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Q1.Give Reasons-
Ques.-The + 3 state becomes more stable than + 5on moving down the group. Why?
EXPLANATION: due to the inert-pair effect.
Que Nitrogen is a gas, while rest of the four elements of this group are solids, under ordinary conditions.
Ans.:- Nitrogen can formpπ- pπ multiple bonds There are weak Vander-Waal forces between N2 molecules
so it is found as gas. While in other elements are unable to form pπ- pπ multiple bondshence these elements
do not exist as diatomic molecules. To satisfy their valence shell these elements form tetra atomic,
tetrahedral molecules such as P4, As4 and Sb4molecules which have greaterVander-Waal force so these
elements are found in solid state.
Ques.:-Nitrogen is very less reactive then other elements of its group, why?
Due to very high bond energy of N N bond, nitrogen is almost non-reactive in its elemental form.

Ques.:- Nitrogen can not show higher covalency/ Nitrogen does not form pentavalent compounds such as
NCl5, NF5 etc.while other elements of 15th group can, why?
Ans.:-As nitrogen has no d-orbitals in its valence-shell, therefore it can form at the maximum four covalent
Ques.:-The bond angle decreases as the size of the central atom in hydrides increases.
. On moving down the group, the atomic size increases and electronegativity , therefore the bond pair
– bond pair repulsion decreases.
Ques.:-The boiling point of ammonia is unusually higher than that of phosphine. For other
hydrides, the boiling point increases down the group, why?
Ans.:-Unusually high boiling point of ammonia as compared to that of phosphine is due to the
intermolecular hydrogen bonding in ammonia. Phosphine molecules do not form hydrogen bonds with each
The increase in the boiling point of hydrides in going from PH3 to BiH3 is due to the increased
strength of the Vander Waals’ forces down the group.

Q. Why pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides?

Ans. Higher the oxidation state, more will be the polarization power, higher will be the covalent character.

Ques.-The + 4 state becomes more stable than + 6on moving down the group. Why?
EXPLANATION: due to the inert-pair effect.
Give Reasons:
a) Sulphur disappears when boiled with sodium sulphite.
Ans.Due to formation of soluble sodium thiosulphate.

b) PF5 is well known compound but NF5 is not known.

Ans. There is no vacant d-orbital in N atom.

c) Fluorine shows abnormal behaviour.

Ans. Due to very small size, high electronegativity,and high polarizing power.

d) The acid strength of acids increases in the order HF < HCl <HBr <HI.
Ans. Due to increasing bond length of H-X from HF to HI It is easy to release H+ ion by HI.

e) H3PO2 behaves as monoprotic acid.

Ans. There is only one O-H bond .

f) NH3 is a stronger base than PH3.

Ans. Due to small size of N the lone pair of electron is less delocalized hence easily available for
donation whereas due to large size of P atom is less basic.

g) Nitric acid becomes yellow in colour on long standing.

Ans.HNO3 breaks down into NO2 gas which gives a yellow appearance to the acid.

h) The +5 oxidation state of Bi is less stable than its +3

Ans. Due to inert pair effect.

i) All the bonds in PCl5 are not equivalent.

Ans. P atom is sp3d hybridised and has trigonal bipyramidal structure.It has three euitorial and
two axial bonds which are different

p)Of all the noble gases only xenon forms known chemical compounds.
Ans. Due to large atomic size, the first IE for xenon is low as compared to IE of the other elemnts of the
j) NF3 is an exothermic compound but NCl3 is an endothermic compound.
Ans. F is more electronegative and having small size than Cl, so F form stronger bond with N ,so more
energy is released.

k) NO2 readily forms dimer.

Ans. Due to presence of odd valence electron in NO2 it dimerizes to form N2O4

l) Fluorine forms only one oxoacid HOF.

Ans.Due to high electronegativity and very small size fluorine can only give +1 oxidation state.
m). Bond dissociation energy of F2 is less than that of Cl2.
Ans.In F2, (a) large repulsion occur between non bonding electrons on fluorine atom
in the fluorine molecule. It is due to small size of fluorine atom (b) there is no
possibility of p ∏-d∏ overlap in fluorine due to no d orbitals.
m) Why PCl5 and PCl3 fumes in moisture?
Ans PCl5 + H2O----------H3PO4 + HCl
PCl3 + H2O--------------H3PO3 + HCl
Due to liberation of HCl
n) Why interhalogens are more reactive than halogens.
Ans X-X’ bond in interhalogens is weaker than X-X bond in halogens.
o) SF6 can’t be hydrolysed easily. Why?
Ans Due to sterically protected by 6 F atoms.
p) Which allotrope of phosphorous is more reactive and why?
q) Ans White phosphorous because of angular strain.