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November 2016
Photos and layout by DepEd Multimedia Unit

Introduction 1

Our Foremost Task 3

Raise the quality of education

Our Mandate 7
Make education accessible to every Filipino child

Our Challenge 13
Make education relevant to the urgent needs
as well as opportunities of our nation

My Wish 15
Make education truly liberating

My Commitment 17
Program and financial management reforms to make the Department
effective and efficient in service delivery

My Assurance 21
Promotion of the welfare of academic and non-academic personnel

My Leadership 22
Active, transparent, consultative, and corruption-free

Bayanihan 23
Education is our collective responsibility

Our 10-Point Agenda 24


ll my life I have been exposed
to the challenges of education
in the Philippines. I come from
a family of teachers. My
parents, aunts and uncles, brother and
sisters, nephews, nieces and even
grandchildren are teachers. I have
lived through the travails of teachers --
low pay, long hours of work, huge debts,
and physical difficulties. As an elementary
school pupil, I have experienced walking
long distances to and from school and
sitting in stifling, overcrowded classrooms
as I struggled to learn.

I did not apply for the position of Secretary

of Education. I am grateful to President
Duterte for appointing me to the post.
I humbly accept the opportunity to serve
the country, to contribute to reforms, and
to put into practice my lifetime public
advocacies, as I have done in the past
in various capacities both inside and
outside of government.

Heading the Department of Education is a huge challenge and responsibility. I could say
that it is easily the biggest yet, even in my long years of public life as an administrator,
academic, educator, executive official, and social activist.

The Department is the biggest bureaucracy in Philippine government. Presently, it has 763,538
authorized plantilla positions, of which 674,613 are teaching positions, 61,343 are technical
positions, 25,692 are for administrative support, 1,359 are management and supervisory, and
531 are third level or career executive service positions. Of the total authorized plantilla items,
711,785 positions or 93 percent are filled.

The Department manages the highest budget allocation among all the government line agencies.
For 2016, the enacted budget for the Department totals 433.38 billion pesos. The next highest
would be the Department of Public Works and Highways, with an enacted budget of
397.11 billion pesos. After these two, the next highest will be at levels of less than 130 billion pesos.


With the Department’s large bureaucracy and huge share in the budget pie, public education
constitutes the backbone of basic education. Based on the Department’s data, the 20,907,407
enrolment in public schools from Kindergarten to Junior High School in 2015 comprises 87 percent
of the 23,816,548 combined enrolment in public and private schools.

The government efforts to improve education have produced gains. The Philippine Education
for All 2015 National Review, for example, reports gains across the goals being monitored
(Early childhood care and education; Universal primary/basic education; Learning and life skills
for youth and adults; Adult literacy; Gender parity and equality; and Quality of education).
However, it is also undeniable that these efforts still leave a lot of gaps. The same review
points out that “the upward movements have been too slow to make it to target by 2015”.

Aware of the challenges of improving the education sector, I have been involved in
decades-long campaigns to advance the cause of education. As President of Freedom from
Debt Coalition, I contributed to the campaign to reduce the crushing debt burden of the
country to free more resources for education and social development. Since its creation
in 2006, the Alternative Budget Initiative led by Social Watch Philippines (SWP), of which
I was a convenor, has always advocated for higher budget allocations for education.
Every year, SWP has successfully convinced the legislature to increase budget allocations
for education.

As Secretary of the Department, I am now given the rare privilege to seek and work out solutions
from the inside. As one of my first acts as Secretary, I am setting out this declaration
of vision and agenda through which path I would endeavor to lead the Department.

This vision and agenda is not really a matter of discretion on my part. It is guided
by the education mandates from no less than the Philippine Constitution. It is also
circumscribed by the international commitments that our country adheres to, such as the
Sustainable Development Goals 2030. It also builds on the gains and lessons from the
programs of past administrations, particularly from the strong performance of my immediate
predecessor. But certainly, it also embodies a number of my ideas that I hope can
contribute positively to our common aspirations for the continuing progress of our basic education.

This declaration is by no means in final form. I regard it as a working and consultation draft that
I am sharing with all concerned, both within and outside the department, for feedback and
discussion. It will be a living document that will be nourished and further shaped by the inputs
and contribution of all.


