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Although nuts and bolts industry falls in smes but it has great importance for manufacturing..Nuts and bolts manufacturers have played a big part in making nuts and bolts affordable by increasing their efficiency and improving components and technology. The competitiveness of the industry has increased with demand, and there are many companies providing nuts, bolts washels e.t.c The nuts and bolts are used by all mechanical industries and it is the necessity of these all industries. These are the major components of assembling the mechanical parts of machines from small to giant sizes.
The production capacity of air conditioner is…
In 2003 29020
In 2004 143795
In 2005 231914
In 2006 427350
The major players in commercial chillers are
ABDUL SATTAR DATA NAGAR BADAMIBAGH A.M.K.ENGG.WORKS 27-KM MULTAN ROAD
ABID WASHER MAKER SHALIMAR TOWN
A AMJAD JAVED & BROS SULTAN MAHMOOD ROAD ALPINE INDUSTIAL COMPANY G.T. ROAD DAROGHAWALA
AMJAD JAVED & BROS SULTAN MAHMOOD ROAD BUTT FASTENER INDUSTRIES DEFENCE ROAD EASY FASTENEST (PVT) LTD. DEFENCE ROAD HAFEEZ ULLAH SCREW AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES MULTAN ROAD IRFAN INDUSTRIES MOMINPURA ROAD DAROGHAWALA KALANI BOLT AND HAND TOOLS INDUSTRIES, IQBAL PARK BUND ROAD, NEW FIRDOUS COLD STORAGE KHALID NUT AND BOLTS G.T.ROAD BAGHBANPURA LAHORE IRON WORKS BUND ROAD
(Plot No.24, MUHAMMAD YOUNIS KOT SHAHBUDDIN SHAHDRA TOWN, LAHORE)
(ALPINE INDUSTIAL COMPANY G.T. ROAD DAROGHAWALA) ( IRFAN INDUSTRIES MOMINPURA ROAD DAROGHAWALA) (ABID WASHER MAKER SHALIMAR TOWN)
Production and Capacity Utilization
The Production of commercial chillers is…
The Utilization capacity of Chillers is…
In 2003 41.5%
In 2004 44.8%
In 2005 78.4%
In 2006 85%
Imported Imported Imported growth growth growth Share in in Imported in value in value Imported quantity value 2008, Pakistan's Quantity Unit value, between between quantity imports, between USD unit (USD/unit) 200420072008 2004thousand % 2008, %, 2008, %, 2008, %, p.a. p.a. p.a. World China Japan Germany Hong Kong (SARC) United States of America 25,441 6,235 2,009 1,998 1,947 100 24.5 7.9 7.9 7.7 7,662 2,359 569 473 490 Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons 3,320 2,643 3,531 4,224 3,973 34 81 7 40 74 3 63 7 -7 9 12 74 3 -21 -3
Exported Exported Exported growth growth growth Share in in Exported in value in value Exported quantity value 2008, Pakistan's Quantity Unit value, between between quantity exports, between USD unit (USD/unit) 200420072008 2004thousand % 2008, %, 2008, %, 2008, %, p.a. p.a. p.a. World Kuwait 630 181 100 28.7 173 55 Tons Tons 3,642 3,291 -18 4 -25 -13 -23 99
Germany United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia Singapore United Kingdom 130 105 20.6 16.7 32 28 Tons Tons 4,063 3,750 218 5 -19 110 200
52 50 39
8.3 7.9 6.2
15 14 12
Tons Tons Tons
3,467 3,571 3,250
-37 13 29
-41 0 13
-42 456 -25
Raw material is basically made of iron and solid metal. Raw material which is used by these industries are sheets of iron, metal rods.
Source of raw material
The industry use raw material locally. They purchase raw material mostly from scrap yards as per order.
The Manufacturing Process
Creating encasement parts from galvanized sheet metal and structural steel
1 Most air conditioners start out as raw material, in the form of structural steel shapes and sheet steel. As the sheet metal is processed into fabrication cells or work cells, it is cut, formed, punched, drilled, sheared, and/or bent into a useful shape or form. The encasements or wrappers, the metal that envelopes most outdoor residential units, is made of galvanized sheet metal that uses a zinc coating to provide protection against corrosion. Galvanized sheet metal is also used to form the bottom pan, face plates, and various support brackets throughout an air conditioner. This sheet metal is sheared on a shear press in a fabrication cell soon after arriving from storage or inventory. Structural steel shapes are cut and mitered on a band saw to form useful brackets and supports.
