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# Book ID: ANU-EE8351-001-2017-V1-210718

## Digital Logic Circuits EE8351

This book has been prepared as per Anna University syllabus, 2017 regulation.
EE8351 DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS

OBJECTIVES:

• To study various number systems and simplify the logical expressions using Boolean functions.

## • To introduce digital simulation for development of application oriented logic circuits.

UNIT I NUMBER SYSTEMS AND DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILIES
Review of number systems, binary codes, error detection and correction codes (Parity and
Hamming code) - Digital Logic Families -comparison of RTL, DTL, TTL, ECL and MOS families
-operation, characteristics of digital logic family.
1.1 Review of number systems, binary codes
We will see various number systems by briefly describing the parameters that are common to all
number systems. Understanding of these parameters and their relevance to number systems is
fundamental to the understanding of how various systems operate.

Different characteristics that define a number system include the number of independent digits
used in the number system, the place values of the different digits constituting the number and
the maximum numbers that can be written with the given number of digits.

Among the three characteristic parameters, the most fundamental is the number of
independent digits or symbols used in the number system. It is known as the radix or base of the
number system. The decimal number system with which we are familiar is said to have a radix of
10 as it has 10 independent digits. i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

Similarly, the binary number system with only two independent digits 0 and 1 is a radix-2
number system. The octal and hexadecimal number systems have a radix (or base) of 8 and 16.

The radix of the number system determines the other two characteristics. The place values of
different digits in the integer part of the number are given as r0, r1, r2, r3 and so on which starts
with the digit adjacent to the radix point.

For the fractional part, these are r-1, r-2, r-3 and so on. Again starting with the digit next to the
radix point where r is the radix of the number system. Also, maximum numbers that can be
written with it digits in a given number system are equal to r n.

Decimal numbers

The invention of decimal number systems is the most important factor in the development of
science and technology. The term decimal comes from the Latin word ten. The decimal number
system uses positional number representation which means that the value of each digit is
determined by its position in a number.

The base of a number system is the number of symbols that the system contains. The decimal
system has ten symbols namely 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In other words, it has a base of 10. Each
position in the decimal system is 10 times more significant than the previous position.
For example, let us consider the four-digit number 2725:

## It is important that the 2

in the 103 position has a
different value than the
2 in the 101 position. The
value of a decimal number is determined by multiplying each digit of the number by the value of
the position in which the digit appears and then the products are added. Thus, the number 2725
is interpreted as,

## 2 x 1000 + 7 x 100 + 2 x 10 + 5 x 1 = 2000 + 700 + 20 + 5

In this case, 5 is the least significant digit (LSD) and the leftmost 2 is the most significant digit
(MSD).

In general, in a number system with a base or radix r, the digits used are from 0 to r -1. The
number can be represented as,

...(1)

for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

## The above equation (1) is valid for all integers.

For numbers between 0 and 1 (i.e., fractions), the following equation holds:

...(2)

## Thus, for the decimal fraction 0.8125,

where,

Binary numbers

The binary numbers has a radix of 2. As r = 2, only two digits are needed and these are
0 and 1. A binary digit is 0 or 1 which is called as a bit. Like the decimal system, binary is a
positional system except that each bit position corresponds to a power of 2 instead of a power of
10.

In digital systems, the binary number system and other number systems are closely related to it.

However, people use the decimal number system since digital systems provides conversion
between decimal and binary numbers. The decimal value of a binary number can be formed by
multipIying each power of 2 by either 1 or 0 and the values are added.

Logic operations are the backbone of any digital computer though solving a problem on
computer involves an arithmetic operation. The introduction of the mathematics of logic by
George Boole laid the foundation for the modern digital computer.

He reduced the mathematics of logic to a binary notation of '0' and '1'. As the mathematics of
logic was well established and had proved itself to be quite useful in solving all kinds of logical
problem. The mathematics of logic (also known as Boolean algebra) is reduced to a binary
notation where the binary number system had a clear edge over other number systems for use
in computer systems.

Another significant advantage of this number system is that all kinds of data could be
conveniently represented in terms of 0’s and 1’s. Also, basic electronic devices used for
hardware implementation is conveniently and efficiently operated in two distinctly different
modes. For example, a bipolar transistor could be operated either in cut-off or in saturation
mode.
Lastly, the circuits required for performing arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, etc., is simple when the data involved are represented in the form of 0’s
and 1’s.

Problems
Example 1:

## Let us find the decimal equivalent of the binary number 101010.

Solution:

Given:

N = 101010

...from above
equation(1)

= 32 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 0

= 42

An alternative method of converting from binary to decimal begins with the leftmost bit and
works down to the rightmost bit. It starts with a sum of 0. At each step , the current sum is
multiplied by 2 and the next digit to the right is added to it.

Example 2:

## Let us find the decimal equivalent of the binary number 11010101.

Solution:

Given:

N = 11010101

The reverse
process i.e., the
conversion of
decimal to binary is made by decomposing the given decimal number into two numbers where
one corresponds to the positional value which is lower than the original decimal number and a
remainder.

Then the remainder is decomposed into two numbers where a positional value is equal to or
lower than itself and a new remainder. The process is repeated until the remainder is 0. The
binary number is derived by recording 1 in the positions corresponding to the numbers whose
summation is equal to the decimal value.

Example 3:

Solution:

Given:

N = 426

## Thus, 42610 = 1101010102 (the

subscript indicates the value of

## An alternative method for

converting a decimal number to binary is based on successive division of the decimal number by
the radix number 2. The
remainders of the divisions when
written in reverse order (with the
first remainder on the right) yields
the binary equivalent to the
decimal number. The process is
described below by converting
35310 to binary.
Thus, 35310 = 1011000012

So far, we have only considered whole numbers. Fractional numbers may be converted in a
similar manner.

Example 4:

Solution:

Given:

where,

a-1 = 1

a-2 = 0

a-3 = 1

a-4 = 0

a-5 = 1

a-6 = 1

Thus,

## A decimal fraction can be

converted to binary by multiplying it by 2 where the integral (whole number) part of each
product 0 or 1 is retained as the binary fraction.

Example 5:

Solution:
Given:

N = 0.203125

## Thus, the binary equivalent of

0.20312510 is 0.0011012. The
multiplication by 2 is continued until
the decimal number is exhausted or
the desired accuracy is achieved.

## Accuracy suffers considerably if the

conversion process is stopped too
soon. For example, if we stop after the fourth step, then we are assuming 0.0011 is
approximately equal to 0.20315, whereas, it is actually equal to 0.1875 with an error of about
7.7%.

Octal numbers

Digital systems operate only on binary numbers. Since binary numbers are very long, two
shorthand notations namely octal and hexadecimal are used for representing large binary
numbers. The octal number system uses a base or radix of 8 which has digits from 0 to r - 1 or 8 -
1 or 7.

As in the decimal and binary systems, the positional value of each digit in a sequence of numbers
is definitely fixed. Each position in an octal number is a power of 8 and each position is 8 times
more significant than the previous position.

Example 6:

Solution:

Given:

N = 14.3

## The method for converting a

decimal number to an octal
number is similar to that used for converting a decimal number to binary except that the decimal
number is successively divided by 8 rather than 2.

Example 7:

Solution:

Given:

N = 278

## Decimal fractions can be converted

to octal by progressively multiplying
by 8 where the integral part of each product is retained as the octal fraction. For example,
0.65110 is converted to octal as follows,

a-1 = 5

a-2 = 1

a-3 = 5

a-4 = 2
a-5 = 3

0.65110 = 0.515238

## More octal digits will result in more accuracy.

A useful relationship exists between binary and octal numbers. The number of bits required to
represent an octal digit is three. For example, octal 7 can be represented by binary as 111. Thus,
if each octal digit is written as a group of three bits, the octal number is converted into a binary
number.

Example 8:

Solution:

Given:

N = 3248

## Hence, 3248 = 110101002

The most significant 0 is dropped because it is meaningless as 0123 10 is the same as 12310.

The conversion from binary to octal is also straightforward. The binary number is partitioned into
groups of three starting with the least significant digit. Each group of three binary digits is then
replaced by an appropriate decimal digit between 0 and 7.

## Table: Binary to octal conversion

Example 9:

Let us convert
1100111010012 to
octal.
Solution:

Given:

N = 1100111010012

The octal representation of the binary number is 6351 8. If the leftmost group of a partitioned
binary number does not have three digits, it is padded on the left with 0's. For example, 1101010
is divided as,

## The octal equivalent of the binary

number is 1528. In case of a binary fraction, if the bits cannot be grouped into 3-bit segments,
the 0's are added on the right to complete groups of three.

## Thus, 110111.1011 can be written as,

The binary equivalent of a decimal number is obtained by successively dividing the number by 2
and using the remainders as the answer where the first remainder is the lowest significant bit
and so on.

A large number of divisions by 2 are required to convert from decimal to binary if the decimal
number is large. It is more convenient to convert from decimal to octal and then replace each
digit in octal in terms of three digits in binary.

## For example, let us convert 52310 to binary by going through octal.

Thus,
It can be verified that the decimal equivalent of 001000001011 2 is 52310.

subtraction operations using octal numbers are similar to that used in the decimal systems. In
octal addition, a carry is generated when the sum exceeds 7 10.

For example,

In octal subtraction, a
borrow requires that
810 be added to the
minuend digit and a 1 10
be added to the left adjacent subtrahend digit.

numbers

numbering
system has a base 16 where there are 16 symbols. The decimal digits 0 to 9 are used as the first
ten digits as in the decimal system followed by the letters A, B, C, D, E and F which represents the
values 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 respectively.

The below table shows the relationship between decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number
systems. The conversion of a binary number to a hexadecimal number consists of partitioning
the binary numbers into groups of 4 bits and representing each group with its hexadecimal
equivalent.

Number equivalents
Example 10:

binary number

## 1010011011110001 into a decimal number.

Solution:

Given:

1010011011110001 is grouped as 1010 0110 1111 0001 which is shown below in hexadecimal:

A6F1H

The conversion from hexadecimal to binary is straightforward. Each hexadecimal digit is replaced
by the corresponding 4-bit equivalent from the above table. For example, the binary equivalent
of 4AC2H is

Thus, 4AC2H =
01001010111000102

## It is necessary to convert a hexadecimal number to decimal. Each position in a hexadecimal

number is 16 times more significant than the previous position. Thus, the decimal equivalent for
1A2DH is given as,

## Hexadecimal numbers are

used to describe the data in a computer memory. A computer memory stores a large number of
words each of which is a standard size collection of bits. An 8-bit word is known as a byte. A
hexadecimal digit may be considered as half of a byte.

Two hexadecimal digits constitute one byte where the rightmost 4 bits corresponds to half a
byte and the leftmost 4 bits corresponds to the other half of the byte. A half-byte is called as a
nibble. Hexadecimal addition and subtraction are performed for any other positional number
system.

Example 11:

## Let us find the sum of 688H and 679H.

Solution:

Given:

N1 = 688H

N2 = 679H

subtraction carries
digits from left to
right as in octal and
decimal.

Example 12:

## Let us compute 2A5H - 11BH.

Solution:

Given:

N1 = 2A5H

N2 = 11BH

1.1.1 Binary
codes
When
numbers,
alphabets or words are represented by a specific group of symbols, we can say that they are
encoded. The group of symbols used to encode them is called as codes. The digital data is
represented, stored and transmitted as a group of binary digits (bits). The group of bits also
known as binary code represents both numbers and letters of the alphabets as well as many
special characters and control functions. They are classified as numeric or alphanumeric.
Numeric code represents numbers. On the other hand, alphanumeric codes are used to
represent characters, alphabetic letters and numerals. In these codes, a numeral is treated
simply as another symbol rather than as a number or numeric value.

## Classification of binary codes

The below figure shows the classification of codes. The codes are broadly classified as,

1. Weighted codes
2. Non-weighted codes
3. Reflective codes
4. Sequential codes
5. Alphanumeric codes
6. Error detecting and correcting codes

Classification of codes
Weighted codes

In weighted codes, each digit position of the number represents a specific weight. For example,
in decimal code, if number is 567, then weight of 5 is 100, weight of 6 is 10 and weight of 7 is 1.
In weighted binary code, each bit has a weight of 8, 4, 2 or 1 and each decimal digit is
represented by a group of four bits as shown in the below figure.

Weighted codes
Non-weighted codes:

## Non-weighted codes are

not assigned with any
weight to each digit
position i.e., each digit position within the number is not assigned a fixed value. Excess-3 and
gray codes are the non - weighted codes.

Reflective codes

A code is said to be reflective when the code for 9 is the complement for 0, the code for 8 is
complement for 1, 7 for 2, 6 for 3 and 5 for 4. This is described in the below figure.

Reflective codes
Like 2421, codes
5211 and excess-
3 are also reflective. The 8421 code is not reflective. Reflectivity is desirable in a code when the
nine's complement is found such as in the nine's complement subtraction.

Sequential codes

In sequential codes, each succeeding code is one binary number greater than its preceding code.
This greatly aids mathematical manipulation of data. The 8421 and excess-3 are sequential,
whereas, the 2421 and 5211 codes are non sequential.

Alphanumeric codes

The codes which consist of both numbers and alphabetic characters are called as alphanumeric
codes. Most of these codes represent symbols and various instructions are necessary for
conveying information. The most commonly used alphanumeric codes are ASCII (American
Standard Code for Information Interchange), EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code) and Hollerith code.

## Error detecting and correcting codes

When the digital information in the binary form is transmitted from one circuit or system to
another circuit or system, an error may occur. This means a signal corresponding to 0 may
change to 1 or vice versa due to the presence of noise. To maintain the data integrity between
transmitter and receiver, extra bit or more than one bit are added in the data. These extra bits
allows the detection and sometimes correction of error takes place in the data. The data with
the extra bits forms the code. Codes which allow only error detection is called as error detecting
codes and codes which allow error detection and correction are called as error detecting and
correcting codes.
1.2 Error detection and error correction codes (Parity and Hamming code)
Error detecting codes

When the digital information in the binary form is transmitted from one circuit or system to
another circuit or system, an error may occur. To maintain the data integrity between transmitter
and receiver, the extra bit or more than one bit are added in the data. The data along with the
extra bits forms the code. Codes which allow only error detection is called as error detecting
codes.

This means a signal corresponding to 0 may change to 1 or vice-versa due to the presence of the
noise. To maintain the data integrity between transmitter and receiver, extra bit or more than
one bit are added in the data.

These extra bits allows the detection and correction of error in the data. The data with the extra
bits forms the code. Codes which allow only error detection is called as error detecting codes
and codes which allow error detection and correction are called as error detecting and
correcting codes.

The most common cause for errors is that the noise creeps into the bit stream during the course
of transmission from transmitter to the receiver.

If these errors are not detected and corrected, the result could be worst as the digital systems
are too much sensitive to errors and it will malfunction due to the slightest of errors in the
transmitted codes.

The various methods of error detection and correction such as addition of extra bits are called as
check bits which are also called as redundant bits as they don’t have any information in them.

The various codes used for error detection and correction code in digital system are as follows,

## • Simple parity check

• Checksum
• Cyclic redundancy check

## Error correcting codes

The method that we have discussed so far can detect errors but it can’t correct them. Error
correction can be handled in 2 ways as follows,

• Once when an error is discovered, the receiver might have the sender to retransmit the entire
data unit. This is termed as backward error correction.

• The receiver can use an error-correcting code which automatically corrects certain errors. This
is known as forward error correction.

It is possible to correct any number of errors automatically. The error-correcting codes are more
sophisticated than the error detecting codes and it needs more redundant bits. The number of
bits required to correct the multiple-bit or burst error is so high. For this same reason, most error
correction is limited to one, 2 or at the most three-bit errors.

## Single-bit error correction

The concept of error-correction is easily understood by examining the simplest case of single-bit
errors. A single-bit error is detected by the addition of a parity bit (VRC) with the data.

A single additional bit can detect error but it is not enough to correct that error too. For
collecting an error, one has to know the exact position of error i.e. exactly which bit is in error.

For example, to correct the single-bit error in an ASCII character, the error correction must
determine which one of the seven bits is in error. For this, we have to add some additional
redundant bits.

For calculating the numbers of redundant bits (r) required to correct (d) data bits, let us
determine the relationship between the two. Therefore, we have (d+r) as the total number of
bits which are to be transmitted where r indicates at least d+r+1 different values.
One value means no error and remaining d+r values indicate an error location of the error in
each of d+r locations. So, d+r+1 states must be distinguishable by r bits and r bits indicate 2r
states. Thus, 2r must be greater than d+r+1 i.e. 2r > d+r+1.

## The value of r must be determined by substituting the value of d.

Example:

If d is 7, then the smallest value of r that satisfies the above relation is 4. Thus, the total bits
which are to be transmitted is 11 bits (d+r =7+4 =11).

Parity checking

Parity code

It is the simplest technique which is used for detecting and correcting errors. The MSB of an 8-
bits word is used as the parity bit and the remaining 7 bits are used for data or message bits.
Parity bit is added to the transmitted strings of bits during the transmission from the
transmitters to detect any error in the data when they are received at the receiver end.

