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Estimate the theoretical fracture strength of a brittle material if it is

known that fracture occurs by the propagation of an elliptically shaped

surface crack of length 0.28 mm and having a tip radius of curvature of

1.2 103 mm when a stress of 1200 MPa is applied.

Problem 10.2

In order to estimate the theoretical fracture strength of this material it is necessary to calculate m using

Equation 10.1 given that 0 = 1200 MPa, a = 0.28 mm, and t = 1.2 103 mm. Thus,

1/ 2

a

m 2 0

t

1/2

0.28 mm

= (2)(1200 MPa) 3 = 3.7 104 MPa = 37 GPa

1.2 10 mm

Problem 10.5

A specimen of a 4340 steel alloy having a plane strain fracture toughness of

45 MPa m is exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa. Will this specimen experience

fracture if it is known that the largest surface crack is 0.76 mm long? Why or

why not? Assume that the parameter Y has a value of 1.0.

Problem 10.5

This problem asks us to determine whether or not the 4340 steel alloy specimen will fracture when

exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa, given the values of KIc, Y, and the largest value of a in the material.

This requires that we solve for c from Equation 10.6. Thus

K Ic 45 MPa m

c 921 MPa

Y a (1.0) ( )(0.76 10 m)

3

Therefore, fracture will most likely occur because this specimen will tolerate a stress of 927 MPa before

fracture, which is less than the applied stress of 1000 MPa.

Problem 10.6

Some aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminum alloy that has a

plane strain fracture toughness of 35 MPa m . It has been determined that

fracture results at a stress of 250 MPa when the maximum (or critical) internal

crack length is 2.0 mm. For this same component and alloy, will fracture

occur at a stress level of 325 MPa when the maximum internal crack length is

1.1 mm? Why or why not?

Problem 10.6

We are asked to determine if an aircraft component will fracture for a given fracture toughness (35

MPa m), stress level (325 MPa), and maximum internal crack length (1.1 mm), given that fracture

occurs for the same component using the same alloy for another stress level and internal crack length. It

first becomes necessary to solve for the parameter Y, using Equation 10.5, for the conditions under which

fracture occurred (i.e., = 250 MPa and 2a = 2.0 mm). Therefore,

K Ic 35 MPa m

Y= = = 2.50

s pa æ 2 ´ 10-3 m ö

(250 MPa) (p ) ç ÷

è 2 ø

Problem 10.6

Now we will solve for the product Y a for the other set of conditions, so as to ascertain whether or

not this value is greater than the KIc for the alloy. Thus,

1.1 103 m

Y a (2.50)(325 MPa) ( )

2

33.8MPa m

Therefore, fracture will not occur since this value (33.8 MPa m ) is less than the KIc of the material,

35 MPa m .

Problem 10.13

Following is tabulated data that were gathered from a series of Charpy impact

tests on a tempered 4140 steel alloy.

Temperature (°C) Impact Energy (J)

temperature. 75 88.6

50 87.6

(b) Determine a ductile-to-brittle transition 25 85.4

25 78.9

corresponding to the average of the

50 73.1

75 59.3

(c) Determine a ductile-to-brittle transition

85 47.9

temperature as that temperature at which the 100 34.3

125 29.3

impact energy is 70 J.

150 27.1

175 25.0

Problem 10.13

Problem 10.13

(b) The average of the maximum and minimum impact energies from the data is

89.3 J 25 J

Average 57.2 J

2

As indicated on the plot by the one set of dashed lines, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature

according to this criterion is about 75C (198 K).

Problem 10.13

(c) Also, as noted on the plot by the other set of dashed lines, the ductile-to-brittle

transition temperature for an impact energy of 70 J is about 55°C (218K).

Problem 10.19

Suppose that the fatigue data for the brass alloy in Problem 10.18 were taken

from torsional tests, and that a shaft of this alloy is to be used for a coupling

that is attached to an electric motor operating at 1500 rpm. Give the

maximum torsional stress amplitude possible for each of the following

lifetimes of the coupling: (a) 1 year, (b) 1 month, (c) 1 day, and (d) 2 hours.

Problem 10.19

350

Stress Amplitude (MPa) Cycles to Failure

310 2 × 105

300

223 1 × 106

191 3 × 106

250 168 1 × 107

153 3 × 107

Stress Amplitude, MPa

134 3 × 108

100

50

0

2 × 105 1 × 106 3 × 106 1 × 107 3 × 107 1 × 108 3 × 108 1 × 109

Cycles to Failure

Problem 10.19

(a) Fatigue lifetime = (1 yr)(365 days/yr)(24 h/day)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 7.9

108 cycles. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 130 MPa.

(b) Fatigue lifetime = (30 days)(24 h/day)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 6.5 107

cycles. The stress amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 145 MPa.

(c) Fatigue lifetime = (24 h)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 2.2 106 cycles. The stress

amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 195 MPa.

(d) Fatigue lifetime = (2 h)(60 min/h)(1500 cycles/min) = 1.8 105 cycles. The stress

amplitude corresponding to this lifetime is about 315 MPa.

Problem 10.27

The following creep data were taken on an aluminum alloy at 400C (673 K) and a constant stress of 25

MPa. Plot the data as strain versus time, then determine the steady-state or minimum creep rate.

Note: The initial and instantaneous strain is not included.

Time Strain Time Strain

(min) (min)

0 0.000 16 0.135

2 0.025 18 0.153

4 0.043 20 0.172

6 0.065 22 0.193

8 0.078 24 0.218

10 0.092 26 0.255

12 0.109 28 0.307

14 0.120 30 0.368

Problem 10.27

Problem 10.27

Problem 10.28

A specimen 760 mm long of an S-590 alloy (Figure 10.32) is to be exposed to

a tensile stress of 80 MPa at 815C (1088 K). Determine its elongation after

5000 h. Assume that the total of both instantaneous and primary creep

elongations is 1.5 mm.

Problem 10.28

Problem 10.28

22.4 mm.

Problem 10.35

Steady-state creep data taken for a stainless steel at a stress level of 70 MPa

are given as follows:

(s1) T (K)

1.0 × 105 977

2.5 × 103 1089

If it is known that the value of the stress exponent n for this alloy is 7.0, compute the steady-state creep rate at

1250 K and a stress level of 50 MPa.

Problem 10.35

( )

ln 1.0 105 s 1 ln K 2 (7.0) ln (70 MPa)

Qc

(8.31 J/mol K)(977 K)

(

ln 2.5 10 3

s 1

) ln K 2 (7.0) ln (70 MPa)

Qc

(8.31 J/mol K)(1089 K)

Problem 10.35

( )

2.55 105 s 1 (50 MPa)7.0 exp

436, 000 J/mol

(8.31 J/mol K)(1250 K)

= 0.118 s1

Additional Problems

Consider an 18-8 Mo stainless steel component (Figure 10.34) that is

exposed to a temperature of 500C (773 K). What is the maximum allowable

stress level for a rupture lifetime of 5 years? 20 years?

Additional Problems

Additional Problems

The values of tr corresponding to 5 and 20 years are 4.38

104 h and 1.75 105 h

260 MPa

T (20 log tr ) 773 20 log (4.38 104 ) 19.05 103

T (20 log tr ) 773 20 log (1.75 105 ) 19.51 103

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