Punch pressing the sheet metal forms
2 From the shear press, the sheet metal is loaded on a CNC (Computer Numerical Control) punch press. The punch press has the option of receiving its computer program from a drafting CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Drafting/Computer Aided Manufacturing) program or from an independently written CNC program. The CAD/CAM program will transform a drafted or modeled part on the computer into a file that can be read by the punch press, telling it where to punch holes in the sheet metal. Dies and other punching instruments are stored in the machine and mechanically brought to the punching arm, where it can be used to drive through the sheet. The NC (Numerically Controlled) press brakes bend the sheet into its final form, using a computer file to program itself. Different bending dies are used for different shapes and configurations and may be changed for each component.
3 Some brackets, fins, and sheet components are outsourced to other facilities or companies to produce large quantities. They are brought to the assembly plant only when needed for assembly. Many of the brackets are produced on a hydraulic or mechanical press, where brackets of different shapes and configurations can be produced from a coiled sheet and unrolled continuously into the machine. High volumes of parts can be produced because the press can often produce a complex shape with one hit.
Cleaning the parts
4 All parts must be completely clean and free of dirt, oil, grease, and lubricants before they are powder coated. Various cleaning methods are used to accomplish this necessary task. Large solution tanks filled with a cleaning solvent agitate and knock off the oil when parts are submersed. Spray wash systems use pressurized cleaning solutions to knock off dirt and grease. Vapor degreasing, suspending the parts above a harsh cleansing vapor, uses an acid solution and will leave the parts free of petroleum products. Most outsourced parts that arrive from a vendor have already been degreased and cleaned. For additional corrosion protection, many parts will be primed in a phosphate primer bath before entering a drying oven to prepare them for the application of the powder coating.
5 Before brackets, pans, and wrappers are assembled together, they are fed through a powder coating operation. The powder coating system sprays a paintlike dry powder onto the parts as they are fed through a booth on an overhead conveyor. This can be done by robotic sprayers that are programmed where to spray as each part feeds through the booth on the conveyor. The parts are statically charged to attract the powder to adhere to deep crevices and bends within each part. The powder-coated parts are then fed through an oven, usually with the same conveyor system, where the powder is permanently baked onto the metal. The process takes less than 10 minutes.
Bending the tubing for the condenser and evaporator
6 The condenser and evaporator both act as a heat exchanger in air conditioning systems and are made of copper or aluminum tubing bent around in coil form to maximize the distance through which the working fluid travels. The opposing fluid, or cooling fluid, passes around the tubes as the working fluid draws away its heat in the evaporator. This is accomplished by taking many small diameter copper tubes bent in the same shape and anchoring them with guide rods and aluminum plates. The working fluid or refrigerant flows through the copper tubes and the opposing fluid flows around them in between the aluminum plates. The tubes will often end up with hairpin bends performed by NC benders, using the same principle as the NC press brake. Each bend is identical to the next. The benders use previously straightened tubing to bend around a fixed die with a mandrel fed through the inner diameter to keep it from collapsing during the bend. The mandrel is raked back through the inside of the tube when the bend has been accomplished.
7 Tubing supplied to the manufacturer in a coil form goes through an uncoiled and straightened before being fed through the bender. Some tubing will be cut into desired lengths on an abrasive saw that will cut several small tubes in one stroke. The aluminum plates are punched out on a punch press and formed on a mechanical press to place divots or waves in the plate. These waves maximize the thermodynamic heat transfer between the working fluid and the opposing medium. When the copper tubes are finished in the bending cell, they are transported by automatic guided vehicle (AGV) to the assembly cell, where they are stacked on the guide rods and fed through the plates or fins.
Joining the copper tubing with the aluminum plates
8 A major part of the assembly is the joining of the copper tubing with the aluminum plates. This assembly becomes the evaporator and is accomplished by taking the stacked copper tubing in their hairpin configuration and mechanically fusing them to the aluminum plates. The fusing occurs by taking a bullet, or Group 5
Mini Project mandrel, and feeding it through the copper tubing to expand it and push it against the inner part of the hole of the plate. This provides a thrifty, yet useful bond between the tubing and plate, allowing for heat transfer.
9 The condenser is manufactured in a similar manner, except that the opposing medium is usually air, which cools off the copper or aluminum condenser coils without the plates. They are held by brackets which support the coiled tubing, and are connected to the evaporator with fittings or couplings. The condenser is usually just one tube that may be bent around in a number of hairpin bends. The expansion valve, a complete component, is purchased from a vendor and installed in the piping after the condenser. It allows the pressure of the working fluid to decrease and re-enter the pump.