Parity code
It is an extra bit
added to the string
of data. The parity
of 8-bits transmitted
can be either even parity or odd parity.

Parity checking at the receiver detects the presence of an error if the parity of receiver signal is
different from the expected parity. If it is known that the parity of the transmitted signal is
always even and if the received signal has an odd parity, then the receiver concludes that the
received signal is not correct. When an error is detected, the receiver will ignore the received
byte and request for the retransmission of the same byte to the transmitter.

Parity checking
Even parity
Even parity means the number of 1's in the given word including the parity bit should be even.
When we get an even parity after adding that extra bit, the total numbers of 1's in the string of
the data is even.

Odd parity

Odd parity is defined as the number of 1's in the given word including the parity bit which should
be odd. When we get an odd parity after adding that extra bit into the data string, the total
number of 1's in the data should be odd.

We can understand it with an example when we have an eight bit ASCII code namely 01000001.

If the added bit is 0, then the number will become 001000001. In odd parity, the total number of
1's in the number is even so we get an even parity. Repeatedly if we add 1 to the number, the
number will become 101000001.

The number of 1's is 3 which is odd so we have got an odd parity. Even parity is used which has
a convention.

The parity checks are capable of detecting the single bit error. It fails if there are two changes in
the data and it is the biggest drawback of this system. Hence, there are several other codes to
detect and correct more than one bit errors.

## Use of parity bit

The parity bit can be set to 0 and 1 depending on the type of the parity required.

For even parity, this bit is set to 1 or 0, whereas, the number of the 1 bits in the entire word is
even which is shown in the below figure (a).

For odd parity, this bit is set to 1 or 0, whereas, the number of the 1 bits in the entire word is odd
which is shown
in the below
figure (b).

Parity bit
Hamming code

Let us examine the manipulation with these bits to discover which bit is in error. The method
developed by R.W.Hamming gives a practical solution. The solution or coding scheme developed
by him is called as Hamming code. The Hamming code can be applied to data units of any length
which uses the relationship between the data bits and the redundant bits.

## Positions of redundancy bits in Hamming code

The basic method for error detection by using Hamming code is as follows:

## • The location of each of the (m+K) digits is assigned a decimal value.

• To each group of m information bits, k parity bits are added to form (m+k) bit code as
represented in the below figure.

• At the receiving end, the parity bits can be recalculated. The decimal value of the k parity bits
provides the bit-position in error.

• The k parity bits are placed in positions 1, 2, 2K-1 and K parity checks which are performed on
selected digits of each codeword.
Use of Hamming
code for error
collection for a 4-bit
data

## The above figure

represents how the
Hamming code is
used for the
correction of 4-bit
numbers (d4d3d2d1)
with the help of
three redundant
bits (r3r2r1). For
example, consider
data 1010. First r1 (0) is determined by considering the parity of the bit positions 1, 3, 5 and 7.
Then, the parity bits r2 is calculated by considering the bit positions 2, 3, 6 and 7. Finally, the
parity bits r4 is calculated by considering the bit positions 4, 5, 6 and 7 as shown in the above
figure.

If any corruption occurs in any of the transmitted code 1010010, the bit position in the error can
be found out by calculating the r3r2r1 at the receiving end. For example, if the received code word
is 1110010, the recalculated value of the r3r2r1 is 110 that indicates that bit position in error is 6
with a decimal value of 110.

Parity generator:

## It is the circuit that generates the parity bit in the transmitter.

1.3 Digital Logic Families - comparison of RTL, DTL, TTL, ECL and MOS families -operation,
characteristics of digital logic family
Logic families can be categorized according to the technologies they are built with. In earlier
days, we had a vast number of technologies which are listed below.
DL: Diode Logic

## CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic

Since NAND and NOR gates are universal gates, they can be used to construct the entire digital
circuit instead of different gates.

## • Speed of operation (Propagation delays)

• Power dissipation

## • Current and voltage parameters

• Noise immunity

• Operating temperature

## • Power supply requirements

• Fan-in

If the supply voltage is increased on the propagation delay of the CMOS gates, propagation time
decreases.
1.3.1 Comparison of RTL, DTL, TTL, ECL and MOS families-operation

## SI. No Logic family Introduction Features Limitations

1. Low speed
It is a first and high power
logic family dissipation
It is used before the development
which
RTL (Resistor Transistor of IC with common emitter 2. Low fan out
1. requires a
Logic) configuration. Logic 1: 1-3.6 V and with poor noise
minimum
Logic 0: 0.2V immunity and
number of
transistors operating speed
< 4MHz

1. It is the
first circuit
configuration
designed in
IC.

2. It is very
small in size
No low and
It uses diodes and transistors where and high
DTL (Diode Transistor constant output
2. input is fed through diodes followed reliability at
Logic) impedance in
by transistor at the output side. very low
both states.
price.

3. It has
greater fan
out and
improved
noise
margins.
1. It has fast
switching
time with
larger fan Large current
It uses the totem pole output of all out. spike when
TTL (Transistar-Transistor transistors. Function of diodes in 2. Areas of switching from
3.
Logic) DTL is performed by multi-emitter silicon chip is low to high with
transistor at input. reduced. 3. less noise

## It is easy to immunity (0.4V)

interface
with other
logic families.

It is the
fastest logic
1. It requires
family which
large silicon area
is used in
It is a non saturated logic/current with high power
very high
ECL (Emitter Coupled mode logic. Compliment output dissipation. 2.
4. frequency
Logic) eliminates the need of inverter. Voltage levels
applications.
Logic 1: -0.8 and Logic 0: -1.7 are inconvenient
There is no
with low noise
noise spikes
margins.
and the fan
out is large.

Power
Larger
dissipation is
It uses pMOS, nMOS or both with propagation due
lower with
MOS Logic (Metal Oxide high packaging density. It is easy to to high output
5. shorter rise
Semiconductor Logic) design and fabricate is drawn due to impedance.
and fall times
gate dielectric. Noise margin is
and fan-out is
around 1 V.
large.
The characteristics of IC digital logic families are compared by analyzing the circuit of basic gate
in each family. The most important parameters that are evaluated and compared are fan-out,
power dissipation, propagation delay and noise margin.

• Fan-out specifies the number of standard loads that the output of a gate can drive without
impairing its normal operation.

• Power dissipation is the supplied power required to operate the gate. This parameter is
expressed in milliwatts (mW) which represent the actual power dissipated in the gate.

• Propagation delay: It is the average transition delay time for a signal to propagate from input to
output when the binary signals changes its value.

• Noise margin is the maximum noise voltage added to the input signal of a digital circuit that
does not cause an undesirable change in the circuit output.

The basic circuit of the TTL logic family is the NAND gate. The Schottky TTL is a later
improvement that reduces the propagation delay but results in an increase in power dissipation.
The fan out of standard TTL is 10. The noise margin is more than 0.4V.

The basic circuit of the ECL family is the NOR gate. The special advantage of ECL gates is their low
propagation delay. The power dissipation is high and the noise margin is low where ECL offers
the highest speed of any family.

The basic circuit of CMOS is the inverter from which both NAND and NOR gates can be
constructed. The special advantage of CMOS is its extremely low power dissipation. The major
disadvantage of CMOS is its high propagation delay.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor-
transistor logic. It is called because the logic gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a diode
network and the amplifying function is performed by a transistor.

## Active Power Dissipation:

The average power dissipation of a CMOS device whose output is continuously changing is called
as active power dissipation.
Completely specified function:

All the combinations of states and inputs and their output values are specified.

## Incompletely specified function:

Sequential circuits in which some of the states or output values are left.

## RTL Logic Circuit:

Resistor-transistor logic (RTL) is a class of digital circuits which is built using resistors as the input
network and bipolar junction transistors (BJT) as switching devices.

## Advantages of RTL Logic circuit:

The primary advantage of RTL technology is that it involves a minimum number of transistors
which was an important consideration before integrated circuit technology as transistors were
the most expensive component to produce.

Limitations:

The obvious disadvantage of RTL is its high current dissipation when the transistor conducts to
overdrive the output biasing resistor. This requires that more current is supplied and heat is
removed from the RTL circuits. In contrast, TTL circuits minimize both of these requirements.

## Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL):

DTL takes diode logic gates and adds a transistor to the output to provide logic inversion and to
restore the signal to its full logic levels.

Diode-transistor logic:

Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits which is built from bipolar junction
transistors (BJT), diodes and resistors. It is the direct ancestor of transistor-transistor logic. It is
called as diode-transistor logic because the logic gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a
diode network and the amplifying function is performed by a transistor.

One advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented
digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. For example, a continuous audio
signal transmitted as a sequence of 1’s and 0’s can be reconstructed without error where the
noise picked up in transmission is not enough to prevent identification of the 1’s and 0’s. An
hour of music can be stored on a compact disc as about 6 billion binary digits.

In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more
binary digits to represent it. This requires more digital circuits to process the signals where each
digit is handled by the same kind of hardware. In an analog system, additional resolution
requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the
signal chain.

In some cases, digital circuits uses more energy than analog circuits to accomplish the same
tasks to produce more heat. In portable or battery-powered systems, this can limit the use of the
digital systems.

For example, battery-powered cellular telephones uses a low-power analog front-end to amplify
and tune in the radio signals from the base station. However, a base station has grid power and it
can use power-hungry. Such base stations can be easily reprogrammed to process the signals
used in new cellular standards.

Comparison of logic
family

## TTL with open

collector output
configuration

The multiple emitters in transistor θ 1 are connected to the inputs, a resistor is connected to +Vcc
which must be inserted externally to the IC package for the output to pull up to a high voltage
level when θ3 is off where the output acts as an open circuit.
The two voltage levels of the TTL gate are 0.2V for the low level and it varies from 2.4V to 5V for
high level. If any input is low, the corresponding base emitter junction in θ1 is forward biased.

The voltage at the base of θ1 is equal to the input voltage 0.2V plus a VBE drop of 0.7V or 0.9V.

In order to turn ON θ 3, at least 1.8V is required. So the output transistor θ 3 is OFF and output Y is
at +Vcc. If all the inputs are high, both θ2 and θ3 is conducted and saturated.

The base voltage of θ1 is equal to the voltage across its base collector PN junction plus V BE drops
in θ2 and θ3. The base emitter junctions of θ1 are reverse biased where θ1 is in OFF state.

## TTL with open collector output

configuration
TTL inverter with tristate
output

## A three state gate exhibits

three output states as
follows:

1) A low level state when the lower transistor in the pole is ON and the upper transistor is OFF.

2) A high level state when the lower transistor is OFF and the upper transistor is ON.

3) A third state (high impedance) when both transistors in the pole are OFF.

The circuit diagram of three state inverter is shown in the below figure.

Transistors Q1 – Q5 forms a totem pole and transistors Q 6 – Q8 forms an open collector. The two
circuits are connected together through a diode D 1.

When control input at C is in the low level state, Q 8 is in OFF state. So, D1 does not conduct and
emitter in Q1 is connected to Q8 which has no conduction path. Under this condition, transistor
Q8 has no effect on the gate and the output Y depends on the data input at A.

When the control input is high, Q 8 turns ON. The voltage is at the base if Q 5 is one diode drop
plus VCE (Q8). This voltage turns OFF Q5 and Q4.
At the same time, the low input to one of the emitters of Q 1 forces transistors Q2 and Q3 to turn
OFF. Thus, both Q3 and Q4 are turned OFF and the output of the circuit behaves like an open
circuit with a high output impedance.

## TTL inverter with

tristate output

ECL:

Emitter Coupled
Logic (ECL) is a non-
saturated digital logic
family. The basic
component of the
ECL gate is a current
switch or difference
amplifier with an out-of-phase output for which ECL is called as Current Mode Logic (CML).

It consists of a difference amplifier input circuit which is a bias circuit and emitter - follower
outputs. The outputs provide both OR and NOR functions.

The Vcc terminal is connected to ground and -5.2 V from the power supply to V EE for best
operation. The two voltage levels are about -0.8 V for the HIGH state and about -1.8 V for the
LOW state.

Circuit operation:

If all inputs are at the Low level, all input transistors turn OFF and Q 5 conducts. The base of each
input is at a Low level of -18 V. The current in R 1 is negligible and the NOR output is one V BE drop
below the ground at -0.8 V or at the HIGH level.

If any input is HIGH, the corresponding transistor is turned ON and Q 5 is turned OFF. Since, VBB =
-1.3 V, the base voltage of Q5 is only 0.3 V more positive than its emitter.
The OR output of the gate is one V BE drop below the ground or -0.8 V which is in the High state.
The NOR output is one VBE drop below this level or at -1.8V which is the LOW state.

ECL

## 1.3.2 Characteristics of logic family

HIGH-level input current, IIH:

This is the current flowing into (taken as positive) or out of (taken as negative) an input when a
HIGH-level input voltage is equal to the minimum HIGH-level output voltage. In the case of
bipolar logic families such as TTL, the circuit design is in such a way where the current flows into
the input pin and it is therefore specified as positive. In the case of CMOS logic families, it could
be either positive or negative and only an absolute value is specified in this case.

## LOW-level input current, IIL:

The LOW-level input current is the maximum current flowing into (taken as positive) or out of
(taken as negative) the input of a logic function when the voltage applied at the input equals to
the maximum LOW-level output voltage specified for the family. In the case of bipolar logic
families such as TTL, the circuit design is such that, this current flows out of the input pin and it is
therefore specified as negative. In the case of CMOS logic families, it could be either positive or
negative. In this case, only an absolute value is specified.

## HIGH-level output current, IOH:

This is the maximum current flowing out of an output when the output is in the logic HIGH state.
It is normally shown as a negative number. It informs us about the current sourcing capability of
the output. The magnitude of I0H determines the number of inputs the logic function can drive
when its output is in the logic HIGH state. For example, for the standard TTL family, the minimum
guaranteed IOH is - 400μA which can drive 10 standard TTL inputs which require 40μA in the HIGH
state.

## LOW-level output current, VIH:

This is the maximum current flowing into the output pin of a logic function when the input
conditions are such that the output is in the logic LOW state. It shows the current sinking
capability of the output. The magnitude of IOL determines the number of inputs the logic function
can drive when its output is in the logic LOW state. For example, for the standard TTL family, the
minimum guaranteed IOL is 16 mA which can drive 10 standard TTL inputs with each requiring
1.6mA in the LOW state.

## HIGH-level input voltage, VIH:

This is the minimum voltage level that needs to be applied at the input to be recognized as a
legal HIGH level for the specified family. For the standard TTL family, a 2 V input voltage is a legal
HIGH logic state.

## LOW-level input voltage, VIL:

This is the maximum voltage level applied at the input that is recognized as a legal LOW level for
the specified family. For the standard TTL family, an input voltage of 0.8 V is a legal LOW logic
state.

## HIGH-level output voltage, VOH:

This is the minimum voltage on the output pin of a logic function when the input conditions
establishes logic HIGH at the output of the specified family. In the case of the standard TTL family
of devices, the HIGH level output voltage is as low as 2.4V and it is treated as a legal HIGH logic
state. For a given logic family, the VOH specification is always greater than the V IH specification to
ensure the output-to-input compatibility when the output of one device feeds the input of
another.
LOW-level output voltage, VOL:

This is the maximum voltage on the output pin of a logic function when the input conditions
establishes logic LOW at the output for the specified family. In the case of the standard TTL
family of devices, the LOW-level output voltage is as high as 0.4V and it is treated as a legal LOW
logic state. It may be mentioned here that, for a given logic family, the V OL specification is always
smaller than the VIL specification which ensures output-to-input compatibility when the output
of one device feeds the input of another.

High
level
input
and
output
current
and
voltage

requirements

Low
level
input
and
output
current
and
voltage

requirements
Supply current, Icc:

The supply current occurs when the output is HIGH, LOW and in the high-impedance state, it is
designated as ICCH, ICCL and ICCZ.

Fan out:
It specifies the number of standard loads that the output of the gate can drive without affecting
its normal operation. A standard load is defined as the amount of current needed by an input of
another gate in the same family as shown in the below figure. Sometimes, the term loading is
used instead of fan out. This term is derived from the fact that the output of the gate can supply
a limited amount of current above which it ceases to operate properly and it is said to be
overloaded. The output of the gate is connected to the inputs of similar gates.

## Fan out of logic gate is

decided by number of loads
connected to the output of
the gate of same logic family
Each input consumes a
certain amount of power
from gate input so that
connection is added to
load the gate. These
family of standard digital
circuits. The rules specify the maximum amount of loading allowed for each output in the circuit.

Exceeding the specified maximum load causes a malfunction because the circuit cannot supply
the power demanded from it. Thus, fan out is the maximum number of inputs that can be
connected to the output of the gate and it is expressed by a number. The fanout capabilities of a
gate must be considered while simplifying Boolean functions. Non inverting amplifiers or buffers
provides additional driving capabilities for heavy loads.