Raise the quality of education
For all the human, financial and physical Historical results of NAT show that the
resources that we devote to basic education, quality of education, in the sense of its ability
the ultimate measure of quality will be in to produce effective attainment of learning
the characteristics of the graduates that we standards, will continue to be the foremost
produce. Are they able to develop the requisite challenge for the current and longer term.
knowledge and skills that enable them
to be productive members of our society, in The NAT results for Grade 3, expressed
the private and public spheres, within their in Mean Percentage Scores (MPS) or the
families, at work, and in communities? Even percentage of correctly answered items in the
as we live in more complex and rapidly test, show an average overall score of
changing environments, the fact is that basic 59.28 percent for the years 2009 to 2013.
academic achievements in literacy and For Grade 6, the average overall NAT MPS was
numeracy remain within the core of the 67.48 percent for the years 2009 to 2014.
purposes of basic education. The overall score of 69.10 percent in 2014
remains 7.90 percentage points lower than the
The Department of Education monitors progress Philippine Development Plan (PDP) target of
in key curricular subject areas through the 77 percent by 2016.
National Achievement Test (NAT) administered
by the Department’s National Education Testing The performance is even less encouraging at
and Research Center. In the past, the NAT was the secondary level. The average overall NAT
administered to Grade 3, Grade 6, and Fourth MPS was 49.51 percent for the years
Year high school students. 2009 to 2014. The overall score of 49.48


Table 1.1. NAT Results for Grade 3 (in MPS), SY2009 to SY2013

Subject Areas SY2009 SY2010 SY2011 SY2012 SY2013

Reading Comprehension - English 61.72 56.13 54.42 57.51 56.51

Reading Comprehension - Filipino 61.22 62.06 58.61 53.38 60.78

English Grammar 61.91 59.38 57.23 62.86 61.69

Filipino Grammar 63.92 64.00 56.97 56.43 57.64

Science 61.66 53.48 55.15 62.35 56.97

Mathematics 65.07 64.15 59.87 62.63 59.14

Overall 62.42 59.58 56.98 58.73 58.67

Source: Department of Education Transition Report 2010-2016

Table 1.2. NAT Results (in MPS) for Grade 6, SY2009 to SY2014

Subject Area SY2009 SY2010 SY2011 SY2012 SY2013 SY2014

Mathematics 63.26 68.41 66.47 69.03 72.38 69.71

Science 63.14 60.35 66.11 65.72 66.56 67.19

English 67.81 65.11 66.27 67.12 70.17 71.8

Filipino 74.98 76.44 69.15 72.41 76.18 68.9

Hekasi 70.88 70.38 65.97 70.14 64.59 67.92

Overall 68.01 68.14 66.79 68.88 69.97 69.10

Source: Department of Education Transition Report 2010-2016

Table 1.3. NAT Results (in MPS) for Secondary Level, SY2009 to SY2014
Subject Area SY2009 SY2010 SY2011 SY2012 SY2013 SY2014

Mathematics 39.64 42 46.37 46.83 51.94 47.37

Science 43.8 39.35 40.53 41.35 44.8 46.56

English 46.95 46.45 51.8 53.99 58.41 46.45

Filipino 58.08 58.39 51.27 58.04 56.83 59.29

Araling Panlipunan 39.32 52.3 54.22 60.17 58.55 48.83

Overall 45.56 47.93 48.90 51.41 53.77 49.48

Source: Department of Education Transition Report 2010-2016


Figure 1. Performance in the National Achievement Test vs PDP Target

Source: Department of Education Transition Report 2010-2016

percent in 2014 remains far from the target Republic Act 10533 or the Enhanced Basic
of 65.00 percent by 2016. (See Tables 1.1, 1.2, Education Act of 2013 approved on May 15,
and 1.3 and Figure 1) 2013, which adds two years of senior high
school, is about developing an enhanced basic
The K to 12 basic education program rolled out education curriculum that will make every
by the preceding term led by Br. Armin Luistro learner ready for higher education or work
should be seen in light of the challenge of raising anywhere, equipped with “21st century skills”
the quality of education. K to 12 is not just about (learning and innovation skills; information,
adding school years for basic education to be media and technology skills; effective
at par with international norm; it is foremost communication skills; and, life and career skills).
about the content and the intended outcomes
in terms of upgrading education quality. I am catching these radical reforms when huge
strides have already been made, but also
Republic Act 10157 or the Kindergarten with the transition to full implementation still
Education Act approved on January 20, 2012 in progress. I am committed to the full
made kindergarten compulsory in order to implementation of K to 12, and to lead the
take advantage of a critical phase in a child’s department in developing an effective system
psycho-social development to better prepare to monitor and evaluate the outcomes of K to 12
him or her for effective learning in elementary. in terms of quality and access.


