You are on page 1of 26

Problem 10.

2
Estimate the theoretical fracture strength of a brittle material if it is
known that fracture occurs by the propagation of an elliptically shaped
surface crack of length 0.28 mm and having a tip radius of curvature of
1.2  103 mm when a stress of 1200 MPa is applied.
Problem 10.2
In order to estimate the theoretical fracture strength of this material it is necessary to calculate m using
Equation 10.1 given that  0 = 1200 MPa, a = 0.28 mm, and t = 1.2  103 mm. Thus,

1/ 2
 a
 m  2 0  
  t

1/2
 0.28 mm 
= (2)(1200 MPa)  3  = 3.7  104 MPa = 37 GPa
 1.2  10 mm 
Problem 10.5
A specimen of a 4340 steel alloy having a plane strain fracture toughness of
45 MPa m is exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa. Will this specimen experience
fracture if it is known that the largest surface crack is 0.76 mm long? Why or
why not? Assume that the parameter Y has a value of 1.0.
Problem 10.5
This problem asks us to determine whether or not the 4340 steel alloy specimen will fracture when
exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa, given the values of KIc, Y, and the largest value of a in the material.
This requires that we solve for c from Equation 10.6. Thus

K Ic 45 MPa m
c    921 MPa
Y a (1.0) ( )(0.76  10 m)
3

Therefore, fracture will most likely occur because this specimen will tolerate a stress of 927 MPa before
fracture, which is less than the applied stress of 1000 MPa.
Problem 10.6
Some aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminum alloy that has a
plane strain fracture toughness of 35 MPa m . It has been determined that
fracture results at a stress of 250 MPa when the maximum (or critical) internal
crack length is 2.0 mm. For this same component and alloy, will fracture
occur at a stress level of 325 MPa when the maximum internal crack length is
1.1 mm? Why or why not?
Problem 10.6
We are asked to determine if an aircraft component will fracture for a given fracture toughness (35
MPa m), stress level (325 MPa), and maximum internal crack length (1.1 mm), given that fracture
occurs for the same component using the same alloy for another stress level and internal crack length. It
first becomes necessary to solve for the parameter Y, using Equation 10.5, for the conditions under which
fracture occurred (i.e.,  = 250 MPa and 2a = 2.0 mm). Therefore,

K Ic 35 MPa m
Y= = = 2.50
s pa æ 2 ´ 10-3 m ö
(250 MPa) (p ) ç ÷
è 2 ø
Problem 10.6
Now we will solve for the product Y   a for the other set of conditions, so as to ascertain whether or

not this value is greater than the KIc for the alloy. Thus,

 1.1  103 m 
Y   a  (2.50)(325 MPa) ( )  
 2

 33.8MPa m

Therefore, fracture will not occur since this value (33.8 MPa m ) is less than the KIc of the material,
35 MPa m .
Problem 10.13
Following is tabulated data that were gathered from a series of Charpy impact
tests on a tempered 4140 steel alloy.
Temperature (°C) Impact Energy (J)

(a) Plot the data as impact energy versus 100 89.3

temperature. 75 88.6

50 87.6
(b) Determine a ductile-to-brittle transition 25 85.4

temperature as that temperature 0 82.9

25 78.9
corresponding to the average of the
50 73.1

maximum and minimum impact energies. 65 66.0

75 59.3
(c) Determine a ductile-to-brittle transition
85 47.9
temperature as that temperature at which the 100 34.3

125 29.3
impact energy is 70 J.
150 27.1

175 25.0
Problem 10.13
Problem 10.13

(b) The average of the maximum and minimum impact energies from the data is

89.3 J  25 J
Average   57.2 J
2

As indicated on the plot by the one set of dashed lines, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature
according to this criterion is about 75C (198 K).
Problem 10.13