Fan in

## This is the number of

inputs of a logic gate.
It is decided by the
input current sinking
capability of a logic
gate as shown in the
below figure.
Fan in of logic gate
Power dissipation:

This is the power supply required to operate the gate. It is expressed in milli-watt (mW) and it
represents the actual power dissipated in the gate. It is the number that represents power
delivered to gate from the power supply. The total power dissipated in the digital system is the
sum of power dissipated in each digital IC.

## Rise time, tr:

This is the time that elapses between 10% and 90 % of the final signal level when the signal
makes a transition from logic LOW to logic HIGH.

## Fall time, tf:

This is the time that elapses between 90 and 10 % of the signal level when the signal makes a
transition from logic LOW to logic HIGH

## Propagation delay, tp:

The propagation delay is the time delay between the occurrence of change in the logical level at
the input before it is reflected at the output. It is the time delay between the specified voltage
points on the input and output waveforms. Propagation delays are separately defined for LOW-
to-HIGH and HIGH-to-LOW transitions at the output. Enable and disable time delay occurs
during transition between the high-impedance state and defined logic LOW or HIGH states.
Parameters of propagation delay
a. Propagation delay, tpLH:

This is the time delay between the specified voltage points on the input and output waveforms
with the output changing from LOW to HIGH.

## b. Propagation delay, rpHL:

This is the time delay between the specified voltage points on the input and output waveforms
with the output changing from HIGH to LOW.

It is the average transition delay time for a signal to propagate from input to output when the
binary signals changes its value. The signal through gate takes a certain amount of time to
propagate from the inputs to the output. The interval of time is defined as the propagation delay
of the gate. Propagation delay is expressed in nanoseconds(ns)(1ns = 10-9 s).
The signals travelling from input to output of the system pass through a number of gates. The
propagation delay of the system is the sum of the propagation delays of all these gates. When
the speed of operation is important, each gate must have a small propagation delay and the
digital circuit must have minimum number of gates between input and output.

## Disable time from the HIGH state, tpHZ:

For a tristate device, this time delay is between the specified voltage points on the input and
output waveforms with the tristate output changes from the logic HIGH level to the high-
impedance state.

## Disable time from the LOW state, tpLZ:

For a tristate device, this time delay is between the specified voltage points on the input and
output waveforms with the tristate output changes from the logic LOW level to the high-
impedance state.

## Enable time from the HIGH state, tpZH:

For a tristate device, the time delay between the specified voltage points on the input and
output waveforms with the tristate output changes from the high-impedance state to the logic
HIGH level is known as enable time from the HIGH state.

Power dissipation:

The power dissipation for a logic family is specified in terms of power consumption per gate and
it is the product of supply voltage V cc and supply current Icc. The supply current is taken as the
average of the HIGH-level supply current I CCH and the LOW-level supply current I CCL.

Speed-power product:

The speed of a logic circuit is increased and the propagation delay is reduced at the expense of
power dissipation. When a bipolar transistor switches between cut-off and saturation, it
dissipates the least power but it has a large switching time delay. When the transistor is
operated in the active region, power dissipation goes up while the switching time decreases.

It is always desirable to have low values for both propagation delay and power dissipation
parameters. A figure-of-merit is used to evaluate different logic families where the speed-power
product is expressed in picojoules which is the product of the propagation delay (measured in
nanoseconds) and the power dissipation per gate (measured in milliwatts).

Noise margin:

This is the maximum noise voltage added to the input signal of digital circuit that does not cause
an undesirable change in the output of the circuit. There are two types of noise to be considered
as follows,

## a. DC noise: This is caused by a drift in the voltage levels of a signal.

b. AC noise: This is caused by random pulse that may be created by other switching signals.

Noise margin
This is a quantitative measure of noise immunity offered by the logic family. When the output of
a logic device feeds the input of another device of the same family, a legal HIGH logic state at the
output of the feeding device is treated as a legal HIGH logic state by the input of the device being
fed. Similarly, a legal LOW logic state of the feeding device is treated as a legal LOW logic state by
the device being fed. The legal HIGH and LOW voltage levels for a given logic family are different
for outputs and inputs.

The above figure shows the generalized case of legal HIGH and LOW voltage levels for output. As
we can see from the two diagrams that there is a disallowed range of output voltage levels from
VOL(max) to VOH(min) and an indeterminate range of input voltage levels from VIL(max) to
VIH(min). Since VIL(max) is greater than VOL(max), the LOW output state has a positive voltage
spike which is equal to (VIL(max) - VOL(max)) and which is a legal LOW input. Similarly, VOH(min)
is greater than VIH (min) and the HIGH output state tolerates a negative voltage spike which is
equal to (VOH(min) - VIH (min)) which is a legal HIGH input. Here, (VIL(max) - VOL(max)) and
(VOH(min) - VIH (min)) are known as the LOW-level and HIGH-level noise margin.
UNIT II COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS
Combinational logic - representation of logic functions-SOP and POS forms, K-map
representations - minimization using K maps - simplification and implementation of
combinational logic - multiplexers and demultiplexers - code converters, adders, subtractors,
Encoders and Decoders.
2.1 Combinational logic - representation of logic functions-SOP and POS forms
With combinational logic, the circuit produces the same output regardless of the order the
inputs are changed. There are circuits which depend on the change in input and these circuits
are known as sequential logic.

The practical circuits will have a mix of combinational and sequential logic where sequential logic
is in a order and combinational logic performs functions like arithmetic, logic or conversion.

A combinational circuit is the one in which the output at any time depends only on the present
combination of inputs at that point of time with total disregard to the past state of the inputs.
Logic gate is the most basic building block of the combinational logic.

The logical function performed by a combinational circuit is fully defined by a set of Boolean
expressions. The other category of logic circuits is called as sequential logic circuits which
comprise of both memory elements such as flip-flops and logic gates.

Due to the presence of memory elements, the output in a sequential circuit depends not only on
the present input but also on the past state of inputs.

Generalized
combinational circuit
The above figure shows
the schematic
representation of a
generalized combinational circuit having n input variables and m output variables or simply
outputs. Since the number of input variables is n, there are 2n possible combinations of bits at
the input.

Each output can be expressed in terms of the input variable by a Boolean expression with the
result where the generalized system of the above figure can be expressed by m Boolean
expressions.
Problems
1. Let us assume that the input frequency of a 7497 binary rate multiplier is 64 KHz. Let us
determine its output if the multiplier word is 1011.

Solution:

Given:

To find:

## Output of the binary rate multiplier

Formula to be used:

where,

## M = A525 + A424 + A323 + A222 + A121 + A020

M = 1 x 23 + 0 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 1 x 20 = 11

## 2.1.1 Representation of logic

functions
Three representations of logic functions are as follows,

## Expression X.Y X+Y X =X’

A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs
and one output.

At any given moment, every terminal is in any one of the two binary conditions is low (0) or high
(1) which is represented by different voltage levels.
The logic state of a terminal changes when the circuit processes the data.

In most logic gates, the low state is approximately zero volts while the high state is
approximately five volts positive. There are seven basic logic gates namely AND, OR, NOT, XOR,
XNOR, NAND and NOR.

AND

The AND gate is named because if 0 is called "false", then 1 is called "true" where the gate acts
in the same way as the logical "and" operator.

The output is "true" when both inputs are "true". Otherwise, the output is "false".

Truth table:

## Input 1 Input 2 Output

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

OR

The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves like the logical inclusive "or".

The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true" and if both the inputs are "false",
then the output is "false".

Symbol of OR gate
Truth table:

## Input 1 Input 2 Output

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 1

NOT

A logical inverter also called as a NOT gate differentiates it from other types of electronic inverter
devices which have only one input. It reverses the logic state.

## Symbol of NOT gate

Truth table:

Input Output

1 0

0 1

NAND

The NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. It acts in the similar manner of
the logical operation "and" followed by a negation. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true".
Otherwise, the output is "true".

Truth table:

0 0 1

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

NOR

## The NOR gate is a combination of OR gate followed by an inverter.

Its output is "true" if both the inputs are "false". Otherwise, the output is "false".

Truth table:

## Input 1 Input 2 Output

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

Universal gates:

The NAND and NOR gates are called as the universal gates. These gates are used to perform any
type of logic operations.

Implementation of the Boolean expression for EXOR gate using NAND and NOR gates:
EX-OR gate expression is given as .

Step 2: Bubbles
on the output
of AND gate
and input of OR

Step 3: Then it
is replaced by a
NAND symbol.

## ii) EX-OR using

NOR

Step 1: In AOI
logic, bubbles are added at the output of OR gate and input of the AND gate.

Step 2:
Inverters are
line that
received bubbles and removes double inversions.
Step 3: Then it is replaced by a NOR Symbol.

NOR gate
using TTL
logic:

## NOR gate using

TTL logic

When A = 0
and B = 0, Q1
and Q2 is in OFF
condition.

∴ Q3 and Q4 will also be in OFF condition. Therefore, the output level at Vcc has a high voltage.

## When A = 0 and B = 1, Q1 is in OFF and Q2 is in ON state and therefore, Q3 is in OFF and Q4 is in

ON condition and the output has a low voltage.

Truth table:

A B Output

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

Exclusive-OR

The XOR (exclusive-OR) gate acts in the same way as the logical "either/or."

The output is "true" if either but not both the inputs are "true". The output is "false" when both
the inputs are "true" or if both the inputs are "false".
Another way of analyzing this circuit is that the output is 1 when the inputs are different but 0 if
the inputs are the same.

Symbol of Exclusive-OR

Truth table:

## Input 1 Input 2 Output

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 0

Exclusive-NOR

The XNOR (exclusive-NOR) gate is a combination XOR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is
"true" if the inputs are the same and "false" if the inputs are different.

Symbol of XNOR

Truth table:

0 0 1

0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

## Sum of Products (SOP) :

A Sum-of-Products Boolean expression is a set of Boolean terms that are added together where
each term is a multiplicative combination of Boolean variables.

## Expressions for sum-of-products = Term1 + Term2 ... + Termn

The product terms include all the input variables which are called as minterms.

In a sum-of-products expression, a product of all the input variables (or their inverses) for each
row of the truth table is formed where the result is logic 1. The output is the logical sum of these
minterms.

The sum-of-products expressions are easy to generate by determining which rows of the table
have an output of 1 by writing one product term for each row and then all the product terms are
added. This creates a Boolean expression which is represented in the below truth table. The
sum-of-products expressions are implemented as a set of AND gates (products) by feeding into a
single OR gate (sum).

Truth table:

A B C W

0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0

## The output can be expressed as follows,

Product of
Sums (POS):
An alternative to a sum-of-products expression results in all "high" (1) output conditions in the
truth table to generate the product-of-sums or POS expression which accounts for all "low" (0)
output conditions.

POS Boolean expressions are generated from the truth tables by determining the rows of the
table which have an output of 0 by writing the one sum term for each row and then finally
multiplying all the sum terms. This creates a Boolean expression which is represented in the
below truth table.

These “sum” terms include all the input variables (or their inverses) called as maxterms. In the
POS implementation, the output variable is the logical product of maxterms. Product-of-sums
expressions implement a set of OR gates (sums) by feeding into a single AND gate (product).

Truth table:

A B C Z

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 0

1 1 1 1

Problems

## 1. Let us reduce the given expression using the Boolean algebra.

x'y'z' +x'y'z' + x'yz + xy'z + xyz

Solution:

Given:

## = x'y' (z' + z) + yz (x' + x)+ xy'z

= x'y' + yz + xy'z

= y'(x' + z)+yz

= y'x' + y'z+yz

= y'x' + z(y'+y)

= y'x' + z

Solution:

Given:

## 3. Let us reduce the given expression using Boolean algebra.

p'q'r + p'qr' + p'qr + pqr' + pq'r'

Solution:

Given:

= qr' + p ⨁ r

## 4. Let us show that a function

expressed as a sum of its minterms is equivalent to a function expressed as a product of its
maximum terms.

Solution:

Given:

SOP:

5. Let us show
that a function
expressed as a sum of its minterms is equivalent to a function expressed as a product of its
maximum terms.

Solution:

Given:

POS:

6. Let us express
the function in
canonical SOP
form.

Solution:

Given:

## Sum of Product (SOP):

Y =
m7 +
m6 + m 5 + m 3 + m 5 + m 1

Y = Σ(1, 4, 5, 6, 7)

## 7. Let us express the function in

canonical POS form.

Solution:

Given:
Product of Sum (POS)

Y = M 2 M3
M0 = M 0
M2 M 3

Y = π(0, 2, 3)

8. Let us minimize and implement the following multiple output functions in SOP form.

Solution:

Given:

## f2 = Σm (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15) + d (3, 5, 12)

The K
maps
are
filled
by
ones
and don't cares using the above expression. After reduction, let us find that CD occurs both in f1
and f2 which can be shared.

Implementation of logic
circuit

## 9. Let us convert the

given expression Y =
AC + AB + BC in
canonical SOP form.

Solution:

Given:

Y = AC + AB + BC

Solution:

Given:

Y = AC + AB + BC

## = ABC + ABC' +AB'C + AB'C' [A + A =1]

2.2 K-map representations - minimization using K maps - simplification and implementation of
combinational logic

A Karnaugh map (or) K-map is a pictorial form of truth table in which the map diagram is made
up of cells with each cell representing one minterm or maxterm of the function. It provides a
simple straight forward procedure for minimizing Boolean function.

Five
variable
K-map

Six
variable
K-map

## Limitations of Karnaugh map:

i) It is restricted in its capability because they are useful for simplifying only the Boolean
expression represented in standard form.

ii) It is limited to six variable map (i.e) more than six variables involves reduced expressions.

## Minimization with Karnaugh maps:

• K-maps converts the truth table of a Boolean equation into minimized SOP form.

• K-maps has easy and simple basic rules for the simplification.

• The K-map method is faster and more efficient than other simplification techniques of Boolean
algebra.

• All rows in the K-map are represented by using a square shaped cells in which each square
represent a minterm.

• It is easy to convert a truth table to k-map and k-map to sum of products to form an equation.

There are 2 forms in converting a Boolean equation into K-map. They are as follows,

Un-optimized form
Optimized form

Unoptimized form: It converts the number of 1’s into an equal number of product terms
(minterms) in an SOP equation.

## Don’t care condition:

In some logic circuits, certain input conditions will never occur, therefore, the corresponding
output will never appear. In such cases, the output level is not defined which may be either high
or low. These output levels are indicated by either ‘X’ or ‘d’ in the truth table and are known as
don’t care conditions or incompletely specified functions.
For SOP, we enter 1’s corresponding to the combinations of input variables which produces high
output and we enter 0's in the remaining cells of the K-map.

In such situation, we have freedom to assume '0' or '1' as output for each of three combination s
in K-map. It is represented as X mark in the corresponding cell.

Problems

Solution:

Given:

## 2. Let us simplify the

following function using K -
map and also implement
the function using logic
gates f(A, B, C) =π(0, 4, 6).

Solution:

Given:

f(A, B, C) =π(0, 4, 6)

3. Let us
reduce
the
following

## expression using K-map: F = m2 + m3 + m4 + m6 + m7 + m9 + m11 + m13.

Solution:

Given:

F = m2 + m3 + m4 + m6 + m7 + m9 + m11 + m13

## 4. Let us reduce the following

expression using K - map, f =
x'y'z + w'xyz' + wxz + w'xyz.

Solution:

Given:

## 5. Let us design the simplified

expression for the following
logic equation f(A, B, C, D) =
Σm(0, 8, 11, 12, 15) + d(1, 2,
4, 7, 10, 14) where d
represents a don’t care
condition. Let us also represent the simplified expression using logic gates.

Solution:

Given:
f(A, B, C, D) = Σm(0, 8, 11, 12, 15) + d(1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14)

## 6. Let us simplify the

Boolean function F(w, x, y,
z) = Σ (1, 3, 7, 11, 15) using
K - map which has the
don't care conditions as
d(w, x, y, z) = Σ(0, 2, 5).

Solution:

Given:

## F(w, x, y, z) = Σ (1, 3, 7, 11, 15)

d(w, x, y, z) = Σ(0, 2, 5)

## 2.2.1 Simplification and implementation of combinational logic

Simplification of combinational logic circuits using Boolean algebra:

Complex combinational logic circuits must be reduced without any change in the function of the
circuit. Reduction of a logic circuit means that the same logic function has fewer gates and
inputs.
The first step in reducing a logic circuit is to write the Boolean equation for the logic function.
The next step is to apply as many laws and rules to reduce the number of terms and variables in
the expression.

To apply the rules of Boolean Algebra, we should first remove any parentheses or brackets. After
the removal of the parentheses, common terms or factors are removed by leaving the terms that
can be reduced by the rules of Boolean algebra.

The final step is to draw the logic diagram for the reduced Boolean expression.

## 2.3 Multiplexers and demultiplexers

Multiplexer is a combinational circuit which has 2N inputs and 1 output with n-selection lines.

Block diagram of
multiplexer
Applications of
multiplexer

## (i) It is used in the

implementation of
combinational circuits.

## (ii) It is used as function

generators.

Data routing:
Multiplexers are used to route the data from one of several sources to one destination.