It is the delivery of the other inputs to make the filled out of the 55,349 teaching items created
program attain its intended outcomes that for 2016. For 2017, the Department needs to
constitutes the heavy and continuing task. request the creation of 53,831 new teaching
These include, among others: providing items. There is a balance of 66,463 classrooms
adequate physical infrastructure such as from the needed 185,149 classrooms for
school buildings; producing quality learning 2010 to 2016, while an additional 47,492
materials and implements such as textbooks, classrooms are needed for 2017. (See Figure 2)
libraries, and ICT-assisted learning; and, the
hiring and professional development of Addressing the input requirements will require
teachers, both pre-service and in-service. not only having the budget appropriation and
designing the needed programs, projects,
To give an indication of the magnitude of the and activities, but also introducing financial
needed inputs, as of August this year, the management reforms to enable effective and
Department’s Planning Service reports that efficient delivery of services.
there are 34,436 teaching positions still to be

Figure 2. DepEd Outputs 2010-2016


Make education accessible
to every Filipino Child
Quality is only one aspect of the commands to total number of children from ages five to
of our constitution in education. Even before fifteen years old was 11.7 percent in 2008.
catch phrases such as “no one left behind” This was reduced to 5.21 percent in 2012,
has come in vogue, our constitution has mainly on account of making Kindergarten
put it in no uncertain terms: “The State compulsory for incoming primary school
shall protect and promote the right of all students. (See Table 2)
citizens to quality education at all levels,
and shall take appropriate steps to make On the part of the department, its data
such education accessible to all.” Thus, the show that the public school system’s ability
Constitution further required the state to to keep students in schools and to graduate
“(E)stablish and maintain, a system of free students have improved. The cohort survival
public education in the elementary and rates have increased, while the drop-out rates
high school levels”. have decreased particularly for elementary
in school years 2013 to 2014. Completion
There are clear indications that access to rates have also improved. (See Table 3 and
education has improved in recent years. Figure 3.)
A study titled “Recent Trends in Out-of-School
Children in the Philippines” by Clarissa C. David Enrolment in the first year of Senior High
and Jose Ramon G. Albert (PIDS Discussion School in 2016, which many believed will
Paper Series No. 2015-51, November 2015) result in massive drop-outs, turned out much
calculates that the rate of Out of School children better than anticipated. August 2016 data from


Table 2. Rates (in %) of Total Number of OOSC to Total Number of 5-15 Year-Old
Children, by Region

2008 2010 2011 2013

Region I 8.40 8.21 6.13 5.56
Region II 10.90 9.74 7.41 4.12
Region III 8.30 8.73 6.78 5.56
Region IV-A 8.50 9.10 6.74 3.50
Region IV-B 12.90 11.14 7.40 5.53
Region V 13.20 9.09 5.93 5.27
Region VI 11.30 12.16 7.17 2.47
Region VII 12.10 11.31 8.11 4.87
Region VIII 14.50 10.63 8.57 4.81
Region IX 16.50 12.58 9.29 5.66
Region X 13.50 11.72 7.70 5.01
Region XI 15.10 11.72 8.42 4.33
Region XII 13.90 9.87 10.43 7.42
CARAGA 12.00 9.17 7.52 4.18
ARMM 24.20 26.01 20.43 16.73
CAR 8.70 7.05 5.56 7.72
NCR 7.90 5.45 6.91 3.64
Philippines 11.70 10.42 8.00 5.21

Source: Clarissa C. David and Jose Ramon G. Albert, Recent Trends in Out-of-School Children in the Philippines. PIDS,
November 2015.

Table 3. Cohort Survival and Completion Rates

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 target target
2015 2016
Cohort Survival Rate -
74.38% 74.23% 73.76% 74.24% 80.04% 85.08% 81.0% 83.0%
Cohort Survival Rate -
78.44% 79.43% 78.84% 78.20% 79.32% 81.24% 83.0% 85.0%
Completion Rate -
72.18% 72.11% 70.99% 72.66% 77.79% 83.04% 81.0% 83.0%
Completion Rate - Secondary 73.55% 75.06% 74.26% 74.79% 75.71% 78.70% 78.0% 80.0%

Drop Out Rate - Elementary 6.28% 6.29% 6.38% 6.24% 4.60% 3.26% - -

Drop Out Rate - Secondary 7.95% 7.59% 7.82% 8.04% 7.58% 6.73% - -

Source: Department of Education Transition Report 2010-2016


Figure 3. More Students Complete
Still, despite the efforts to ensure that every
Filipino child completes at least basic
education through a free public school
system, this has so far never been achieved.
A progression of a cohort of 100 students
entering grade one in school year 2001-2002
and graduating in college in school year
2014-2015 was such that only 68 reached
grade six, and those that completed grade
10 was reduced further to 54. (See Figure 4)

While the cohort progression has improved

for more recent grade one enrolments, those
who still drop out add to the number of out of
school children and youth and to the rest of the
population that have not completed basic

According to the Functional Literacy,

Education and Mass Media Survey
(FLEMMS), about 4 million Filipino children
and youth were out of school in 2013.
FLEMMS defined out-of-school children as
persons “aged 6 to 14 years who are not
attending school”, while out-of-school youth
are persons “aged 15 to 24 years who
are not attending school, have not finished
any college or post-secondary course, and
are not working”.