(c) Also, as noted on the plot by the other set of dashed lines, the ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature for an impact energy of 70 J is about 55°C (218K).
Problem 10.19
Suppose that the fatigue data for the brass alloy in Problem 10.18 were taken
from torsional tests, and that a shaft of this alloy is to be used for a coupling
that is attached to an electric motor operating at 1500 rpm. Give the
maximum torsional stress amplitude possible for each of the following
lifetimes of the coupling: (a) 1 year, (b) 1 month, (c) 1 day, and (d) 2 hours.
Problem 10.19
350
Stress Amplitude (MPa) Cycles to Failure
310 2 × 105
300
223 1 × 106
191 3 × 106
250 168 1 × 107
153 3 × 107
Stress Amplitude, MPa

200 143 1 × 108


134 3 × 108

150 127 1 × 109

100

50

0
2 × 105 1 × 106 3 × 106 1 × 107 3 × 107 1 × 108 3 × 108 1 × 109
Cycles to Failure
Problem 10.19
(a) Fatigue lifetime = (1 yr)(365 days/yr)(24 h/day)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 7.9
 108 cycles. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 130 MPa.
(b) Fatigue lifetime = (30 days)(24 h/day)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 6.5  107
cycles. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 145 MPa.
(c) Fatigue lifetime = (24 h)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 2.2  106 cycles. The stress
amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 195 MPa.
(d) Fatigue lifetime = (2 h)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 1.8  105 cycles. The stress
amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 315 MPa.
Problem 10.27
The following creep data were taken on an aluminum alloy at 400C (673 K) and a constant stress of 25
MPa. Plot the data as strain versus time, then determine the steady-state or minimum creep rate.
Note: The initial and instantaneous strain is not included.
Time Strain Time Strain
(min) (min)

0 0.000 16 0.135

2 0.025 18 0.153

4 0.043 20 0.172

6 0.065 22 0.193

8 0.078 24 0.218

10 0.092 26 0.255

12 0.109 28 0.307

14 0.120 30 0.368
Problem 10.27
Problem 10.27
Problem 10.28
A specimen 760 mm long of an S-590 alloy (Figure 10.32) is to be exposed to
a tensile stress of 80 MPa at 815C (1088 K). Determine its elongation after
5000 h. Assume that the total of both instantaneous and primary creep
elongations is 1.5 mm.
Problem 10.28
Problem 10.28

 (5.5  106 h 1 ) (5,000 h)  0.0275

Therefore, the total elongation is 20.9 mm + 1.5 mm =


22.4 mm.
Problem 10.35
Steady-state creep data taken for a stainless steel at a stress level of 70 MPa
are given as follows:

(s1) T (K)
1.0 × 105 977
2.5 × 103 1089

If it is known that the value of the stress exponent n for this alloy is 7.0, compute the steady-state creep rate at
1250 K and a stress level of 50 MPa.
Problem 10.35

( )
ln 1.0  105 s 1  ln K 2  (7.0) ln (70 MPa) 
Qc
(8.31 J/mol  K)(977 K)

(
ln 2.5  10 3
s 1
)  ln K 2  (7.0) ln (70 MPa) 
Qc
(8.31 J/mol  K)(1089 K)

K2 and Qc leads to K2 = 2.55  105 s1 and Qc = 436,000 J/mol.


Problem 10.35

 
( )
 2.55  105 s 1 (50 MPa)7.0 exp  
436, 000 J/mol

 (8.31 J/mol  K)(1250 K) 
= 0.118 s1
Additional Problems
Consider an 18-8 Mo stainless steel component (Figure 10.34) that is
exposed to a temperature of 500C (773 K). What is the maximum allowable
stress level for a rupture lifetime of 5 years? 20 years?
Additional Problems
Additional Problems
The values of tr corresponding to 5 and 20 years are 4.38
 104 h and 1.75  105 h
260 MPa

For a lifetime of 5 years 225 MPa

T (20  log tr )  773 20  log (4.38  104 )  19.05  103

And for tr = 20 years

T (20  log tr )  773 20  log (1.75  105 )  19.51  103