Control sequences:

## Implement using 4 × 1 MUX:

F(x, y, z) = Σ(1, 2, 6, 7)

4:1 MUX
2x2 multiplexer:

Multiplication of
binary number is
performed in the
same way as in
decimal numbers. The
multiplicand is multiplied by each bit of the multiplier which starts from the least significant bit.
Each such multiplication forms a partial product. Successive partial products are shifted one
position to the left. The final product is obtained from the sum of the partial products.

The multiplication of 2 bit number is considered. The multiplicand bits are B1 and B0, the
multiplier bits are A1 and A0 and the product is C3 C2 C1 C0. The first partial product is formed by
multiplying A0 by B1B0. The multiplication of two bits such as A0 and B0 produces 1 if both bits are
1, otherwise, it produces 0. This is identical to AND operation where the partial product is
implemented with AND gates as follows,

2 x 2 multiplexer
The second partial product
is formed by multiplying A1
by B1B0 and it is shifted one
position to left. The two
partial products are added with two half adder circuits. The LSB of the product does not have
to go through an adder since it is formed by the output of the first AND gate.

Demultiplexers

In addition to the data input, there must be other inputs to control the transmission of the data
to the appropriate data output line at any given time. This demultiplexer circuit having eight
output lines is shown in the below figure (a). For the same number of control inputs, it has same
number of AND gates. But now each AND gate output is an output of the circuit. Each gate has
its own separate data input where single data line forms one of the inputs to each AND gate
where the other AND inputs are control inputs.

When the word formed by the control inputs C 2C1C0 is the binary equivalent of decimal k, then
the data input x is routed to output D k. For a demultiplexer which has n control inputs, each AND
gate output corresponds to a minterm of n variables. For a given combination of control inputs,
only one minterm can take the value 1 where the data input is routed to the AND gate
corresponding to this minterm. For example, if the logical expression for the output D3 is
xC2'C1C0, then C2C1C0 =
011 where D3 = x and
all other Di are equal
to 0.

Demux circuit

## The complete truth

table for the eight-
output demultiplexer
is given in the below
truth table:

Truth table

## Control inputs Data outputs

C2 C1 C0 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
0 0 0 x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 x 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 x 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 x 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x

## (a) 5-line-to 32-line

decoder using two 4-
line-to 16-line decoders

## Since 4-line-to 16-line

decoders are the largest
available circuits in IC’s,
larger inputs are
needed for the
expansion. This is made
possible by using
enable input terminal. The above figure(a) shows a 5-line-to 32-line decoder and the below
figure(b) shows a 8-line-to 256-line decoder using 4-line-to 16-line decoders. Similarly, an m-line-
to-n-line decoder can be implemented. However, if only a few codes of a large number need be
recognised, the alternative approach such as the one shown in the below figure (c) can be used.
This is connected to detect the digital number 00011111.
(b) 8-line-to
256-line
decoder
using two 4-
line-to 16-
line decoders

The most-
significant 4-
bits are
applied at
ABCD inputs
and the
least-
significant
bits are
applied at
EFGH inputs.
The output goes low when the most-significant bits are 0001 and the least-significant bits are
1111. The circuit can be expanded to detect other 8-bit codes.

(c) An
alternative
approach to
decode
combinations
Higher
order
multiplexing

## (a) 16:1 mux

with OR gate
The 16-to-1
multiplexers
are the
largest
available IC’s. Hence, to meet the larger input needs, there must be a provision for expansion.
This can be achieved with the help of enable or strobe inputs where multiplexers stacks or
trees are designed. Two commonly used methods for this purpose are shown in the above
figure(a) and in the below figure(b).

The circuit of the above figure (a) uses two 16:1 multiplexers (M1and M2) for the realization of a
32:1 multiplexer. The lower order of 16 data input lines (I0-I15) is applied at the data input
terminals of the multiplexer M1 and the higher order 16 data input lines (I15-I31) is applied at the
data input terminals of the multiplexer M2.

## (b) 16:1 mux

with 2:1 mux
For a 32:1
multiplexer,
the number
of select
input lines is
5. The 5-bit
select
inputs are
ABCDE. The
most-
significant
select input
bit A is applied at G 1 and is applied at G 2. B, C, D and E are connected to S 3, S2, S1 and S0 inputs of
both the multiplexers. The output F of the multiplexer is obtained by using an OR gate where F =
Y1+ Y2.

When A = 0, the multiplexer M1 is enabled and M2 is disabled which allows one of the lower
order 16 bits to Y1 depending on the value of BCDE where Y2= 0. Therefore, F = Y1. Similarly, when
A = 1, M2 is enabled and M1 is disabled and F = Y2. The above figure(b) uses a 2:1 multiplexer
instead of an OR gate. Where A = 0, F = Y1 and when A = 1, F = Y2. Thus, both the circuits perform
similar operation. These two general techniques can be used to expand an n input multiplexer
without any difficulty.
Problems

## 1.Let us implement the function f(A, B, C) = Σm(0, 3, 5) using a 4: 1 multiplexer.

Solution:

Given:

f(A, B, C) = Σm(0, 3, 5)

Formula to be used:

## Input lines = 2n–1

Variables n = 3 (A, B, C)

## Input lines = 2n–1 = 4(I0, I1, I2, I3)

Implementation table:

I0 I1 I2 I3

Ā 1 2

A 4 6 7

Ā A 0 Ā

I0 = Ā, I1 = A, I2 = 0, I3 = Ā

Implementation of multiplexer:

2. Let us implement
F(x, y, z) = Σ(1, 2, 6,
7) using 4 × 1 MUX.
Solution:

Given:
F(x, y, z) = Σ(1, 2, 6, 7)

3. Let us
implement the
following boolean
function using 8:1
multiplexer

Solution:

Given:

## The given Boolean

expression is not in
standard SOP form. The conversion to SOP is given as,

## The truth table for this standard SOP is given as,

SI. No. Minterms A B C D Y

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 1

2 0 0 1 0 0

3 0 0 1 1 1

4 0 1 0 0 1

5 0 1 0 1 1

6 0 1 1 0 1

7 0 1 1 1 0

8 1 0 0 0 0

9 1 0 0 1 0

10 1 0 1 0 0

11 1 0 1 1 1

12 1 1 0 0 0

13 - 1 1 0 1 0

14 1 1 1 0 0

15 ABCD 1 1 1 1 1

Implementation table

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

A 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Y 0 0 1 A
Implementation of MUX

4. Let us
implement the
following function
with a multiplexer.

F(A, B, C) = Σ(1, 2,
4, 5)

Solution:

Given:

F(A, B, C) = Σ(1, 2,
4, 5)

Two of the
variables B and C are applied to the selection lines S1 and S0 respectively.
The truth table of multiplexer is given as follows,

Minterm A B C F

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 1

2 0 1 0 1

3 0 1 1 0

4 1 0 0 1

5 1 0 1 1

6 1 1 0 0

7 1 1 1 0

Implementation table

The multiplexer
implementation is given
as,
2.4 Code converters

## Numbers are usually

coded in one form or
another to represent or to
use it as required. For
instance, a number nine is coded in decimal using symbol (9) d. Same is coded in natural-binary
as(1001)b. When digital computers deal with binary numbers, natural-binary representation of
numbers are inefficient and some other (binary) code must be used to process the numbers.

## Binary to gray code converter:

Gray code is a non-weighted code. It has a very special feature where only one bit will change. A
binary number can be converted to gray code by using the following steps:

## • Record the MSB as it is.

• Add this bit to the next position by recording the sum and neglecting any carry.

## Applications of gray code:

• Gray code is used in applications where the normal sequence of binary number produces an
error or ambiguity during transition from one number to the next.

## The applications of octal number system are:

• It is used for entering the binary data and displaying certain information.

• It is very important for the efficient use of microprocessors and other digital circuits.
BCD to Excess - 3 code encoder:

Excess - 3 code is a modified form of a BCD number. It can be derived from the natural BCD code
by adding 3 to each coded number.
Truth table:

B3 B2 B1 B0 E3 E2 E1 E0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

Simplification of K-Map:

BCD to
Excess 3
code
converter

Problems

1. Let us
solve the
maximum
number of
outputs for
a decoder
with a 6 bit
data word.

Solution:
For a 6 bit data word, the maximum number of output for a decoder is 2 6 = 32 outputs.

Solution:

Given:

Binary 1011:

## A logic circuit which performs the

addition of two bits is a half adder. A half-adder is an arithmetic circuit block which can be used
to add two bits. Such a circuit has two inputs that represent the two bits to be added and two
outputs with one which produces the SUM output and the other produces the CARRY. The below
figure shows the truth table of a half adder that shows all possible input combinations and the
corresponding outputs.

The Boolean expressions for the SUM and CARRY outputs are shown in the below equations:

## Block diagram of half adder

Truth table

A B S C
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1

The circuit that performs the addition of three bits is called as a full adder.

## Full adder accepts three inputs and it generates two outputs.

Implementation
Applications of

reduces the
complexity of the circuit.

• This is used to construct a ripple carry counter to add n-bit numbers. Thus, it is used in the
arithmetic and logic unit.

• This can be used in processor chip such as Snapdragon, Intel Pentium or Exynos for CPU part
which consists of an ALU. Therefore, this block performs addition, subtraction, multiplication
etc.,

• A full adder adds the binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out.

• A one-bit full adder adds three one-bit numbers which are written as A, B and Cin where A and
B are the operands and Cin is a bit carried in from the previous less significant stage.

Truth table:

Input Output

A B Cin S C

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

2.5.1 Subtractors
Half subtractor

A half-subtractor is a combinational circuit which is used to subtract one binary digit from
another to produce a DIFFERENCE output and a BORROW output.

The BORROW output specifies whether a = 1 has been borrowed to perform the subtraction.

The truth table of a half-subtractor is shown below. The Boolean expressions for the two outputs
are given by the below equations.

DIFFERENCE bit:

D = X XOR Y = X ⊕ Y

BORROW bit:

B = not-X AND Y =

Half subtractor
Full subtractor

A full subtractor
performs the
subtraction function on two bits such as a minuend and a subtrahend and also whether a = 1 is
borrowed by the previous adjacent lower minuend bit or not is taken into consideration.
There are three bits to be handled at the input of a full subtractor where the two bits are
subtracted and a borrow bit is designated as Bin.

There are two outputs namely the DIFFERENCE output D and a BORROW output Bo.

The BORROW output bit tells whether the minuend bit needs to borrow a =1‘ from the next
possible higher minuend bit.

The truth table of a full subtractor is given below. The Boolean expressions are given by the
equations for two output variables as follows,

Truth table:

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 1

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1

## 2.6 Encoders and decoders

An encoder is the digital circuit that performs the inverse operation of a decoder. An encoder has
2n input lines and n output lines. In an encoder, the output lines generate the binary code
corresponding to the input value. An encoder is a combinational circuit that performs the inverse
operation of a decoder. When the device output code has fewer bits than the input code, the
device is called as an encoder e.g., 2n-to-n priority encoders. It is a 2n-to-n binary encoder where
it has only one of 2n inputs = 1 and the output is the n-bit binary number corresponds to the
active input.

The below figure shows the general structure of the encoder circuit where the decoded
information is presented as 2n inputs to produce n possible outputs.

## Decimal to BCD encoder

The decimal to BCD
encoder has ten input
lines and four output
lines. The decoded
decimal data acts as an input for encoder and encoded BCD output is available on the four
output lines.

## 74xx147(Decimal to BCD encoder)

The above figure shows the logic symbol for decimal to BCD encoder for IC 74xx147. It has nine
input lines and four output lines. Both input and output lines are asserted as active low. It is
important to note that there is no input line for decimal zero. When this condition occurs, all
output lines are 1. The function table for the 74xx147 is shown below.
Truth table for decimal to BCD encoder:

## Decimal Input Output

value

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 D C B A

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

2 x 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

3 x x 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

4 x x x 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1

5 x x x x 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

6 x x x x x 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1

7 x x x x x x 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

8 x x x x x x x 0 1 0 1 1 1

9 x x x x x x x x 0 0 1 1 0

x denotes don’t care condition. Let us draw the interfacing diagram of ten key keypad interface
to a digital system using decimal to BCD encoder.
Ten key keypad interface using decimal to BCD encoder
Decoders

A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a
maximum of 2n output lines. A decoder is a multiple input multiple output logic circuit that
converts coded inputs into coded outputs where the input and output codes are different.

n-to-2n-line decoder:

Each AND gate has only n (in this case three) inputs and there are 2 n (in this case eight) outputs.
Since there is no data input line to control, control inputs serve that function which are the data
inputs to be decoded. The below circuit is an example of an n-to-2n-line decoder. Each output
represents the minterm. Output k is 1 whenever the combination of the input variable values is
the binary equivalent of decimal k. The data input line from the demultiplexer in the below
figure is not removed but retained and viewed as an enable input where the decoder operates
only when the enable x is 1.
An n-to-2n-line decoder with an enabled input is used as a demultiplexer where the enable
becomes the serial data input and the data inputs of the decoder become the control inputs of
the demultiplexer. Decoders are available as integrated circuits (MSI) where n = 3 and n = 4.
There is no theoretical reason why n can‘t be increased to higher values. However, there will be
always some practical limitations on the fan-in decoders of higher order and are often designed
using lower-order decoders which are interconnected with a network of other gates.

n-to-2n-line decoder
3 to 8 line decoder:
3 inputs are decoded into eight outputs where each output represents one of the minterms of
the 3 input variable.

EN A B C Y7 Y6 Y5 Y4 Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0
0 X X X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 to 8 line
decoder

Difference
between
decoder and

demultiplexer:

Decoder Demultiplexer

## (i) Schematic diagram: (i) Schematic diagram:

(ii) It is used as a distributor switch to
(ii) Application: It is used as a code converter.
implement Boolean expressions.

## (iii) The selection is controlled by the value of

(iii) There are no selection lines.
selection.

## Circuit design of segment decoder

Step 1:

The design involves analysis of the common cathode 7-segment display. The 7-segment display
consists of an arrangement of LEDs in an ‘H’ form. A truth table is constructed with the
combination of inputs for each decimal number. Example, the decimal number 1 would
command a combination of b and c.

7 Segment LED
Step 2:

## It involves constructing the truth

table listing the 7 display input
signals, decimal number and the
corresponding 4 digit binary
numbers. Hence, the truth table
for the decoder design depends
on the type of 7-segment display.
For a common cathode seven-segment display, the output of decoder or segment driver should
be active high in order to glow the segment. The truth table of a BCD to seven-segment decoder
with common cathode display is shown below. There are 7 different output columns
corresponding to each of the 7 segments in the truth table. Here, the column for segment ‘a’
shows the different combinations for which it is to be illuminated. Hence, ‘a’ is active for the
digits 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
Digit A B C D a b c d e f g

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

4 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

6 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

7 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

From the above truth table, the equation obtained are as follows:

a = F1 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9)

b = F2 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9)

c = F3 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

d = F4 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8)

e = F5 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 2, 6, 8)

f = F6 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (0, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9)

g = F7 (A, B, C, D) = ∑m (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9)

Thus , these are the Boolean expressions for each output functions.

Step 3:

It involves constructing the K- map for each output term and then simplifying them for obtaining
a logic combination of the inputs for each output.

K-Map simplification
From the above simplification,

Step 4:

## Thus, the final step involves

drawing a combinational logic
circuit for each output signal.
The combinational logic circuit can be drawn using 4 inputs (A, B, C, D)and a 7-segment display
(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) as output.
UNIT III SYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS
Sequential logic- SR, JK, D and T flip flops - level triggering and edge triggering -counters -
asynchronous and synchronous type - Modulo counters - Shift registers -design of synchronous
sequential circuits – Moore and Melay models- Counters, state diagram; state reduction; state
assignment.
3.1 Sequential logic
In digital circuit theory, sequential logic circuit is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not
only on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of the past inputs. This is in
contrast to combinational logic whose output is a function of only the present input.

## Classifications of sequential circuits:

The sequential circuits are classified into two types based on the timing of their signals. They are,

## 1) Synchronous sequential circuit

2) Asynchronous sequential circuit

## Synchronous sequential circuit:

A synchronous sequential circuit is a system whose behaviour can be defined from the
knowledge of its signals at discrete instants of time.

## Present state and next state:

The information stored in memory elements at any given time defines the present state of
sequential circuit. The present state and the external inputs determine the output and next state
of the sequential circuits.

Secondary variables:

The delay elements provide a short term memory for the sequential circuit. The present state
and the next state variables in the asynchronous sequential circuits are known as secondary
variables.
Comparison of combinational and sequential circuit:

## Combinational circuits Sequential circuits

1. The output depends only on the input present 1. The output depends not only on the inputs
at that input. but also on the past outputs.

## 4. Eg: MUX, Demux, Encoder, Decoder. 4. Eg: Shift registers, counters.

Sequential logic:

Combinational circuits and systems create an output based on input variables only. Sequential
circuits use current input variables and past input variables by storing the information and
putting back into the circuit on the next clock cycle.

## There are 2 types of input to the combinational logic as follows,

External inputs from outside the circuit design are not controlled by the circuit. Internal inputs
are a function of previous output states.

