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# EKC 361

TEAM ASSIGNMENT

## Title: Concentration control of CSTR through Fractional

Order PID Controller by using Soft Techniques

GROUP 12

1.0 Summary

## 5.0 Dynamic Behaviour of the Process

6.0 Conclusion

7.0 References

Appendix
1.0 Summary

The title of the journal that selected for this assignment is “Concentration Control of CSTR

through Fractional Order PID Controller by Using Soft Techniques” written by Abhishek Singh

## and Dr. Veena Sharma.

In this team assignment, mathematical modelling for this process was developed based on mass

balance. Through the mathematical model, all main variables were identified. The manipulated

variable is flow rate while the disturbance variables are concentration of Benzaldehyde and

## concentration of Acetophenone. The control variable is concentration of Chalcone. Next,

degree of freedom analysis has been done. It is found that the number of degrees of freedom is

3.

Linearization has been done before develop transfer function since the equation is non-linear

equations. After linearization, Laplace transform was implemented in order to obtain transfer

function. 3 transfer function is obtained. Lastly, the transfer functions were simulated using

MATLAB, to study the dynamic behaviour of the process. Three types of input signal (step,

ramp, and sinusoidal) were used to analyse how the input variables affect the output response.

1
2.0 Introduction and Process Description

2.1 Introduction

CSTR is very common reactor that used in industrial processing. In a CSTR process model,

one or more fluid reactants are introduced into a tank reactor equipped with an impeller to make

sure the reactant well mixed. Through CSTR, the reactor effluent is removed from the system

as well. Residence time is describing the average time, in which a particular quantity of reagent

spends inside the tank. Chemical kinetics concept is used to determine the behaviour of reaction

in tank reactor.

## The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is widely used in the process industries.

It is because PID’s simplicity and number of parameters that needed to tune is less. The

standard feedback control algorithms of PID controller consist of three separate parameters

which are the proportional, the integral and derivative values. Proper settings of fractional-I

and fractional–D actions can further improve the performance of PID controller. To get optimal

result, many soft techniques have been employed to enhance the performance of controller.

PID control is often combined with logic, sequential functions, selectors, and simple function

blocks to build the complicated automation systems used for energy production, transportation,

and manufacturing.

2
2.2 Process Description

## Benzaldehyde + Acetophenone → Chalcone

A+B→X

Figure 1 show the schematic diagram for an isothermal irreversible synthesis process of

## benzaldehyde and an acetophenone in the presence of sodium hydroxide/ Ethanol as a catalyst.

Benzaldehyde and acetophenone are colourless liquid, having melting point of -26°C and 20°C

respectively. The reaction mixture is heated inside reactor at 80°C, and then after stirring

process, the product mixture is cooled to room temperature. Finally, yellow colour substance

can be obtained. The yellow colour substance is Chalcone, which is used to make life saving

drugs. The mathematical model of this reactor based on mass balance inside the reactor.

3
3.0 Mathematical Model of the Process

3.1 Assumption:

Few assumptions have been made when develop the mathematical model.

1) Isothermal irreversible reaction take place in the CSTR. Isothermal process means the

## 3) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone are perfectly mixing.

4) Density of each component is constant. Thus, the fluids are assumed that incompressible.

## General Formula for Conversation of Component

The theoretical mathematical model is formed based conversation law. In this case study,

## Mass Balance Equations involved in Case Study:

𝑑𝐶𝐴 𝐹
1. Species A: = (𝐶𝐴𝑜 − 𝐶𝐴 ) − 𝐾𝑜 𝐶𝐴 𝐶𝐵  equation 1
𝑑𝑡 𝑉

𝑑𝐶𝐵 𝐹
2. Species B: = (𝐶𝐵𝑜 − 𝐶𝐵 ) − 𝐾𝑜 𝐶𝐴 𝐶𝐵  equation 2
𝑑𝑡 𝑉

𝑑𝐶𝑥 𝐹
3. Species X: =− 𝐶𝑥 + 𝐾𝑜 𝐶𝐴 𝐶𝐵  equation 3
𝑑𝑡 𝑉

4
3.3 Degree of Freedom Analysis

1 Parameter: Ko

## 3 equations involve: equation 1, equation 2, equation 3

Nv = 6

NE = 3

NF = Nv – NE

=6–3

=3

Must identify three input variables in order for the equation to have a unique solution.

## This case study the classification of variable as shown as below:

Controlled variables: Cx

## Manipulated variable: F/V

5
3.4 List of Parameter and Variable of Reaction

## Concentration of Chalcone Cx 1 g mol L-1

6
4.0 Development of Transfer Function

Three mass balance differential equations that involved in this case study are non-linear due to

the product between two variables. For example, CA×CB in equation 1, 2 and 3, therefore the

equation is needed to be linearized by using Taylor series before undergo Laplace transform.