The same survey identified the top reasons

why children and youth are not attending
school. Marriage was the top reason,
followed by insufficiency of family income
to send the child to school, then followed
closely by lack of personal interest. Marriage
as a reason for not attending school was
inordinately more pervasive among females.
(See Table 4.)
the Department show that 1,517,310 have
enrolled in Grade 11. Of this, 1,460,970 were When an out-of-school child reaches working
from the 1,483,388 Grade 10 completers, age, he or she then joins the millions in the
or 98.4 percent. The rest of the enrollees were labor force who have not completed basic
54,262 Balik-aral students and 2,378 were education, whether employed or unemployed.
passers of the Department’s Accreditation and Based on PSA data, for April 2016,
Equivalency Test. 16.59 million Filipinos or 39.03 percent


Figure 4. Progression of Cohort of 100 Students Entering Grade One in School Year
2001-2002 and Graduating in College in School Year 2014-2015

Source: Performance, Programs, Projects and Policies (Presentation by the Department of Education Transition
Committee, June 2016)

of the labor force have not completed basic 2. The need to reach out to out of school
education. (See Table 5) children and youth as well as to a great
number of adult Filipinos in the labor
Being unable to complete basic education force who were not able to complete
has a major impact on an individual’s mobility basic education, but are desiring and
and capability in the labor market and the willing to participate in programs that
economy. Certainly, it will not only be in the the Department refers to as Alternative
economy that individuals unable to complete Learning System (ALS) consisting of
basic education will be disadvantaged; the both non-formal and informal education.
disadvantage will be experienced in the social
and political realms as well. My observation in my review of the Department’s
outcomes and budget utilization has been that,
The areas that we need to address in terms aside from the understandable prioritization
of access are not new to the Department: of the flagship K to 12, program execution in
terms of access focused more on integration
1. The need to get our school-age children to into formal education. As noted earlier, the public
enter school (measured by improvements school system’s ability to keep students
in the gross and net enrolment rates), and in schools and to graduate students have
to keep them in school up to completion improved.
of basic education (measured by
improvements in the cohort survival rates, However, I found a serious backlog in ALS.
completion rates and drop-out rates). In particular, the budget utilization for ALS


Table 4. Proportion of Out-of-School Children and Youth, by Reason for Not
Attending School, 2013 (In Percent)
Male and
Reason for not attending Male Female
Marriage 1.7 36.2 22.9

Family income not sufficient to send child to school 22.7 17.0 19.2

Lack of personal interest 33.1 10.3 19.1

Housekeeping 1.8 13.7 9.1

High Cost of Education 9.8 8.6 9.0

Illness/Disability 12.2 5.8 8.2

Employment/Looking for Work 8.0 4.0 5.5

Others 10.8 4.5 6.9

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey
Note: Data excludes Region VIII for this survey round.

Table 5. Employed and Unemployed Persons Who Have Not Completed Basic
Education, April 2016 (In Thousands)
% to Total
Grade Completed Employed Unemployed Total Employed/
No Grade Completed 497 12 509 1.20

Elementary Undergraduate 5,307 174 5,480 12.89

Elementary Graduate 5,152 168 5,320 12.51

High School Undergraduate 4,992 291 5,283 12.43

Total, Persons Who Have Not
15,947 645 16,592 39.03
Completed Basic Education
Total Employed/Unemployed 39,916 2,594 42,510