The internal inputs and the outputs are referred to as secondaries. Secondary inputs are the
state variables produced by the storage elements, whereas, secondary outputs are excitations
for the storage elements.

## Two main types of sequential circuits:

There are two types of sequential circuit called as synchronous and asynchronous circuits.
Synchronous types use a pulsed or level input and a clock input to drive the circuit.

Asynchronous sequential circuits do not use a clock signal as synchronous circuits where the
circuit is driven by the pulses of the inputs.

A pulsed output is an output that lasts for the duration of a particular input pulse but it can be
less in some cases. For the clocked sequential circuits, the output pulse is the same duration as
the clock pulse.
A level output refers to an output that changes the state at the start of an input or clock pulse
and remains in that state until the next input or clock pulse.

## 3.2 SR, JK, D and T flip flops

Flip-flop

In electronics, a latch or a flip-flop is a circuit which has two stable states which can be used to
store the state information.

A flip-flop is a bistable multivibrator which changes the state by applying signals to one or more
control inputs which will have one or two outputs.

## The basic unit for storage is

called as a flip flop. It maintains
its output state either at 1 or 0
till it is directed by an input signal to change its state.

## There are different types of flip flops as follows:

• SR flip-flop

• RS flip-flop

• D flip-flop

• JK flip-flop

• T flip-flop

SR flip flop
The circuit remains in a particular output state indefinitely until something is done to change its
output status. If the LOW and HIGH outputs are regarded as 0 and 1, then the output can either
be 0 or 1. Since either 0 or 1 can be held indefinitely until the circuit is appropriately triggered to
go to the other state, the circuit has memory. It is capable of storing one binary digit or one bit
of digital information.

We can find that, when one of the transistors was in saturation, the other was in cut-off. This
implies that if we had the outputs from the collectors of both the transistors, then the two
outputs would be complementary. In the flip-flops of various types that are available in IC form,
we will see that all these devices offer complementary outputs which are usually designated as
Q and Q’. The R-S flip-flop is the most basic flip-flops. The letters R and S stand for RESET and
SET. When the flip-flop is SET, its Q output goes to 1 state and when it is RESET, it goes to a 0
state. The Q output is the complement of Q output at all times.

Operation of RS flip-flop:

• When R input is high and S input is low, the Q output of flip-flop is reset.

• When R input is low and S input is high, the Q output of flip-flop is set.

• When both the inputs R and S are high, the output is unpredictable.

• When both the inputs R and S are low, the output does not change.

Truth table:

## Input Output NAND gate

S R Q(t + 1) A B Y

0 0 Indeterminate 0 0 1

0 1 Set 0 1 1

1 0 Reset 1 0 1

1 1 NC 1 1 0
Logic diagram of SR flip-flop

JK flip flop

A J-K flip-flop is an R-S flip-flop except for one of the entries in the function table. In case of R-S
flip-flop, its input combination S = R = 1 and the input combination S = R = 0 are prohibited.

In the case of a J-K flip-flop with active HIGH inputs, the output of the flip-flop toggles goes to
the other state for J = K = 1. The output toggles for J = K = 0 in the case of the flip-flop having
active LOW inputs. Thus, the J-K flip-flop overcomes the problem of a forbidden input
combination of the R-S flip-flop. The below figure shows the circuit symbol of level-triggered J-K
flip-flops with active HIGH and active LOW inputs with their function tables.

The characteristic tables for a J-K flip-flop with active HIGH J and K inputs and a J-K flip-flop with
active LOW J and K inputs are shown in the below figure. The corresponding Karnaugh maps are
shown in below figure for the characteristics table. The characteristic equations for the Karnaugh
maps of below figure are given as follows,

inputs

Truth table

## Operation mode J K Clk Qn+1

SET 1 0 1 1
RESET 0 1 1 0
NO CHANGE 0 0 1 Qn
TOGGLE 1 1 1

inputs
Truth table

## Operation mode J K Clk Qn+1

SET 0 1 1 1
RESET 1 0 1 0
NO CHANGE 1 1 1 Qn
TOGGLE 0 0 1

JK flip-flop is an universal flip-flop. When configured in various ways, JK flip flop is capable of
operating like most other types of flip-flops.

Operation of JK flip-flop:

• When K input is high and J input is low, the Q output of the flip-flop is reset.

• When K input is low and J input is high, the Q output of the flip-flop is set.

• When both the inputs K and J are high, it is possible to set or reset the flip-flop (i.e.,) the
output toggle on to the next positive clock edge.

• When both the inputs K and J are low, the output does not change.

State diagram:

flop

State table:

Q J K Q(t + 1)

0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0

## Counter using JK flip flop:

Q2 Q1 Q0

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

State diagram:

State table:

PS NS JK Input

Q2 Q1 Q0 Q0 + 1 Q2 + 1 Q1 + 1 J2 K2 J1 K1 J0 Ko

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 X 0 X 1 X

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 X 1 X X 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 X X 1 0 X

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 X X 0 X 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 X 1 0 X 0 X

1 0 1 0 0 0 X 1 0 X X 1

1 1 0 0 1 0 X 0 X 1 0 X

1 1 1 0 1 1 X 0 X 0 X 1

K - Map:
Logic
diagram
D flipflop

A D flip-flop also called as a delay flip-flop can be used to provide temporary storage of one bit of
information. The below figure shows the symbol of the circuit and the function table of a
negative edge-triggered D flip-flop.

When the clock is active, the data bit (0 or 1) present at the D input is transferred to the output.
In the D flip-flop, the data transfer from D input to Q output occurs on the negative(HIGH-to-
LOW) transition of the clock input where D input acquires a new status.

## Symbol of D flip flop

Function table

Truth table

Qn D Qn+1
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 1 1

K-map

Operation of D flip-flop:

## In a D flip-flop, during the

occurrence of clock pulse, if D=1,
the output Q is set and if D=0, the output is reset.

State diagram of D-
flipflop

State table:
Q D Q(t + 1)

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 0

1 1 1

## Flip-flop excitation tables for D flip-flop:

In D flip-flop, its next state is always equal to the D input and it is independent of the present
state.

## D is 0 if Qn+1 has to 0 and if Qn+1 has to be 1 regardless of the value of Qn.

T flipflop

The output of a toggle flip-flop is also called as a T flip-flop which changes its state every time
when it is triggered at its T input which is called as the toggle input. Its output becomes 1 if it
was 0 and 0 if it was 1.

If we consider the T input as active when HIGH, the characteristic table of such a flip-flop is
shown below. The characteristic equations written from the Karnaugh maps are as follows:

T flip-flop
T Qn Qn+1
↑ 0 1
↑ 1 0
Truth table

Qn T Qn+1
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
T flip-flop
T Qn Qn+1
↓ 0 1
↓ 1 0
Truth table

Qn T Qn+1
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1

Operation of T flip-flop:

## When the value of T = 0, there is no change in the output.

When the value of T = 1, the output switches to the complement state (i.e) the output toggles.

## When input T = 1, the state of the flip-flop is complemented.

When T = 0, the state of the flip-flop remains unchanged. Therefore, for 0 to 0 and 1 to 1
transitions, T must be 0 and for 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 transitions, it must be 1.

## 3.3 Level triggering and edge triggering - counters

Level triggering:

In the level triggering, the output state is allowed to change according to input when active level
(either positive or negative) is maintained at the enable input.

## There are two types of level triggered latches as follows,

• Positive level triggered: The output of latch responds to the input changes only when its
enable input is 1 (HIGH).
Positive level triggering
• Negative level triggered: The output of latch responds to the input changes only when its
enable input is 0 (Low).

Negative level
triggering
The below figure
shows the circuit
and symbol for negative level triggered SR latch.

(a) Negative
level triggered
SR latch (b)
Logic symbol
Edge
triggering

In the edge triggering, the output responds to the changes in the input only at the positive or
negative edge of the clock pulse at the clock input.

## There are two types of edge triggering. They are,

• Positive edge triggering: Here, the output responds to the changes in the input only at the
positive edge of the clock pulse at the clock input.

Positive edge
triggering
• Negative edge
triggering: Here,
the output responds to the changes in the input only at the negative edge of the clock pulse at
the clock input.
Negative edge triggering

3.3.1 Counters
Counters in digital circuits are used to perform three functions as follows,

• Timing:

Building a precision digital clock is an example where a low frequency clock cannot be achieved
with a crystal oscillator.

• Sequencing:

Starting of a rocket motor is an example where the energizing of ignition, fuel pumps etc., must
follow a critical sequence.

• Counting:

Measuring the traffic flow on a road is an application in which the total number of vehicles
passing a certain point needs be counted.
Binary counter

A register that goes through a prescribed sequence of states on the application of input pulses is
called as a counter. A counter that follows the binary number sequence is called as a binary
counter

Lockout condition

• A counter follows the sequence of the derived states. If it enters into an unused or unwanted
state, then it is expected to return back to a desired state.

• If the next state of an unwanted state is again an unwanted state, then the counter is said to be
in the lockout condition.

## 3.4 Asynchronous and synchronous type

When a stable count value is important across several bits, synchronous counters are utilized.

Either the D-type or the more complex J-K type flip flops are also used but each stage is clocked
simultaneously by a common clock signal.

The logic gates between each stage of the circuit control the data flow from stage to stage so
that the desired count behaviour is realized. Synchronous counters can be designed to count up
or count down or both according to a direction input and it is presetable through a set of parallel
jam inputs. Most types of hardware-based counters are of this type.

The simplest way of implementing the logic for each bit of an ascending counter is to toggle
when all of the less significant bits are at a logic high state.

For example, bit 1 toggle when bit 0 is at logic high and bit 2 toggles when both bit 1 and bit 0
are logic high, bit 3 toggles when bit 2 is at logic high level where bit 1 and bit 0 are all at logic
high level and so on.
Comparison between synchronous & asynchronous counters:

## Asynchronous counters Synchronous counters

1. In this type of counter, flip-flops are 1. In this type, it has no connection between
connected in such a way that the output of the output of the first flip-flop and the clock
first flip-flop drives the clock for the next flip- input of the next flip-flop.
flop.
2. All the flip-flops are not simultaneously 2. All the flip-flops are clocked simultaneously.
clocked.

Programmable counters

## Procedure for designing a synchronous counter:

• The truth table of the logic sequence for the counter which is intended to be designed is
obtained to obtain the state diagram of the counter.

## • From the excitation table, its next state logic is determined.

• From the output state, K-map for simplification is used to derive the output functions of circuit
and flip flop.

## • The circuit is built.

Ripple counters

A ripple counter is an asynchronous counter where only the first flip-flop is clocked by an
external clock. Every subsequent flip-flops are clocked by the output of the preceding flip-flop.
The asynchronous counters are also known as ripple-counters since the clock pulse ripples
through the flip-flops.
The MOD of the asynchronous counter or ripple counter is 2n if n flip-flops are used. For a 4-bit
counter, the range of the count is 0000 to 1111 (2 4-1). The counter may count up or count down
depending on the input control.

Thus, the count sequence repeats itself. During the process of counting up, the count sequence
goes from 0000, 0001, 0010, ... 1110, 1111, 0000, 0001, ... etc., Counting down the count
sequence in the opposite manner is given as 1111, 1110, ... 0010, 0001, 0000, 1111, 1110, ...
etc.,

Thus, the complement of the count sequence counts in reverse direction. If the un-
complemented output counts up, the complemented output counts down and vice versa.

There are many ways to implement the ripple counter depending on the characteristics of the
flip flops used and requirements of the count sequence.

The clock trigger is either positive edged or negative edged. The flip flops used are JK or D flip-
flops. The count direction takes place are up, down or up/down.

The asynchronous counters are slower than synchronous counters because of the delay in
transmission of the pulses from flip-flop to flip-flop. In synchronous circuit, all the bits in the
counter changes synchronously with an assertion of the clock. The examples of synchronous
counters are the ring and Johnson counter.

## This can be implemented using D-type flip-flops or JK-type flip-flops.

The below circuit uses 2 D flip-flops to implement a divide-by-4 ripple counter (2 n = 22 = 4) which
counts down.

Divide-by-4 ripple
counter
State table

Count Q1 Q0

3 1 1

2 1 0
1 0 1

0 0 0

Timing
diagram

3.5

Modulo counters

## If the number of flip-flops required is n, then

2n = 50 i.e., n = 6 since 26 = 64

## If the number of flip-flops required is n, then

2n = 25 i.e., n = 5 since 25 = 32

Modulo-6 counter:

## E X3 X2 X1 X+3 X+2 X+1 Yes/No Z

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Yes 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Yes 0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Yes 0
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Yes 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 Yes 0

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 Yes 0

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Yes 0

0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Yes 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 No 0

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 No 0

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 No 0

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 No 0

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 No 0

1 1 0 1 1 1 0 No 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 No 1

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 No 0

Representation of K-Map:
Mod 7 counter using D flip-flop:

A modulo-7 ripple counter is constructed using D flip flops without the NAND gate. This counter
functions as a modulo-8 binary counter. The presence of NAND gate alters the sequence as
follows.

1. The NAND gate output is connected to CLEAR (CLR) inputs of all the flip-flops. As long as NAND
gate output is HIGH, it will have no effect on counter. When the NAND gate output goes low, it
will clear all flip-flops and the counter immediately goes to 000 state.

2. The outputs of the counter QA, QB, Qc are given as inputs to the NAND gate. The output of
NAND gate goes low whenever Q A = QB = Qc=1. This condition will occur when the counter goes
from 110 state to 111 state. The low at the NAND gate output will clear the counter to the 000
state.

3. Therefore, the counting sequence is → 001 → 010 → 011 → 100 → 101 → 110 → 000 →
Mod 7 counter
using D flip-flop

## 3.6 Shift registers

Shift register
counters - ring
counter

A shift register can also be used as a counter. A shift register with a serial output connection to
the serial input is called as shift register counter.

## There are 2 types of shift register counters. They are:

i) Ring counter
ii) Johnson counter

Ring counter:

A ring counter is a circular shift register where one flip flop is set at any particular time and all
others are cleared.

A ring counter is a counter that counts up when it approaches the last number that it is designed
to count up which will reset itself back to the first number.

For example, a ring counter is designed using 3 JK flip flops which will count starting from 001 to
010 to 100 and back to 001. It will repeat itself in the form of a ring.
Johnson counter:

The Johnson counter is a K-bit switch-tail ring counter which has 2k decoding gates to provide
outputs for 2k timing signals.

A Johnson counter is a special case of shift register where the output from the last stage is
inverted and fed back as input to the first stage. A pattern of bits which is equal in length to the
shift register circulates indefinitely. These counters are sometimes known as walking ring
counters.

It is used in specialist applications including those similar to the decade counter, digital to analog
conversion, etc., and thus the name ring counter is obtained.

Shift counters

A synchronous counter that consists of clocked flip-flops is arranged as a shift register. Data is
propagated from left to right or vice versa between the flip-flops by the application of a count or
clock pulse.

Counting is achieved by setting the contents of the shift register to either logic 0 or logic 1 and
loading the leftmost or rightmost flip-flop with a logic 1 or a logic 0.

An m-bit counter has m flip-flops which require m clock pulses to shift this 1 or 0 to the
rightmost or the leftmost flip-flop.

The position in the register of the 1 or 0 acts as a count of the number of pulses received when
the load is applied.

The counter counts continuously by arranging the output of the rightmost or the leftmost flip-
flop to set the input of the leftmost or the rightmost flip-flop. The counter is then known as a
ring counter.
3.7 Design of synchronous sequential circuits - Moore and Melay models - Counters
The recommended steps for the design of a clocked synchronous sequential circuit are as
follows:

1. The state table from the given circuit information such as a state diagram, a timing-diagram or
other pertinent information is obtained.

2. The number of states may be reduced by state reduction technique if the sequential circuit
can be categorized by input-output relationships which are independent of the number of states.

## 3. Binary values to each state in the state table are assigned.

4. The number of flip-flops needed is determined and a letter symbol to each flip-flop is
assigned.

## 5. The type of flip-flop to be used is chosen.

6. The circuit excitation and output tables are derived from the state table.

7. The output functions of the circuit and the input functions of the flip-flop are derived using
the K-map or any other simplification method and the logic diagram are drawn.

Problems

1. Let us consider the following sequence that is to be realized by a counter consisting of 3 JK flip
flops.

A1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

A2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

A3 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

Solution:
Given:

A1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

A2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0

A3 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

Truth table:

## A1 A2 A3 A1 A2 A3 JA1 KA1 JA2 KA2 JA3 KA3

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 X 1 X 1 X

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 X X 0 X 1

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 X X 1 1 X

0 0 1 1 0 1 1 X 0 X X 0

1 0 1 1 1 0 X 0 1 X X 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 X 1 X 1 0 X

K-map:

State diagram
3.7.1 Moore and Melay models
Synchronous sequential circuits changes (affect) their states for every positive (or negative)
transition of the clock signal based on the input. So, this behavior of synchronous sequential
circuits can be represented in the graphical form and it is known as state diagram.

