profit sharing - based on a formula designed around company’s
profitability
4. Gainsharing - formula-based group incentive plan for
improvements in productivity

Skill-based pay
Pay levels based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs
they can do
Advantages:

• Attractive due to flexibility for management


• Encourages employees to acquire a range of skills
• Facilitates communication and understanding of others’ jobs
• Meets needs of ambitious employees without a promotion in job
title

Disadvantages:

• Topping out - learning all the skills


• Skills might become obsolete
• Do not address level of performance

Belbin’s 9 team roles


1 Implementer
2 Plant
3 Coordinator
5 Shaper
6 Specialist
7 Teamworker
8 Monitor/evaluator
10 Completer/finisher
12 Resource investigator