Source of basic data: Philippine Statistics Authority

at least in the last two years leaves much to by President Duterte in his first State of the
be desired. As an urgent intervention coming in, Nation Address. The key will be better targeting
I have instructed the Department units of beneficiaries, prioritization of these programs
concerned to prepare a catch-up plan on ALS by implementing units and partners, and
for immediate implementation. introduction of modalities that fit the
circumstances of the target learners.
Moving forward, we will review the programs
with the view to promptly and effectively I commit to leading the effort for extensive
intensifying and expanding ALS, as emphasized positive outcomes on ALS, to start making


a dent in addressing the needs of those that During the war my family escaped to the
formal education has failed to reach. This hills. We hid in a place which took days to-
will be one of the legacies of the Duterte reach. My mother who was a teacher did
administration. not let the horrors of war deter her from
teaching. News would reach them about young
My passion for ALS is shaped by the women getting raped, pregnant mothers
advocacies of Social Watch Philippines, as eviscerated, and children tossed into the air
well as my own life experiences. Many of and bayoneted. She gathered the children from
you were not yet born when World War II the mountain villages and taught them
broke out and the Philippines was conquered to read and write, using banana leaves with
by Japan. During that time, Silliman University their natural lines, and sharpened bamboo
which was founded by American missionaries in sticks. I was then three years old and listened
Dumaguete closed its facilities and its American to the lessons which my mother imparted.
and Filipino faculty fled to the hills.
When the war was over, children were
Did the attendant difficulties and the constant tested to determine their grade equivalences.
fear of capture deter the teachers from I was then four years old and just went
continuing their mission to teach? No! They along with my aunt. I was not even enrolled.
set up a “jungle university” and continued The district supervisor tested me and decided
to teach the mountain communities. They never to promote me by two grades. The Department
lost sight of the fact that war or no war, they were of Education had not invented ALS then
primarily school teachers. but these experiences showed that one can
get educated without formal schooling.


Make education relevant
to the urgent needs as well as
opportunities of our nation
Our constitution has given the State full The urgent needs of a nation change through
responsibility over education, primarily in pursuit time and it falls on the country’s leaders
of the prime duty of the government to serve and policymakers to identify these. At this
and protect the people. But there is as well a juncture, I believe that the most urgent needs
clear public purpose for education to be and challenges of the nation to which our
relevant and responsive to the needs and education must be responsive to are fourfold.
aspirations of our country.
The first is to address poverty and inequality.
The Constitution directs that our education The fact remains that there is still a large
“shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, number of Filipinos that are unable to share
foster love of humanity, respect for human in the growth of the economy. Based on
rights, appreciation of the role of national latest estimates by the Philippine Statistics
heroes in the historical development of the Authority, more than 26 million Filipinos live
country, teach the rights and duties of in poverty. This overall poverty incidence has
citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual to be nuanced further to take into account many
values, develop moral character and personal levels of inequality.
discipline, encourage critical and creative
thinking, broaden scientific and technological Growth and opportunity are concentrated in the
knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency”. National Capital Region and its immediate
In other words, education is also intended to neighbors, leaving behind the regions that are
make all of us responsible, capable and far from this center. Certain sectors and
productive citizens. occupation groups, particularly our farmers,


fisherfolk, and unskilled workers, contend with in-service training and pre-service preparations.
poverty much more than others. These areas will require collaborative efforts
with outside stakeholders that have the most
The second urgent need is really more of an advanced data, expertise, and experience in
opportunity. The knowledge and information these fields. To be truly relevant to the urgent
age has opened a new terrain that builds needs as well as opportunities of our nation,
bridges across far distances, and allows people the Department will heighten interaction and
linked by information and communications partnerships with these stakeholders.
technology to participate in a variety of activities
that produces economic, social, and The fourth urgent issue, I join President Duterte
developmental value. Our basic education and in flagging as a major problem the use of
our teachers must be attuned in terms of illegal drugs. Based on information from the
competencies and facilities to the developments Dangerous Drugs Board, they estimate that
in the information and communications there are some 1.8 million current users of
technologies, if we are to take advantage of the illegal drugs in the country of ages 10 to 69
opportunities of the knowledge and information years old, and about 4.8 million who have
age. used illegal drugs in their lifetime. The personal
impact to the drug users is magnified by its
The third challenge is climate change, in which contribution to criminality and personal
the Philippines is in the eye of the storm, so insecurity in communities.
to speak. It is well known that the Philippines
is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of While the information from the same agency
climate change -- science says it, and the country points to greater prevalence of use among
has been experiencing it. The core tasks that adults than children, the fact is there is also
face all of us are: disaster preparedness and incidence among children and youth. More
response, which President Duterte identified importantly, I believe that basic education has an
as one of his directives; climate change important role to play in prevention. Thus, in
adaptation; and climate change mitigation. Basic response to President Duterte’s directive in the
education should have an orientation towards SONA for education to incorporate mandatory
facilitating understanding and capacitating our education about the evils of illegal drugs, the
people to meet these tasks. Department will be enriching the anti-illegal drugs
component of the curriculum in science and
All three challenges of addressing poverty and health by providing real-life lessons via
inequality, being attuned to the opportunities alternative learning methods, starting in Grade 4.
of the knowledge and information age, and
confronting the tasks brought about by climate The Department will also formulate a
change require a basic education that comprehensive policy on illegal drugs, including
highlights competence in science and drug testing for students, personnel and
technology, innovation, creative imagination, teachers, education and awareness raising,
entrepreneurial spirit, and a disposition to help prevention, and protection and rehabilitation
our communities and sectors particularly those for students found to be using illegal drugs.
that are left at the margins of growth and
development. In addition to these, President Duterte
has expressed a strong directive for the
I have seen the curriculum improvements in Department to address reproductive health
ICT literacy and on environmental awareness issues and teen pregnancies, as well as
and disaster preparedness. We will continue in to give emphasis on the environment and
this direction, by further improving curriculum disaster preparedness. We will respond to
content, teaching methods, and appropriate these directives through further curricular
facilities. The upgrade in the teachers’ capability reforms and non-curricular programs.
will be a key component, both in terms of