A synchronous sequential circuit is also called as finite state machine if it has finite number of
states. There are two types of finite state machine as follows,

## Mealy state machine

A finite state machine is said to be Mealy state machine if output depends on both present
inputs & present states. The block diagram of Mealy state machine is shown in the below figure.

## Mealy state machine

As shown in the above figure, there are two parts present in Mealy state machine namely
combinational logic and memory. Memory provides part of previous outputs (present states) as
inputs of combinational logic.
Based on the present inputs and present states, the Mealy state machine produces outputs.
Therefore, the outputs will be valid only at positive (or negative) transition of the clock signal.

The state diagram of Mealy state machine is shown in the below figure.

State
diagram
of
Mealy
state
machine
In the
above
figure,
there
are
three
states namely A, B & C. These states are labelled inside the circles & each circle corresponds to
one state. Transitions between these states are represented by a directed lines. Here, 0/0, 1/0 &
1/1 denotes input/output. In the above figure, there are two transitions from each state based
on the value of input, x.

In general, the number of states required in Mealy state machine is less than or equal to the
number of states required in Moore state machine. There is an equivalent Moore state machine
for each Mealy state machine.

## Moore state machine

A finite state machine is said to be a Moore state machine if outputs depend only on present
states. The block diagram of Moore state machine is shown in the below figure.
Moore state machine
As shown in the above figure, there are two parts present in Moore state machine namely
combinational logic and memory. In this case, the present inputs and present states determine
the next states. So, based on next states, Moore state machine produces the outputs. Therefore,
the outputs will be valid only after transition of the state.

The state diagram of Moore state machine is shown in the below figure.

## State diagram of Moore state machine

In the above figure, there are four states namely A, B, C & D. These states and the respective
outputs are labelled inside the circles. Here, only the input value is labeled on each transition. In
the above figure, there are two transitions from each state based on the value of input, x.

In general, the number of states required in Moore state machine is more than or equal to the
number of states required in Mealy state machine. There is an equivalent Mealy state machine
for each Moore state machine. So, based on the requirement we can use one of them.

Problems

1. Let us draw the state transition diagram of a sequence detector circuit that detects ‘1010’
from input data stream using Moore model and Mealy model.

## Moore model Mealy model

Solution:

Given:
Moore model Mealy model

State table

PS NS Y

A A B 0 0

B C B 0 0

C A D 0 0

D C B 1 0

3.7.2 Counters

## 4-bit decode counter:

Decoder counter has a count sequence from 0000 to 1001 (9). After 1001 state, it must recycle
to 0000 state. This counter requires four flip - flops and AND/OR logic gates.

J0 = K 0 = 1

J1 = K1 = Q0Q3

J2 = K 2 = Q 0 Q 1
J3 = K3 = Q0Q1Q2 + Q0Q3

4 - bit

Timing diagram

## 3.8 State diagram -

state reduction - state
assignment

## A state represents the

status of the flip flops
in a sequential circuit. If there are n flip flops, then the circuit has 2n possible states.

State diagram

State diagram is
the graphical
representation of
the information
available in a
state table. In
state diagram, a
state is indicated
by a circle and the
transitions
between states are indicated by directed lines to connect the circles.
In addition to tables, graphical symbols or equations, flip-flops is represented graphically by a
state diagram. An example of a state diagram is shown in the above figure.

State table

The state table representation of a sequential circuit consists of three sections which are labelled
as present state, next state and output.

The present state designates the state of flip-flops before the occurrence of a clock pulse. The
next state shows the states of flip-flops after the clock pulse and the output section lists the
value of the output variables during the present state.

A state table gives the time sequence of inputs, outputs and flip-flop states. The table consists of
four sections labelled as input, output, present state and next state.

## 3.8.1 State reduction

The partition consists of one or more blocks where each block consist of a subset of states that
may be equivalent but the states in a given block are not equal to the states in other blocks. Any
design process must consider the problem of minimizing the cost of the final circuit. The two
most obvious cost reductions are reductions in the number of gates and the number of flip-flops.
The number of states in a sequential circuit is closely related to the complexity of the resulting
circuit. Therefore, it is desirable to know when two or more states are equivalent. The process of
eliminating the redundant or equivalent states from a state table/diagram is known as the state
reduction.

The three main methods of state reduction include implication charts, row matching and
successive partitioning. Row matching is the easiest of the three which works well for state
transition tables that has an obvious next state and output equivalences for each of the present
states. This method does not give the most simplified state machine available but it is easy to
use and consistently fair results is a good reason to pursue the method.

The implication chart makes use of a graphical grid to find any implications or equivalences and
it is a great systematic approach in reducing the state machines. Successive partitioning is almost
a cross between implication chart and row matching where both the graphical table and
equivalent matching can be used. Each of these methods reduces the state machine into a
smaller number of states where one method may result in a simpler state machine than another.

## • An initial partition (P1) that includes all the states is formed.

• A second partition (P2) by separating the states into two blocks based on their output values is
formed.

• A third partition (P3) by separating the states into blocks corresponding to the next state values
is formed.

• Partitioning is continued until two successive partitions are same (i.e. PN-1 = PN).

State table:

X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1
A B C 1 0
B F D 0 0
C D E 1 1
D F E 0 1
E A D 0 0
F B C 1 0

## Present state Next state Output

X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1
A B C 1 0
B A D 0 0
C D E 1 1
D A E 0 1
E A D 0 0
It can be seen from the table that both the present state A and F have the same next states B
(when x=0) and C (when x=1). They also produce the same output 1 (when x=0) and 0 (when
x=1). Hence the states A and F are equivalent. Thus one of the states, A or F can be removed
from the state table. For instance, if we remove row F from the table and replace all F's by A's in
the columns, the state table is modified as shown above.

It is apparent that states B and E are equivalent. Removing E and replacing E's by B's results in
the reduced table shown in the following table.

## Present state Next state Output

X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1
A B C 1 0
B A D 0 0
C D B 1 1
D A B 0 1

The removal of equivalent states has reduced the number of states in the circuit from six to four.
Two states are considered to be equivalent if and only if every input sequence in the circuit
produces the same output sequence irrespective of which one of the two states is the starting
state.

## A sequence of total 7 states is as follows,

Stat a a b c d e f f g f g a
e

Inpu 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
t

Outp 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
ut
Two states are said to be equivalent if every possible input produces exactly the same output
and have equivalent next state.

## Reduced state diagram

Present state Next state Output

a a b 0 0

b c d 0 0

c a d 0 0

d e f 0 1

e a f 0 1

f g f 0 1

g a f 0 1

## X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1

a a b 0 0

b c d 0 0

c a d 0 0

d e f 0 1

e a f 0 1

f e f 0 1

After the first reduction, we can see that state d and state f will have the same output and next
state for both x=0 and x=1.
Reduced output sequence:

State a a b c d e d d e d e a

Input 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

Outpu 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
t

a d c 0

b f h 0

c e d 1

d a e 0

e c a 1

f f b 1

g b h 0

h c g 1

## Step 2: The node with

unsatisfied conditions
is deleted.
Step 3: Step 2 is repeated until all the equivalent states are found.

a a c 0

b f h 0

c c a 1

f f b 0

g b h 1

h c g 1

## 3.8.2 State assignment

The cost of the combinational circuit of a sequential circuit can be reduced by using the known
simplification methods for combinational circuits. State assignment procedures are concerned
with methods for assigning binary values to states to reduce the cost of combinational circuit
that drives the flip-flops.

## i) Shared row state assignment

ii) One hot state assignment

## Shared row state assignment

Races can be avoided by making a proper binary assignment to the state variables. Here, the
state variables are assigned with binary numbers in such a way that only one state variable
change at any one time when a state transition occurs. To accomplish this, it is necessary that
states between which transition occur are given adjacent assignments. Two binary values are
said to be adjacent if they differ in only one variable. For example, 110 and 111 are adjacent
because they differ only in the third bit.
The below figure shows the transition diagram. The transition diagram shows that there is a
transition from state a to state b and transition from state a to state c. The state a is assigned
binary value 00 and state c is assigned a binary value of 11. This assignment will cause a critical
race during the transition from a to c because there are two changes in the binary state
variables. A race free assignment is obtained by introducing addition binary state say d with
binary value 10 which is adjacent to both a and c.

Transition diagram

## The below figure shows the

modified transition diagram. As
shown in the below figure, the
transition from a to c will go
through d. This causes the
binary variables to change from 00 → 10 → 11 which satisfy the condition that only one binary
variable changes during each state transition to avoid the critical race.

## This technique is called as shared

row state assignment because, in
this technique, extra state, i.e.
extra row is introduced in a flow
table. This extra state is shared
between two stable states.

## One hot state assignment

The one hot state assignment is another method for finding a race-free state assignment. In this
method, only one variable is active or hot for each row in the original flow table, i.e. it requires
one state variable for each row of the flow table. Additional rows are introduced to provide
single variable changes between internal state transitions. This is described in the following
example.
Let us consider a flow table given below where four state variables are used to represent the
four rows in the table. Each row is represented by a case where only one of the four state
variables is a 1. A transition from state A to state B requires two state variable changes i.e. F1
from 1 to 0 and F2 from 0 to 1. By directing the transition A to B through a new row E which
contains 1’s where both states A and B have 1’s. We require only one state variable change from
transition A to E and then from transition E to B. This permits the race-free transition between A
and B.

Flow table

## In row ‘i’ of the table,

state variable Fi is 1 and
all other state variables
are 0. When a transition
between row i and row j
is required, first state variable Fj is set to 1 (Both Fi and Fj are 1) and then Fi is set to 0. Thus each
transition between two rows in the flow table goes through one intermediate row. This permits
the race-free transition but requires two state transition times.

The below figure shows the complete one hot state assignment flow table. When X 1 X2 = 01, the
transition from A to B is passing through the dummy state E. Similarly, when X 1 X2 = 00, the
transition from C to A is passing through the dummy state F and so on. The original table gets
modified and it is shown in the below table.

## One hot state

assignment
flow table
UNIT IV ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS AND PROGRAMMABILITY LOGIC
DEVICES
Asynchronous sequential logic circuits-Transition stability, flow stability-race conditions, hazards
& errors in digital circuits; analysis of asynchronous sequential logic circuits introduction to
Programmability Logic Devices: PROM – PLA –PAL, CPLD-FPGA.
4.1 Asynchronous sequential logic circuits

Sequential circuits without clock pulses are called as asynchronous sequential circuits.

Block
diagram of
an

where,

E - Excitation

M - Memory

## Fundamental mode of operation:

The fundamental mode asynchronous circuit design is based on the following assumptions.

(i) The inputs to the asynchronous circuit design are based on the following assumptions that
happens only when the circuit is stable where the state variables are not in their transition state.

(ii) Another assumption is that the inputs are levels but are not pulses.

(iii) The state variables in the circuit are characterized as delay elements. Delay is introduced by a
latch or simply the propagation delay inherent in the logic gates is used for realizing the
asynchronous circuits.

## State table from excitation table:

Procedure:
1. The transition table that specifies the excitation functions Y = Y 1, Y2,. . . Yk is given and a pair of
maps for Si and Ri for each i = 1, 2, ..., K is derived. This is done by using the condition specified in
the latch excitation table.

2. The Boolean functions for each Si and Ri are derived and care must be taken not to make S i and
Ri equal to 1 in the same minterm square.

3. The logic diagram is drawn using k latches together with the gates required to generate the S
and R Boolean functions.

In case of synchronous sequential circuit, we derive the excitation table from the state table,
whereas, it is reverse in the case of asynchronous sequential circuit.

ASM chart

may not be 1.

## When S = 1 and C = 0, the

state is S1. For all other
combinations, the state
remains at S0.

## When S = 1 and C = 1, the

state is S2 where output z
becomes 1.

When C becomes zero, the state goes to S3 and remains there until S becomes zero and when S =
0, the system returns to So state.

Timing diagram
State diagram

Flow table:

00 01 11 10

## S3 S0/0 S0/0 (S2)/0 (S3)/0

Transition table:

F2 F1

## Reduction using K-map:

F2 (t + 1) = F2F1
+ F1C + F2S

z = F2F1C
The implementation can be done with DFF. F1 and F2 with C is their clock input and S is their
signal input.

Problems
1. Let us sketch the transition table and state table for an asynchronous sequential circuit
described by the following Boolean expressions.

Y1 = XY1 + X'Y2

Y2 = XY1' + X'Y2

Solution:

Given:

Y1 = XY1 + X'Y2

Y2 = XY1' + X'Y2

Y1 = XY1 +

X Y1 Y2 XY1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
Transition table

## 2. Let us design an asynchronous

sequential logic circuit for the
state transition diagram.

Solution:

Given:

Let Ps → Z

Ns → Z+

Input → XY

Transition table:

00 01 11 10

a a a b b

b a b b b

## Primitive flow table:

Present state Next state

00 01 11 10

0 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 1 1

K-Map:

Logic diagram

3. Let us design an
asynchronous
sequential circuit that will output only the first pulse received and any further pulses will be
ignored.

Solution:

Timing diagram

State diagram

Primitive flow
table:

0 1

a a, 0 b, 0

b c, - b, 1

c ©, 0 d, 0

d c, 0 d, 0
Minimized flow table is obtained by merging ‘c’ and ‘d’ states.

0 1

a a, 0 b, 0

b c, - b, 1

c, d ©, 0 d, 0

Binary assignment:

a → 00 b → 01 c → 11

Transition table

Map for Y1
Map for Y2

Output map

Logic diagram

4.2 Transition
stability, flow
stability-race
conditions

Transition
table

The transition table is obtained by combining the map for Y 1 and Y2. The transition table is a table
which gives the relation between present state, input and next state. The stable states are
indicated by circles. An uncircled entry represents an unstable state.

In a transition table, there will be at least one stable state in each row. Otherwise, all the states
in that row will be unstable.

Transition table

Flow table

## Flow table is the one in which the

states are named by letter symbols
without making specific reference to
their binary values. The flow also includes the output values of the circuit for each stable state.
Flow table in asynchronous sequential circuit

The state change in asynchronous machines occurs which is independent of clock based on the
logic propagation delay and it causes the states to flow from one to other. Hence, the name flow
tables are obtained.

## Difference between flow table and transition table:

• Flow table is the one in which the states are named by letter symbols without making specific
reference to their binary values. The flow also includes the output values of the circuit for each
stable state.

• Transition table is a table which gives the relation between present state, input and next state.

Problems

1. Let us design an asynchronous sequential circuit whose output responds for every even
numbered clock pulse.

Solution:

Timing diagram

Let us assign
binary values
and obtain
the transition
table and
output map.

a → 00

b → 01
c → 11

d → 10
Transition table

Next state
variables Y1Y2

2. Let us
design an
asynchronous
sequential
circuit that has
two inputs X2
and X1 and one output Z. The output remains as '0' as long as X 1 is '0'. The first change in X 2
that occurs while X1 is 1 will cause Z to be '1' where Z remains '1' until X1 returns to zero.

Solution:

Timing diagram

## Present Next State Output

State
00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10
A (A) C - B 0 0 - 0
B A - D (B) 0 - 0 0
C A (C) E - 0 0 - -
D - F (D) B - - 0 0
E - F (E) B - 1 1 -
F A (F) (E) - - 1 1 -

Merger diagram

## The outputs are equivalent for

these states as well as the next
states.

For example, A has the next states as A, C and B with outputs 0, 0, -0. Similarly, C has the next
states A, C, E with outputs 0, 0, -, -. Thus, the total number of states reduces to three assigning
the states names as S0, S1 and S2.

A, C→ S0

B, D→ S1

E, F→ S2

Reduced state
diagram

State assignment

S0 – 00

S1 - 01

S2 - 11

S3 - 10 (destiny)

State assignment
Reduced flow table

## Present state Next state X2 X1 Output

00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10

S0 (S0) (S0) S2 S1 0 0 - 0

S1 S0 S2 (S1) (S1) 0 - 0 0

## Present State F2 F1 Next state X2 X1 Output

00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10

S0 0 0 S0 S0 S3 S1 0 0 - 0

S1 0 1 S0 S2 (S1) (S1) 0 - 0 0

S2 1 1 S3 (S2) (S2) S1 - 1 1 -

S3 1 0 S0 - S2 - - - - -

Transition table is constructed from the above table and after map reduction, the output and
state equations are arrived.
Transition table

Present
F2 F1 Next state Output
state
00 01 11 10

F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 00 01 11 10
S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 - 0
S1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 - 0 0
s2 1 - 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 - 1 -

S3 1 0 0 0 - - 1 1 - - - - - -

## z = ∑ (13, 15) + ∑d (3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14)

3. Let us derive the flow table for the circuit given in the below figure.

Solution:

Given:

• There is two
feedback path present
in the circuit where Y1
and Y2 are state
variables.