Installing the pump
10 The pump is also purchased complete I h from an outside supplier. Designed to increase system pressure and circulate the working fluid, the pump is connected with fittings to the system and anchored in place by support brackets and a base. It is bolted together with the other structural members of the air conditioner and covered by the wrapper or sheet metal encasement. The encasement is either riveted or bolted together to provide adequate protection for the inner.
Problem faced by Industry
Nuts and bolts manufacturers face the challenge of improving efficiency and lowering costs. The competitiveness of the industry should remain strong, driving more innovations in manufacturing and design. 1. Pakistan is a country where policies are rapidly changed even in days and weeks. In the past, aim of the monetary was credit expansion. Deteriorating political, law and order situation in the Country is one of the major reasons of Industrial down turn. Industrial activity cannot flourish in an atmosphere of disturbances and fear. 2. Increasing trend in the cost of inputs has become common practice in our Country due to which small Industries cannot compete in the markets. Due to increase in prices of inputs used in manufacturing process like Electricity, Sui Gas etc, our small sector is not able to compete / sell their products at higher prices due to multiplied cost of production.
Mini Project 3. Severe electricity load shedding and disconnection of Sui Gas supply for industries in winter season is the biggest problem faced by this industry in the country. Small and medium size manufacturing units are badly affected to the power crises as they do not have alternative resources as corporate sector have, like their own power generation houses. Due to power crises prevailing for last many years, unemployment in the country has also increased to considerable extent. In majority of sectors work force/labor works on daily wages basis and in constant power break downs they are deprived of even basic necessities of life which is least desirable in any civilized society. Today Load Shedding has become major problem of Pakistan and small and medium sized industries/traders are suffering to worst extent. 4. Lack of up-to-date Information about target markets, inputs, policies, regulations, etc. 5. There is no proper association among these manufacturers. Hence these small manufacturers are not able to effectively promote their interests. 6. A frequent cause of bankruptcy is undercapitalization. This is often a result of poor planning rather than economic conditions. 7. On the other hand imported/smuggled goods are commonly available in the markets at much cheaper prices. Chinese Goods are one of the best examples, which are available throughout the country at much lower prices. 8. Unaffordable cost of new machinery.
The prices of commercial chillers are normally from Rs. 156,000 to Rs. 270,000. But the prices are not constant. They changes time to time and also according to the specification of product. Pricing also set by competitive market. Some time whole seller also play a role to set the prices
The government policy exists, but there is lack of implementation, the only incentive local manufacture gets is high import duty on imported brand as result local manufacturer. The Govt is not giving any kind of subsidy to the local manufacturers of nuts and bolts. There is no relaxation on electricity bills and taxes. The Govt only support the corporate sectors not the small manufacturers.
Mini Project Due to huge amount of financing involved,Bank in Pakistan are very much accomodating towards corporate customers.Likewise Government is also giving more importance to Corporate entities. On the other hand small and medium size businesses and industries are dependent on corporate sector to a great extent and does not possess enough shock absorbers against higher cost of production and like factors. Chinese Goods are one of the best example, which are available throughout the country at much lower prices. Today Chinese goods have become major threat to Pakistani economy especially to industries operating on small or medium scale. In Pakistan costs of production are much higher. Although it is in the knowledge of the Policy makers, but they are paying deaf ear to such problems which is very much unfortunate. SBP should take up these issues with GoP/Policy Makers and prevail upon them to chalk out course of action & strategy to coup with this situation.
Prospects (After WTO)
The implementation of world trade organization regime has open new window opportunities as well as number of threats and challenges to various sectors of economy including engineering sectors. The government policy in previous years was to protect engineering industry by using various measure including tariffs ,but this policy has been discontinued now with out taking into consideration the competence of local engineering industry and with out any future planning to counter the impact of WTO. With the implementation of WTO tariff protection to local industries against imported goods has to be eliminated, leaving no opportunity for local industry to compete with cheap imported goods. The major problem faced by local engineering industries is lack of economy of scale as a result it is expected that growth rate of local engineering industries will decline in future And technological development and product up gradation is likely to be effected. Consequently, the economy has to face severe impact, resulting in unemployment in the country, the current situation demand that government should take immediate and appropriate steps to ensure that local engineering industry remain competitive.
http://www.fbr.gov.pk/newcu/TARIFF/2008/ch1-97.pdf http://www.orient-power.com/contact/index.aspx?PriID=22 http://www.epb.gov.pk/v1/index.php http://www.iarreport.com(iar 83)
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