Make education truly liberating
While emphasizing the state responsibility as well as the public purpose in the provision of public education,
our constitution has at the same time not overlooked the personal purpose, which is “to promote total
human liberation and development”.

Education intrinsically has that impact, but the content and methods that develop critical thinking are
also key. It is therefore positive that K to 12 has a strong articulation of critical thinking in the curriculum
outcomes and competencies (See Table 6). I also have a special interest in Philippine culture and the arts.
Enriching appreciation of culture and arts that spring from our diversity and rich historical experiences
as a people should round out the scope of our basic education. The rich curricular content on culture
and arts should be complemented with greater actual exposure to these by both teachers and students.

I will also be open to new ideas and pathways to innovation in teaching delivery and content that can maximize
the full potential of learners, for an education that truly liberates.


Table 6. DepEd Qualifications Descriptors for Grades 10 to 12

Domain Level 1 (Grade 10) Level 2 (Grade 12)

Possess foundational
knowledge across a range
of learning areas with
Possess functional knowledge
core competencies in
across a range of learning
communication; scientific,
areas and technical skills in
critical and creative thinking;
Knowledge, Skills, chosen career tracks with
and use of technologies
Values advanced competencies in
communication; scientific,
Have an understanding of
critical and creative thinking;
right and wrong; one’s history
and the use of technologies.
and cultural heritage; and deep
respect for self, others and their
culture, and the environment.

Apply foundational knowledge,

Apply foundational knowledge,
technical skills, and values
skills, and values in academic
in academic and real-life
and real-life situations through
Application situations through sound
sound reasoning, informed
reasoning, informed
decision-making, and the
decision-making, and the
judicious use of resources.
judicious use of resources.

Apply skills in limited situations Apply skills in varied situations

Degree of independence
with close supervision with minimal supervision.


Program and financial management
reforms to make the Department effective
and efficient in service delivery

I have been tasked with leading the venerable PhP433.5 billion. The budget of DepEd is
old house of education which is over a hundred consistently on the upward trend, increasing by
years old. It is important that I continually study an average of 16.5 percent in the last six
this house -- its strengths, weaknesses, years. (See Figure 5)
vulnerabilities and its capacities. A friend and
colleague from the UP National College of Public Of the three Major Final Outputs (MFO) of
Administration and Governance has advised DepEd, delivery of basic education services
me to use Sharkansky’s model of the public (MFO 2) receives bulk of the department’s
administration system and apply it to DepEd. budget. For 2016, PhP364.62 billion or 94
It is a variation of the input-output model as percent is allocated for MFO 2. Basic Education
applied to a government agency. Policy Services (MFO 1) which is focused on policy
formulation on the learning content for
Among the various inputs to the DepEd system student and teachers is given PhP 339.78
-- demands and expectations from the public, million; while Regulatory and Development
human and financial resources -- I immediately Services for Private Schools – GASTPE (MFO 3)
proceeded to examine the budget. is given PhP 21 billion.

As mandated by the Constitution, DepEd For 2017, the proposed budget of President
receives the largest budgetary allocation Duterte for basic education is PhP 569 billion.
annually. For 2016, it has an allocation of This is higher by an unprecedented 31.26 percent