• X is the input
variable and Z is the
output variable.
Present total state Next total state Total stable state Output

## X Y1 Y2 X Y1+ Y2+ Yes/No Z

0 0 0 0 1 0 No 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 No 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 Yes 1

0 1 1 0 0 0 No 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 No 0

1 0 1 1 0 1 Yes 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 No 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 No 0

table

## 4.2.1 Race conditions

When 2 or more binary state variables change their value in response to a change in an input
variable, race condition occurs in an asynchronous sequential circuit. In case of unequal delays, a
race condition causes the state variables to change in an unpredictable manner.

## Race around condition in JK flip flop

In JK flip flop, if both J and K are high and when clock is also 1, then output toggles continuously
between set and reset state. This condition is called as a race around condition. The clock should
be made zero before the output reaches the input side to avoid racing condition. The principle is
used in master slave and edge triggered flip flops.
Instability

The feedback connections that exist in an asynchronous circuit make the circuit unstable. If there
is an unstable condition, then it will force the circuit to oscillate between the unstable states.
When an asynchronous circuit makes a transition through a unique sequence of unstable states,
a cycle occurs.

In an asynchronous machine, a race condition occurs if two or more state variables change their
values when there is a state transition. When two or more binary state variables change their
value in response to a change in an input variable, race condition occurs in an asynchronous
sequential circuit.

In case of unequal delays, a race condition causes the state variables to change in an
unpredictable manner. There are two categories of races as follows.

## (i) Non-critical races

(ii) Critical races

Non-critical races:

The final stable state that the circuit reaches does not depend on the order in which the state
variable changes where the race condition is not harmful and it is called as a non- critical race.

Critical race:

If the final stable state depends on the order in which the state variable changes, the race
condition is harmful and it is called as a critical race.

4.3 Hazards & errors in digital circuits - analysis of asynchronous sequential logic circuits

Hazard is an unwanted transient i.e., spike or glitch occurs due to unequal path or unequal
propagation delays through a combinational circuit.

Types of hazards:
There are 3 types of hazards as follows.

1. Static
2. Dynamic
3. Essential

Static:

Static hazard is a condition which results in a single momentary incorrect output due to
change in a single input variable when the output is expected to remain in the same state.

## The two types of static hazard are as follows,

i. Static - 0 hazard
ii. Static - 1 hazard

If the output changes from 1 to 0 when there is no transition, it is called as static-1 hazard and if
it changes from 0 to 1 without any change, it is called as static-0 hazard.

## (a) Static 1- hazard (b) Static

0 - hazard

(c) Dynamic
hazard
Types of Hazards
Dynamic hazard:

Dynamic hazard occurs when the output of a network changes between its two logic states but a
false output signal occurs during the transient behaviour.

A dynamic hazard is defined as a transient change which occurs 3 or more times at an output
terminal of a logic network when the output changes only once during a transition between two
input states which differs in the value of one variable. If the output changes, there is more time
from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1 where no transition is needed which is called as dynamic hazard.

Dynamic hazard
Essential hazard:

Essential hazard is a type of hazard that exists only in asynchronous sequential circuits with two
or more feedbacks. An essential hazard is caused by unequal delays along two or more paths
that originate from the same input.

An excessive delay through an inverter circuit in comparison to the delay associated with the
feedback path may cause an essential hazard. When a single variable change produces a
momentary change in output and there is no change in output, it is called as an essential hazard.

Example:

## Let us consider the below circuit.

Initially, x1 = x2 = x3 =
1. The output of
gate 1 is 1 and gate
2 is 0 and output of
the above circuit is Y = 1. If X2 changes from 1 to 0, gate 1 becomes 0 and gate 2 becomes 1
where Y = 1. But the output may momentarily change from 1 to 0 if delay to NOT gate is
considered.
Hazards in combinational circuits

Let us assume
initially inputs X1
and X3 = 0 and X2
= 1. This causes
output of gate 1
to be 0, output of gate 2 to be 1 and the output of the circuit to be equal to 1. Let us consider a
change in X2 from 1 to 0. The output of gate 1 changes to 1 and that of gate 2 changes to 0
leaving the output at 1. However, the output goes to 0 if the propagation delay through the
inverter is taken into consideration.

Eliminating hazard

## Hazards can be eliminated by enclosing

two minterms or maxterms. For example, if the circuit has minterms then these two minterms
must be enclosed by introducing another minterm.

Hazards in
sequential
circuits:

In the
normal combination where the circuit design is associated with synchronous sequential circuits,
hazards are not of concern since momentary erroneous signals are not troublesome. However, if
a momentary incorrect signal is fedback in an asynchronous sequential circuit, the circuit may go
to the wrong stable state. This is illustrated in the following example.

If the circuit is in total stable state and input X 2 changes from 1 to 0, the next total stable state
should be 110. However, because of the hazard, output Y may go to 0. If this false signal feeds
back into gate 2 before the output of the inverter goes to 1, the output of gate 2 will remain at 0
and the circuit will switch to the incorrect total stable state 010. This malfunction can be
eliminated by adding an extra gate.
Hazards are
eliminated by
gates

Problems
1. Let us draw the logic diagram for the product of sums expression given by Y = (x 1 + x2') (x2 +
x3). Let us show that there is a static 0 - hazard when x 1 and x3 are equal to 0 and x2 goes from 0
to 1. Let us also find a way to remove the hazard by adding one OR gate.

Solution:

Given:

## This causes the

output of gate 1
to be 0, output
of gate 2 to be 1
and the output
of the circuit to be 0. Let us consider a change in x2 from 1 to 0. The output of gate 1 changes to
1 and that of gate 2 changes to 0 leaving the output at 1. However, the output goes to 0 if the
propagation delay through the inverter is taken into consideration.

The delay in the inverter causes the output of gate 2 to change to 0 before the output of gate 1
changes to 1. In this situation, both inputs of gate 3 are equal to 0 causing the output to go to 0
for the short time which is equal to the propagation delay of the inverter.

The hazard exists because of the change of input which results in a different product terms
which covers two minterms or different sum terms to cover two maxterms. Whenever the circuit
move from one product term to another or from one sum term to another, there is a possibility
of an interval when neither term is equal to 1 giving rise to an undesirable 0 output.
Hazards can be eliminated by enclosing
two minterms (or) maxterms. The circuit has minterms then these two minterms must be
enclosed by introducing another minterm X1X3.

2. Let us find a circuit that has no static hazards and implement the Boolean function: F(A, B, C,
D) = (0, 26, 7, 8, 10, 12).

Solution:

Given:

given as,

4.3.1

## Steps used for analyzing an asynchronous sequential circuit:

The general steps for the analysis of asynchronous sequential circuit are as follows.

1) The output of the latches X1+, X2+,...... and their external feedback paths X 1, X2,..., etc., are
labelled.

## 4) Let us find X+ = S + X* for every NOR

latch and for every NAND latch in the above given circuit.

## 5) The individual maps for every X+ output are obtained.

6) The individual maps are combined into one map for X+ such as X+= X1+, X2+, X3+ ... X+.

7) The stable states where X+ = X are circled. The resulting map to the transition table is given in
the below figure.

Truth table

## CLK Qd Qc Qb Qa Output of reset logic

0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 1
2 0 0 1 0 1
3 0 0 1 1 1
4 0 1 0 0 1
5 0 1 0 1 1
6 0 1 1 0 1
7 0 1 1 1 1
8 1 0 0 0 0
9 1 0 0 1 0
10 1 0 1 0 0
11 1 0 1 1 0
12 1 1 0 0 0
13 1 1 0 1 0
14 1 1 1 0 0
15 1 1 1 1 0
K-map for reset logic

Logic diagram

Timing diagram

4.4 Introduction
to
programmability
logic devices:
PROM - PLA - PAL, CPLD - FPGA

Classification
of memory

only
memory

Information cannot be easily stored where the bits are initially decoded and are never changed.

ROM organization

It is a read only memory. We can't write data in this memory. It is non-volatile memory i.e., it can
hold data even if power is turned off. There are four types of ROM namely masked ROM, PROM,
EPROM and EEPROM or E2PROM.
ROM

In masked ROM, mask programming is done by the manufacturer during the last fabrication
process of the unit. The procedure for fabricating a ROM requires the truth table of the ROM.

PROM

Bits can be set on a programming bench by burning fusible links or equivalent. This technology is
also used for programmable array logic (PAL). The figure below shows four byte PROM. It has
diodes in every bit position, therefore, the output is initially 0.

Each diode has a fusible link in series with it. By addressing bit and applying proper current pulse
at the corresponding output, we can blow out the fuse by storing logic 1 at that bit position. The
PROM programmer burns the fuses according to the bit pattern to be stored. This process is
known as burning of PROM. It is one time programmable. Once programmed, the information
stored is permanent.

PROM
Programmable Logic Array (PLA)

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device which implements the
combinational logic circuits. The PLA has a set of programmable AND gate planes which is
connected to a set of programmable OR gate planes which can then conditionally complement
an output. This layout permits a large number of logic functions to be synthesized in the sum of
products canonical forms.

PLA's differ from Programmable Array Logic devices (PALs and GALs) where both the AND and OR
gate planes are programmable. The logic gates can be two level AND-OR, NAND-NAND or NOR-
NOR configuration. The PLA consists of two level AND-OR circuit on the same chip. The AND
matrix implements the product terms in the SOP form and the OR matrix is used for
implementing the sum of product terms.

Input buffers::

Input buffer in a PLA avoids the loading of sources connected at the input.
Block diagram:

## Block diagram of PLA

Internal construction:

In PLA, both the AND and OR gates are programmable. The internal construction of PLA ha s
3 inputs, 3 product terms and two outputs as shown in the below figure.
Internal construction of PLA
The size of PLA is specified by number of inputs, the number of product terms and the number
of outputs. A PLA can be mask-programmable or field programmable. PLA consists of inputs,
outputs, sum terms and product terms.

The product terms constitute a group of AND gate and sum terms constitute a group of OR gates.
Fuses are inserted between all inputs and their complement value to each of the AND gates.

Fuses are also provided between the output of AND gates and the inputs of OR gates. The third
set of fuses in the output inverters allows the output function to be generated either in AND-OR
form or in the AND-OR-INVERT form.

AND matrix:

There is 2M input (from) for each AND gate where P0 is the output of an AND gate. The Boolean
expression for P0 is given as,

There is a nichrome fuse link connected in series with each input. The above expression
produces P0 = 0 if all the fuse linker is intact.

OR matrix:

P0, P1, ....., PM-1 are the output of an AND matrix. They are used as the inputs to the OR matrix.
The OR gate is formed by parallel connected transistors and the load is common which is
connected in the emitters. S0, S1, ....., SN-1 are the output of the OR matrix.

Invert/Non-invert matrix:

The block following the OR matrix is the inverting/non-inverting matrix which is basically a
programmable buffer.

It can invert its input if active low output is required. The input is passed without any inversion if
active high output is required.
Output buffer:

The current sourcing capability of the PLX can be increased by using the output buffer.

## Advantages of PLA over ROM

(i) In PLA, the number of don’t care conditions are excessive as PLA is more economical than
ROM.

(ii) A PLA is similar to a ROM in concept, however, it does not provide full decoding of the
variables and does not generate all the minterms as in the ROM.

(iii) The PLA replaces the decoder by group of AND gates, each of which can be programmed
to generate a product term of input variables.

## Programmable Array Logic (PAL)

Programmable Array Logic (PAL) is a family of programmable logic device semiconductors which
is used to implement logic functions in digital circuits introduced by Monolithic memories, Inc.
(MMI) in March 1978. MMI is obtained as a registered trademark on the term PAL for use in
programmable semiconductor logic circuits. The trademark is currently held by a lattice
semiconductor.

PAL devices consist of a small PROM (programmable read-only memory) core and the additional
output logic implements particular desired logic functions with few components. Using
specialized machines, PAL devices were field-programmable. PAL was available in several
variants:

One-time programmable (OTP) devices cannot be updated and reused after initial programming.
UV erasable versions (e.g.: PALCxxxxx, e.g.: PALC22V10) had a quartz window over the chip die
and could be erased for reuse with an ultraviolet light source just like an EPROM.
Later versions (PALCExxx e.g.: PALCE22V10) were flash erasable devices.

PLA PAL

(i) PLA is a device with a programmable AND array and (i) PAL is a programmable logic device with a fixed
programmable OR array. OR array and array programmable AND array.

(ii) PLA is comparatively difficult to program as both (ii) PAL is easier to program as only AND gates are
AND and OR array are programmable. programmable.

## (iii) It is flexible. (iii) It is less flexible than PLA.

CPLD:

Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) is a programmable logic device and it can be
programmed by using VHDL. CPLD is based on EPROM or EEPROM technology. CPLD have
extended density than the SPLD.

CPLD have a few macrocells on a single chip with simple logic paths. CPLD are classified
depending on the architecture which gives rise to high speed, detailed timing and simple
software flow. The basic CPLD consists of configurable logic block (CLB) which consists of AND
gate arrays and interconnects.

The logic blocks are programmable AND, fixed OR devices. PAL and GAL are available only in
small sizes which is equivalent to a few hundred logic gates. CPLD is an arrangement of multiple
SPLD-like blocks on a single chip. CPLD consists of multiple circuit blocks in chip. The circuit block
in CPLD is same as that of PLA or PAL blocks.

The below figure below shows the example of a CPLD. This CPLD has four PAL blocks which are
connected through interconnection wires. The PAL block is also connected to a sub-circuit which
is known as I/O block. The I/O block is connected to number of input and output pins. The PAL
block consists of macrocells. The macrocell consists of flip-flop, a multiplexer and a tri-state
buffer. The flip-flop is used to store the output value produced by the OR gate.

The tri-state buffer acts as a switch. In function block, the AND array gets inputs from the I/O
blocks and other function blocks. The product terms are given to fixed OR gates. The outputs of
the multiplexer are sent through a clocked flip-flop. The function blocks are designed similar to a
PAL architecture. The I/O block drives signals to the pins of the CPLD device. The CPLD
interconnect is a programmable switch matrix. No switch can connect all internal function blocks
to all other function blocks, therefore, flexibility is achieved.

## Altera FLASH logic

CPLD

Functional block of
CPLD:

## The below figure

shows the typical
CPLD architecture
which has four
functional blocks of PLD.

Functional block of
CPLD

## The function blocks

have programmable
interconnections. A
switch matrix is used
for function blocks to
function blocks
interconnections. Further, switch matrix in a CPLD may or may not be fully connected. This
shows that some of the connections between function block outputs and inputs are not
supported in the CPLD.

The complexity of a typical PAL device is around few hundred logic gates, whereas, the
complexity of CPLD is around tens of thousands of logic gates.

The CPLD has predictable timing characteristics which are suitable for critical control applications
and other applications where a high performance level is required. Further, due to low power
consumption and low cost, CPLD is used for battery-operated portable applications such as
mobile phones, digital assistants etc.,

1) Easy to design: CPLD gives a simple way to implement designs.
2) Lower cost: CPLD requires low costs due to the reprogrammable feature.
3) Large product profit: CPLD requires very short development cycles because of which products
time to market is faster and generates the profit.
4) Lower board area: CPLD has a high level of integration.
5) Simple design changes due to reprogramming.
6) CPLD is used in wide applications for prototyping small gate arrays

## FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays):

To increase the effective size and measure, the number of directions alternative architecture for
SPLD and CPLD have been developed which are called as field programmable gate array (FPGA).
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a flexible architecture programmable logic device.

It is a single Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit constructed on a single piece of silicon. It
consists of identical individually programmable rectangular modulus.

The modules are separated in both horizontal and vertical directions by horizontal and vertical
metallic conductors called as channels. In addition, each module has vertical and horizontal
conductors at its input and output that cross one or more of the channels.

The content of the modules depends on the type of FPGA for easy use where the modules need
to be programmable into the gates and sequential elements. A module may have both
combinational and sequential elements and components.

Architecture of FPGA:
Architecture of FPGA

## The module consists of 3 number of interconnected 2 - to - 1 multiplexer (MUX 1, MUX 2, MUX

3) and an OR gate whose output selects the MUX 3.

In an FPGA, there is no distinct input and output stages as in the AND-OR array and macro cell of
a PAL and GAL considers an exemplary FPGA with all the logic cells arranged in the array form
12×8 or 24×32 matrix which are examples of the array structures. A logic cell is also called as the
array structures. A logic cell is also called as CLB (Configurable Logic Block). A 12 × 8 matrix has
96 logic cells.

## A typical logic cell is shown in the below figure.

i) Two number six input AND gates, four number two input AND gates, three number 2 to 1 MUX
and clock input edge triggered DFF with the preset and clear inputs.

ii) Three number outputs from the AND, one output from the MUX and one output from D FF.
The total number of inputs are 21 and outputs are 5 for a logic cell. SOP function on the inputs
are obtained but the multiplex and decoding functions occur at the inputs of the logic cell.

## The DFF in all of the

FPGA is configurable
as JK FF, RS FF or FFF
which facilitates the
implementation of the
16 or 32 bit circuit for
the various types of
the shift registers and
counters. The number
of logic cells can be
very large.
Comparison between PROM, PLA, PAL:

## SI. No. PROM PLA PAL

PROM AND array is fixed and Both AND & OR arrays are AND array is programmable and
1.
OR array is programmable. programmable. OR array is fixed.