Figure 5. Department of Education, Budget, 2009-2016

Source: Performance, Programs, Projects and Policies (Presentation by the Department of Education Transition
Committee, June 2016)

from the current year’s budget of PhP 433.5 billion, My findings are that program and financial
and brings our proposed appropriation closer management as well as procurement are
to the 4 to 6 percent of GDP ideal appropriation major areas that need urgent and decisive
indicated by international standards. The huge intervention. The Finance Service finds it very
increase in funding is in recognition of the needs challenging to promptly account for and monitor
and expectations that the Department has the Department’s nationwide funds and is only
to meet and deliver. It is an expression of the able to keep an eye on the Central Office and
President’s plan for education. centrally-managed funds. Status of the
downloaded funds to Regional Offices (ROs)
From inputs, we move on to what Sharkansky and transfers to other agencies, such as
describes as the “conversion” process. the School Building Program implemented by
Others call it the throughput or transformation the DPWH, are not immediately available
process. This is when resources are converted in the budget monitoring reports. For the
and translated into actual goods and services. 2016 funding, 18 percent of the budget is
There have to be sufficient and well-trained allocated for Central Office, 65 percent is
teachers, climate-smart school buildings with for ROs, and 17 percent is transferred to other
adequate facilities, tools like computer kits, agencies. The absence of a digital and
textbooks, and school supplies. To do this, integrated financial management system
processes and procedures must be efficient; hinders timely and accurate collection and
financing must be prudent and economical. consolidation of budget utilization reports of
about 72 percent of the Department’s budget.


Since Maintenance and Other Operating • Learning resources (textbooks, learning
Expenses (MOOE) and Capital Outlay (CO) materials/modules, Science and Math
are valid for obligation within two years, equipment)
it appears that program managers do not • ICT Service (Department of Education
feel the necessity to spend or obligate Computerization Program)
funds within the year that it is appropriated. • Education Facilities (school furniture,
Thus, the Department operates on what I repair/rehabilitation of classrooms)
call a “catch-up” budget year-on-year. • Training for staff and teaching and
non-teaching personnel; and
For example, as of December 31, 2015, of the • Testing and evaluation
PhP 367.1 billion budget of the Department
for 2015, a total of PhP 43 billion remains Delays in program and budget execution have
unobligated. Of this, PhP 20 billion is for Capital huge impact on the ground, and consequently
Outlay and PhP 18 billion is for Maintenance on target outcomes. Let me quote excerpts from
and Other Operating Expenses. The said a letter we received via email from a teacher:
amounts will lapse by the end of 2016. It is
worth noting that of the PhP 10.65 billion “Ang pagiging isang Public School Teacher
unobligated funds for operations in 2015, ay hindi birong propesyon lalong lalo na sa
PhP 9.86 billion is for MFO 2, which is kasalukuyang henerasyon na ating
kinahaharap na kung saan ang curriculum
primarily for the implementation and delivery of
ng ating edukasyon ay nasa estado ng
various programs and activities towards
pagbabago mula sa Basic Education
achieving education for all.
Curriculum (BEC) patungo sa K-12.
Marahil madalas ay ating naririnig ang
For the 2016 appropriations, of the
slogan ng kagawaran na “We are K-12
PhP 56 billion allotment for the Central Office, Ready”, pero sa kasalukuyan po na aking
PhP 47 billion remains unobligated as of nakikita may ilang aspeto na kung saan
June 30, 2016. Of the unobligated total, ang ating kagawaran ay hindi pa ganoong
PhP 21.18 billion is for Government Assistance kahanda sa pagpapatupad nito.
to Students and Teachers in Private Schools
(GASTPE) and in Non-DepEd Public Schools Sa kasalukuyan po ay wala pang
which falls under MFO 3. On the other hand, natatanggap na mga LM at TG ang mga
PhP 19.5 billion is for operations of MFO 2 guro sa ika- 5 baitang kaya’t ang mga guro
which among others include: Implementation ay kanya-kanyang gawa ng paraan upang
magkaroon ng gagamitin sa pagtuturo. x x x
of Alternative Learning System (PhP 444M),
Implementation of TechVoc HS program
Masasabi ko po na ang kakulangan sa
(PhP 3B), Provision of Learning Resources kagamitan sa mga paaralan ang isang
(PhP 10.2 B), and Provision and Maintenance of malaking suliranin na aming nararanasan
Basic Education Facilities (Php 2.11 B). sa mga paaralan. Mas madaling
makakapagpadaloy ng pagpapatuto kung
Downloading of “centrally-managed items” to ang bawat paaralan, partikular ang mga
ROs is often beset with bottlenecks, such as guro, ay may sapat at tamang kagamitan.”
delays in finalization and approval of program
guidelines and redundant requirements. I hear you, teacher, and I heard the feedback
from our regional offices when I first met the
For 2015 and 2016, unobligated funds represent Regional Directors last July 4 after the
allocations for big-ticket items such as: turn-over program.