## Costliest & complex than

2. Cheaper and simple. Cheaper and simpler.
PAL & ROM.

## AND array and OR array can

AND array can be programmed to
3. All minterms are decoded. be programmed to get
get desired minterms.
desired minterms.

Only Boolean functions in Any Boolean function in Any Boolean function in standard
4. canonical SOP form can be standard SOP form can be SOP form can be implemented
implemented using PROM. implemented using PLA. using PAL.

Problems

1. Let us design a combinational circuit using ROM. The circuit accepts a 3-bit number and
generates an output binary number which is equal to the square of input number.

Solution:

## Decimal Input Output

A2 A1 A0 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

3 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

4 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

5 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
6 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

7 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

Implementation of PLA:

Using K-Map, let us derive the equation for B0, B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5.

## Product terms Inputs Outputs

A2 A1 A0 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0

A2 1 - - - - - - 1

A1 Ā2 0 1 - - - - 1 -

Ā0 A1 A2 1 1 0 - - 1 - -

A0 Ā1 A2 1 0 1 - - 1 - -

A0 Ā1 - 0 1 - 1 - - -

A0 A2 1 - 1 - 1 - - -

A0 A1 - 1 1 1 - - - -

T T T T T
2. Let us design a large circuit for the following Boolean expressions using PROM.

F1 (x, y, z) = Σm (1, 2, 4, 7)

F2(x, y, z) = Σm (3, 5, 6, 7)

Solution:

Given:

F1 (x, y, z) = Σm (1, 2, 4, 7)

F2(x, y, z) = Σm (3, 5, 6, 7)

The truth table for the functions F1 and F2 are given below:

Inputs Outputs

X Y Z F1 F2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

## The PROM implementation is given in the below figure.

Implementaion of
PROM
3. Let us implement the following functions using PLA.

F1 = AB’ + AC

F2 = AC + BC

Solution:

Given:

F1 = AB’ + AC

F2 = AC + BC

A B C F1 F2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1
Product term Inputs Outputs

AB’ 1 1 0 - 1 -

AC 2 1 - 1 1 1

BC 3 - 1 1 - 1

T T T/C

4. Let us implement
the following two
Boolean functions
with a PLA:

F1 (A, B, C) = Σ (0, 1,
2, 4)

F2 (A, B, C) = Σ (0, 5,
6, 7)

Solution:

Given:

F1 (A, B, C) = Σ (0, 1, 2, 4)
F2 (A, B, C) = Σ (0, 5, 6, 7)

Implementation:

5. Let us design an
AND - OR PLA that
implements the
following functions.

f(x, y, z) = Σm(0, 2, 4, 6)

g(x, y, z) = Σm(1, 3, 5,
7)

Solution:

Given:

f(x, y, z) = Σm(0, 2, 4, 6)

g(x, y, z) = Σm(1, 3, 5, 7)

## Product term Inputs Outputs

X Y Z f g T/C

1 1

T C
- - 0

6. A combinational logic circuit is defined by the following function: f 1 (a, b, c) = Σ (0, 1, 6, 7), f2
(a, b, c) = Σ (2, 3, 5, 7). Let us implement the circuit with a PAL having three inputs, three
product terms and two outputs.

Solution:

Given:

f1 (a, b, c) = Σ (0, 1, 6, 7)

f2 (a, b, c) = Σ (2, 3, 5, 7)

## Product AND inputs Outputs

No Term a b c

1 0 0 -

2 AB 1 1 -
1 ĀB 0 1 -

2 AC 1 - 1

Implementation:

7. Let
us

determine the minimum sum of products for each of the two function given below.

F = WY' + XY'Z

## (i) Let us implement the above function with a ROM.

(ii) Let us implement the above function in the PLA using more than four terms.

Solution:

Given:

F = WY' + XY'Z

## Expanding all the function, we have,

Implementation of ROM
UNIT V VHDL
RTL Design – combinational logic – Sequential circuit – Operators – Introduction to Packages –
Subprograms – Test bench (Simulation /Tutorial Examples: adders, counters, flip flops,
Multiplexers & De multiplexers).
5.1 RTL Design - combinational logic

A RTL (Register Transfer Level) description describes a circuit registers and the sequence of
transfers between these registers but does not describe the hardware used to carry out these
operations.

## Design procedure for register transfer language

The basis of RTL design is that circuits can be thought of as a set of register and a set of transfer
function defining the data paths between registers.

The first stage of the design has to be specific at a system level that is to be achieved and logic
operations on data coming in at the primary inputs of the circuits. At this stage, there are no
hardware implementations that can be used as the formal specification of the design.

The second stage of the design transforms the system level design into an RTL design. It is rare
for a design to be directly implemented in exactly the same form as the system level model.

## The third stage of the design is to synthesize the RTL design.

The resulting gate-level netlist or schematic can be simulated against the RTC design to confirm
that the synthesized circuit has the same behaviour.

Finally, the netlist or schematic produced by synthesis is supplied to the placement and routing
tools for circuit layout.

RTL in VHDL

VHDL is used to describe the architecture and behaviour of discrete electronic system.

Gate levels modeling is a lower level of abstraction in which the digital design is described in
terms of the logic gates such as AND, OR etc.,

Logic synthesis is a process of converting a high-level design into an optimized gate level
description by incorporating the given technology library and certain design constraints.

A technology library is provided by the IC fabrication foundry and it contains a set of basic logic
gates such as AND, OR etc., and micro cells such as adders, multiplexers and sequential logic
elements such as flip flops.

For the purpose of logic synthesis, the design is written in HDL at register transfer level.

Example:

begin

process (A, B)

begin

z<= 0

else
z<= 1

end if

end process;

end RTL

## T1: ACC ← ACC

MDR: At time T1, signal ACC is assigned as an operation of ACC and MDR

## • VHDL is a language used for simulation and synthesis of digital logic.

• The VHDL description of a digital system can be transformed into a gate level implementation.
This process is referred to as synthesis.

Description Implementation

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

entity majconc is

end majconc;

## Architecture of majconc is given as,

begin
Y <= (A and B) or (A and C) or (B and C);

end a;

VHDL statements

## VHDL template for combinational logic

entity model_name is

end model_name;

## architecture arch_name of model_name is given as,

begin

concurrent statement 1

concurrent statement 2

end arch_name;

## 5.2 Sequential circuit - operators

In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output not only depends
on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of the past inputs.

This is in contrast to combinational logic whose output is a function of the present input only.

Programs

## VHDL code for decode counter

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all;

entity decoder is

port(

## a : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(1 downto 0);

b : out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(3 downto 0)

);

end decoder;

## architecture bhv of decoder is

begin

process(a)

begin

case a is

when "00" => b <= "0001"; when "01" => b <= "0010"; when "10" => b <= "0100"; when "11" =>
b <= "1000";

end case;

end process;

end bhv;

flop
Truth table

J K Clk Qn - 1

0 0 ↑ Qn

0 1 ↑ 0

1 0 ↑ 1

1 1 ↑ Qn

X X ↓ Qn

library IEEE;

entity JK_FF is

end JK_FF;

begin

PROCESS(CLOCK)

## variable TMP: std_logic;

begin
if(CLOCK='1' and CLOCK'EVENT) then

TMP:=TMP;

TMP:='0';

else

TMP:='1';

end if;

end if;

Q<=TMP;

Q <=not TMP;

end PROCESS;

end behavioral;

library IEEE;

## use IEEE. STD_LOGIC_ARITH.ALL;

use IEEE. STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL;

entity D_FF is

## PORT( D,CLOCK: in std_logic;

Q: out std_logic);

end D_FF;

begin

process(CLOCK)

begin

Q <= D;

end if;

end process;

end behavioral;

## VHDL code for mod

6 counter

library IEEE;

use
IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all;
use ieee.std_logic_arith.all;

use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all;

entity mod6_counter is

port( clk : in std_logic; reset: in std_logic; dout: out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0));

end mod6_counter;

begin

## variable m : integer range 0 to 7 := 0;

begin

if (reset='1') then

m:= 0;

m:= m + 1;

end if;

if (m=6) then

m:= 0;

end if;

## dout <= conv_std_logic_vector (m,3);

end process counter;

end mod6_counter_arc;

5.2.1 Operators
VHDL has a set of operators which can be divided into groups of the same precedence level.

## Types of operators supported by VHDL:

• Logical operators
• Arithmetic operators
• Relational operators
• Shift operators

## Arithmetic operators → *, /, mod, rem, +, - and concatenation.

Shift operators → sll, srl, sla, sra, rol, ror, =, /=, <, <=, >=, >, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR.

Miscellaneous operators

## The ** (exponentiation) operator raises a floating point number or an integer to an integer

power and abs find the absolute value of numeric operand.

Arithmetic operators

* → Multiplication

/ → Division

mod → Modulo

rem → Remainder

- → Subtraction

& → Concatenation

Logical operators

The logical operators AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR and NOT are defined for BIT and Boolean
types and one-dimensional arrays contain the elements of bit and Boolean. All these operators
have the lowest priority where the NOT operator has the highest priority. The bit type is
represented by the values '0' and '1' and the Boolean type is represented as true and false.

OR → logical OR

## XNOR → logical complement of exclusive OR

Shift operators

The shift operators are defined for the one-dimensional array with the elements of the type bit
or Boolean. For the shift operator, the left operand L is an array and the right operand R is an
integer. The right operand represents the number of positions and the left operand is shifted. As
the result of shifting, the value of the same type as the left operand is returned.

## sla → Shift left arithmetic

sra → Shift right arithmetic

## ror → rotate right

Relational operators

The relational operators check the relation between the operands i.e. to state whether they are
equal, not equal or ordered in a way defined by the operator. Both operands should be of the
same type and the result received is always of the Boolean type.

= Equality

## <= less than or equal

The equality operator returns the value true only when both operands have the same values and
false when the values are different. The inequality operator returns the value true when the
operators are different and false when they are equal.
5.3 Introduction to packages - subprograms

Package

## A package is a collection of types, signal constants, components, functions and procedure

declarations. A package comprises of a package declaration and an optional package body.

## Use of packages in VHDL:

There are some declarations which are common across many design units.

The package stores and shares such declarations. It is an optional design unit.

A set of declarations contained in a package declaration may be shared by many design units. It
defines the items that can be made visible to other design units.

## A package is represented as follows,

• Package declaration
• Package body

Package declaration defines the interface to the package. The items declared in a package
declaration can also be accessed by other design units by using library and clauses.

Package body contains the details of a package i.e. the behavior of the subprograms and the
values of the deferred constants which are declared in a package declaration. It also consists of
other declarations.
5.3.1 Subprograms

There are two kinds of subprograms namely procedures and functions. Both functions and
procedures written in VHDL must have a body and may have declarations.

Procedures perform sequential computations and return the values in the global objects or by
storing values into formal parameters.

Functions perform sequential computations and then returns a value. Functions do not change
their formal parameters.

## Subprograms may exist as a function body or as a procedure body. Subprograms have a

procedure declarations or a function declaration.

When the subprograms are provided in a package, the subprogram declaration will be placed in
the package declaration and the subprogram body will be placed in the body of the package.

## • Procedure (Return multiple values)

• Function (Return single value)

## The typical usage areas are

• Conversion functions

• Resolution functions

Functions:

## • Requires a return statement.

Example:

function add_bits (a, b: in bit) return bit is begin -- functions cannot return multiple values

begin

## return result; -- the two functions are equivalent

A user defined function needs to be declared if it is called. When a function is called, values are
passed in through parameters just prior to its execution.

Function declaration:

Process

## Variable F:= C*9.0/5.0 + 32.0;

Return(F)

end C_TO_F;

Function definition:

begin

## NEW_TEMP: =C_TO_F(5.0) + 20.0

--Sequential statements;

end process;

5.4 Test bench (Simulation/Tutorial Examples: adders, counters, flip flops, Multiplexers & De
multiplexers)
A test bench is a VHDL model that verifies the design functioning. It uses files as input. It is used
for testing, counting the errors, verification and stimulation. It consists of a set of stimulus and
stimulator. The objective of test bench is to generate stimulus to test the system, apply them to
the system under test, monitor the output for correctness and log the transactions in a human
readable form. System under test can also be termed as unit under test(UUT).

## VHDL test benches

An HDL description that provides the stimulus to a design is called as a test bench. A test bench
is an HDL program used for describing and applying a stimulus to an HDL model circuit in order
to test it and observe its response during simulation.

Test benches can be quite lengthy and complex which may take longer time to develop than the
design that is being tested. The results of a test are as good as the test bench that is used for
testing a circuit.

Architecture of test
bench
Test vector generator
generates the
stimulus for the UUT.
This module can also
take outputs coming
from the UUT to
interactively change the stimulus. Verifier takes the stimulus and the responses from UUT and
checks for correctness. Simple test bench will not have verifier modeled into it. So the designer
must manually check the correctness of the UUT output.

## Test bench strategies

As the test bench becomes a part of the hierarchy in our code, the following is recommended:

## • The test bench is made at the top level of the code.

• The test bench instantiates the unit under test (UUT) and stimulus is applied from the top-level
test bench to the lower-level design or portion of the design is tested.

• The instance name UUT for the instantiated unit under test is used.

Example

## */Test bench for simple_circuit_prop_delay/*

module t_simple_circuit_prop_delay;

Wire D, E;

reg A, B, C;

Initial

begin

## #100A = l'bl; B = l'bl; C = l'bl;

end

initial#200\$ finish;

end module
Programs

## module request (A, B, C, Q, CLK);

input A, B, C, CLK;

Output Q;

request Q, E;

begin

E⇐A&B

Q ⇐ E/C

end

end module

Solution:

Example
Programs:

## HDL code for

AND gate

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

## entity and gate is

port (A, B: in std_logic;

begin

Y <= A and B

end;

## HDL code for half adder

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

entity HA is

Port(A, B: in std_logic;

S, C: out std_logic);

end HA;

Architecture dataflow of HA is

begin

S = XOR B;
C = A and B;

end dataflow;

## HDL code for half adder in data flow model

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.0.11;

begin

library IEEE;

## use IEEE. STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

entity counter is
port (CLK, Reset: in std_logic;

end counter

begin

begin

Q ⇐ "0000"

## else if CLK = '1' and CLK' even then

Q ⇐ Q+ 1;

end if

end process

end behavioral
HDL for four bit adder

library IEEE;

## use IEEE. STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

entity adder 4 is

C1: in std_logic

end component;

begin

## fa2 = fulladder Portmap (A(2), B(2), C(2), C(3), S(2));

fa3 = fulladder Portmap (A(3), B(3), C(3), C0, S(3));

end structure

library IEEE;

begin

## HDL code for 8

to 1
multiplexers
module multiplexer (D, S0, S1, S2, Y);

output y;

not

and

## a8(l, D , S2 not ’ S1’ S0);

or

0(y, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)
endmodule

8:1
multiplexer

VHDL
code for
8:1

multiplexer

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.0.11;

entity mux is

Port (D7, D6, D5, D4, D3, D2, D1, D0; in std-logic;

## S: in std_logic_vector (2 down 0);

F: Out std_logic);

end mux;

## Architecture dataflow of mux is given as,

begin

F< = (not S(2) and not S(1) and not S(0) and D0) or

end;

## VHDL module listing for a 16:1 MUX

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

library UNISIM;

## SELECT_i: in Std_logic_Vector (3 down to O);

DATA O: out Std logic

};

end MUX_16_l_SUBm;

## architecture MUX_16_l_SUBm_arch of MUX_16_l_SUBm_ component declarations:

component MUX F7

Port

IO: in Std_logic;

Il: in Std_logic;

S: in Std_logic;

O: out Std_logic;

};

end component;

_ _ Signal declarations;

## Signal DATA LSB: Std logic;

__

begin

__
_ _ if synthesis tools support MUX F7;

## _ _ select_PROCESS: process (select_I, DATA_I)

_ _ begin

_ _ case SELECT_I is

## _ _ When '1110' ⇒ DATA_0* DATA_I(14);

_ _ When '1111' ⇒ DATA_0* DATA_I(15);

_ _ end case;

__

begin

end case;

__

end case;

## end process SELECT_PROCESS_MSB;

__

_ _ MUX F7 instantiation

## U_MUX F7: MUX F7

Port map

{
I0 ⇒ DATA_LSB,

I1 ⇒ DATA_MSB,

S ⇒ SELECT I(3)

O ⇒ DATA_O,

};

__

end mux_16_l_SUBM_arch;

4-Bit comparator

library IEEE;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;

use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL;

entity compare is

## Port (A, B: in std_logic_vector (1 down to Aeq B, Agt B;

A it B = out STD_LOGIC);

end compare;

begin

## Agt B ⇐ '1' when a > b else '0';

A lt B ⇐ '1' when a < b else '0';

end behavior;

library IEEE;

## use IEEE . STD _ LOGIC _ 1164 . ALL;

entity comparator is

end comparator

begin

process (A, B)

begin

if (A < B) then

## equal < = ‘0’;

greater <=‘0’;

else if (A = B) then

else

end if;

end process;

end behavioural;