As part of our immediate interventions, we The 2017 budget will fund the development
convened a Mid-Year Review of the and establishment of the Financial
Project Procurement Management Plans to Management Information System of the
ensure that remaining projects, activities Department so that we are able to track the
and plans included in the CY 2016 status of the Department’s budget releases and
approved Annual Procurement Plan contain disbursements in real time.
the requisite information (complete technical
specifications, extent/size of contract scope/ For the longer term, we intend to put in place
packages, timeline and estimated budget for the financial management reforms, including:
contract) to fast-track procurement especially improved accounting systems; effective
of big ticket projects. internal control; efficient budget utilization;
elimination of underspending without resorting
We are introducing greater leadership to constitutional violations; and overall
supervision and oversight over Finance and enhanced delivery and accountability systems.
Administration transactions to efficiently utilize
the government’s biggest personnel By 2022, my vision is to have education
complement and operationalize the reforms fully implemented, enriched, enhanced
Department’s huge financial resources. In and expanded. Effective governance, financial
order to implement the needed reform management, delivery systems, and monitoring
interventions, the Finance and Administration mechanisms will have been institutionalized by
strand has been disaggregated into the then, if not earlier. ALS will be a key
following specialized areas/services: (a) Budget achievement to complement the huge strides
Programming, Utilization and Delivery; in formal education.
(b) Financial Accounting, Reporting and
Employees’ Accounts Management;
(c) Procurement; and (d) Administration.


Promotion of the welfare of
academic and non-academic
Article XIV, Section 5 (4) of the Constitution states that “(T)he State shall enhance the right of
teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel
shall enjoy the protection of the State.” Paragraph 5 of the same Section provides that “(T)he State
shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its
rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of
job satisfaction and fulfillment”.

I have started my dialogues with organized groups, both academic and non-academic personnel, to hear
their views and inputs on sector issues and concerns. I take their inputs seriously, and
consider these along with other views in the determination of polices and programs.

We are studying the expansion of the scope of employee welfare, to respond to felt and
reasonable needs by our academic and non-academic personnel. Last July 12, 2016, three of our teachers
in Cotabato became victims of a shooting incident which killed two of them and injured another. I was really
saddened to find out that there was little in policy that would allow us to give them
adequate and meaningful assistance. At the Central Office, one of the immediate things we found out
was the lack of a properly functioning clinic. We are reviving the clinic, with personnel, equipment and
medicines to serve the basic emergency medical needs of our personnel. More than these ad hoc
responses, we will address the matter by more comprehensive policy reforms on personnel welfare.


Active, transparent, consultative,
and corruption-free
My age does not indicate it, but those who have closely worked with me will attest to my overflowing
energy. You can be assured of an active and hands-on leadership. There will also be zero corruption
coming from my end, and will not tolerate any from anyone when I see it. I have confidence that the
financial management reforms we will institute will bring to the surface and close gaps that allow for
opportunity to defraud public funds.

My leadership will be transparent and consultative, both within and outside the Department. We will
implement fully and constructively the President’s Executive Order on Freedom of Information (FOI).
During my first month in office, I have concentrated on the immediate transition requirements at the
Central Office. You can be sure that now that I have somehow settled in, your leadership will be
going to the ground. We will see for ourselves your conditions, work with you on problem solving, and act
decisively whenever warranted.


Education is our
collective responsibility
No one person can achieve the grand goals of education without everyone’s support. We will need
the cooperation of private and public institutions, fellow agencies in government, bilateral and multilateral
organizations, civil society organizations, faith-based institutions, families and the media. Of course, I will
also need the full support and cooperation of my new DepEd family -- all the officials and personnel,
both academic and non-academic, at the central and regional offices, divisions, and schools
and learning centers.

We will continue and expand existing and working partnerships with the private sector and communities
as concrete mechanisms and expression of our cooperation and solidarity to advance
the cause of basic education for all. The Adopt-a-School program enabled by the “Adopt-a-School
Act of 1998” and Brigada Eskwela are two shining examples of such partnerships. Adopt-a-School,
which allows private entities to provide assistance to schools in terms of infrastructure and non-infrastructure
assistance, has generated over PhP28 billion from 2011 to 2015. Brigada Eskwela, which brings
together parents, teachers, and members of the community to pool their resources to get schools ready
for school opening, has also generated billions of pesos in donations-in-kind and mobilized
millions of volunteers.

To harness our collective spirit, awareness is key. We will upgrade the department’s communication strategy
and program to be able to reach out to our local, national and even global communities.


“ I invite everyone to work with us
at the Department of Education
towards realizing our shared vision
of quality, accesible, relevant, and

liberating basic education for all.


Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education
DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City 1600