## Generally, we can let

dy
= f(y, u)  equation 4
dt

## Based on Taylor series expansion,

∂f ∂f
f(y, u) ≅ f(y̅, u̅) + | (y − y̅) + | (u − u̅)  equation 5
∂y y
̅,u
̅ ∂Q y
̅,u
̅

Since 𝑓(𝑦̅, 𝑢̅) represent steady state condition, hence 𝑓(𝑦̅, 𝑢̅)=0. Hence equation 5 can be

simplify to

d𝑦 ′ ∂f ∂f
= ∂y| y ′ + ∂u| u′ equation 6
dt s s

𝐹 𝐹
Let 𝑉 = 𝑄 to simplify the variable of . Using Taylor series expansion to linearize equation
𝑉

7
4.1 Species A

## Linearization of equation (1)

𝑑𝐶𝐴
= 𝑓(𝐶𝐴 , 𝐶𝐵 , 𝐶𝑋 , 𝑄)
𝑑𝑡

dCA ′ ∂𝑓 ∂𝑓 ∂𝑓 ∂𝑓
= (𝑄 − Q̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐴 − 𝐶𝐴̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐵 − 𝐶𝐵̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐴𝑂 − 𝐶𝐴𝑂
̅ )
dt ∂𝑄 𝐴 𝐵 𝑋

equation 7

## Partial derivatives of equation (7):

∂f
(∂Q) = ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅A̅
CA0 − C
s

∂f
̅ − K 0 ̅̅̅
(∂C ) = −Q CB
A s

∂f
(∂C ) = −K 0 ̅C̅̅A̅
B s

∂f
̅
(∂C ) = Q
A0 s

## Where: 𝑄 ′ = 𝑄 − 𝑄̅ , 𝐶𝐴𝑜 ′ = (CAo − ̅̅̅̅̅

CAo ) , CA′ = (CA − ̅C̅̅A̅) , CB′ = (CB − ̅̅̅
CB )

## Substitute the partial derivatives into equation (7):

dCA ′
̅̅̅̅̅
= (C ̅̅̅̅ ̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅̅̅̅ ′ ̅
A0 − CA )𝑄′ + (−Q − K 0 CB )CA + (−K 0 CA )CB + Q(CA0 ′)
dt

equation 8

## Taking Laplace transform for equation (8)

𝑠𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = (𝐶
̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ′
𝐴𝑂 − 𝐶𝐴 )𝑄 (𝑠) + (−𝑄 − 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 (𝑠) + (−𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 )𝐶𝐵 (𝑠) + (𝑄 )𝐶𝐴𝑂 (𝑠)

equation 9

8
Rearrange the equation (9)

𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = (𝐶
(𝑠 + 𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ′
𝐴𝑂 − 𝐶𝐴 )𝑄 (𝑠) + (−𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 )𝐶𝐵 (𝑠) + (𝑄 )𝐶𝐴𝑂 (𝑠)

̅̅̅̅̅̅
(𝐶 𝐴 −𝐶 ̅̅̅̅
𝐴) (−𝐾 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶 ) (𝑄̅ )
𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = (𝑠+𝑄̅𝑂+𝐾 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + (𝑠+𝑄̅+𝐾
𝑂 𝐴
𝐶 ′ (𝑠) + (𝑠+𝑄̅+𝐾 𝐶𝐴𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 ) 𝐶 ) 𝐵
̅̅̅̅
𝑂 𝐵 𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )

̅̅̅̅̅̅
(𝐶 𝐴𝑂 −𝐶̅̅̅̅ ̅ +𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐴 )/(𝑄 𝐶𝐵 ) (−𝐾𝑂̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 )/(𝑄̅ +𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 ) (𝑄̅ )/ (𝑄̅+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )
𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = 1
𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + 1
𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) + 1
𝐶𝐴𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
(̅ 𝑠+1) (̅ 𝑠+1) (̅ 𝑠+1)
𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵

Let

1
τ1 = 𝑄̅+𝐾 ̅̅̅̅̅
k1=(𝐶 ̅̅̅ ̅ ̅̅̅
𝐴𝑂 − 𝐶𝐴 )/(𝑄 + 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐵 )
𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵

## k2= (−𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅

𝐶𝐴 )/(𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 ) k3 = (𝑄̅ )/(𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )

𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
∴ 𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
( 𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) 𝐴𝑂

equation 10

## Substitute value from table 1 into equation (10)

49 121 2
𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) = 150 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) − 150 𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) + 15 𝐶𝐴𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
2 2 2
𝑠+1 𝑠+1 𝑠+1
15 15 15

equation 11

9
4.2 Species B

## Linearization of equation (2)

𝑑𝐶𝐵
= 𝑓(𝐶𝐴 , 𝐶𝐵 , 𝐶𝐵𝑜 , 𝑄)
𝑑𝑥

∂𝑓 ∂𝑓 ∂𝑓 ∂𝑓
= (𝑄 − Q̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐴 − 𝐶𝐴̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐵 − 𝐶𝐵̅ ) + ∂𝐶 (𝐶𝐵𝑜 − 𝐶𝐵𝑜
̅ )
∂𝑄 𝐴 𝐵 𝐵𝑜

equation 12

∂f
( ) = ̅̅̅̅̅
CB0 − ̅̅̅
CB
∂Q s

∂f
( ) = −K 0 ̅̅̅
CB
∂CA s

∂f
( ̅ − K 0 ̅C̅̅A̅
) = −Q
∂CB s

∂f
( ̅
) =Q
∂CBo s

Where:

## 𝑄 ′ = 𝑄 − 𝑄̅ , CA′ = (CA − ̅C̅̅A̅), CB′ = (CB − ̅̅̅

CB ), 𝐶𝐵𝑜 ′ = (CBo − ̅̅̅̅̅
CBo )

## Substitute the partial derivatives into equation (12)

dCB ′
̅̅̅̅̅
= (C ̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ̅̅̅̅ ′ ̅
Bo − C𝐵 )𝑄′ + (−K 0 CB )CA + (−Q − K 0 CA )CB + Q(CBo ′)
dt

equation 13

## Taking Laplace transform for equation (13)

𝑠𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = (𝐶
̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ′
𝐵𝑂 − 𝐶𝐵 )𝑄 (𝑠) + (−𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 (𝑠) + (−𝑄 − 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 )𝐶𝐵 (𝑠) + (𝑄 )𝐶𝐵𝑂 (𝑠)

equation 14

10
Rearrange equation (14)

𝐶𝐴 )𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = (𝐶
(𝑠 + 𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅̅̅ ′ ̅ ′
𝐵𝑂 − 𝐶𝐵 )𝑄 (𝑠) + (−𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 (𝑠) + (𝑄 )𝐶𝐵𝑂 (𝑠)

̅̅̅̅̅
(𝐶 ̅̅̅
𝐵𝑂 − 𝐶𝐵 ) (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 ) (𝑄̅ )
𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) − 𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
̅ ̅̅̅
(𝑠 + 𝑄 + 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 ) ̅ ̅̅̅
(𝑠 + 𝑄 + 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 ) ̅ ̅̅̅
(𝑠 + 𝑄 + 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 )

̅̅̅̅̅̅
(𝐶 𝐵𝑂 −𝐶̅̅̅̅ ̅ +𝐾𝑂̅̅̅̅
𝐵 )/(𝑄 𝐶𝐴 ) (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )/(𝑄̅ +𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 ) (𝑄̅ )/(𝑄̅ +𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 )
𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = 1
𝑄 ′ (𝑠) − 1
𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) + 1
𝐶𝐵𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
(̅ 𝑠+1) (̅ 𝑠+1) (̅ 𝑠+1)
𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 𝑄+𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴

Let

1
𝜏2 = 𝑄̅+𝐾 ̅̅̅̅̅
𝑘4 = (𝐶 ̅̅̅ ̅ ̅̅̅
𝐵𝑂 − 𝐶𝐵 )/(𝑄 + 𝐾𝑂 𝐶𝐴 )
𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴

𝑘5 = −(𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )/(𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 ) 𝑘6 = (𝑄̅ )/(𝑄̅ + 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 )

𝑘4 𝑘5 𝑘6
𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) 𝐵𝑂

equation 15

## Substitute value from Table 1 into equation (15)

68 130 20
𝐶𝐵 ′ (𝑠) = 141 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) − 141 𝐶𝐴 ′ (𝑠) + 141 𝐶𝐵𝑂 ′ (𝑠)
1 1 1
𝑠+1 𝑠+1 𝑠+1
7.05 7.05 7.05

equation 16

11
4.3 Species X

## Linearization of equation (3)

d𝐶𝑥
= f(CX , CA , CB , Q)
dt

∂f ∂f ∂f ∂f
= ∂C (Cx − ̅̅̅
Cx ) + ∂C (CA − ̅C̅̅A̅) + ∂C (CB − ̅̅̅
CB ) + + ̅)
(Q − Q
x A B ∂Q

equation 17

∂f
( ̅
) = −Q
∂Cx s

∂f
( ) = K 0 ̅̅̅
CB
∂CA s

∂f
( ) = K 0 ̅C̅̅A̅
∂CB s

∂f
̅̅̅x
( ) = −C
∂Q s

Where:

## 𝑄 ′ = 𝑄 − 𝑄̅ Cx′ = (Cx − ̅̅̅

Cx ) CA′ = (CA − ̅C̅̅A̅) CB′ = (CB − ̅̅̅
CB )

## Substitute the partial derivatives into equation (17):

dCx ′
̅ )Cx′ + K 0 C̅B CA′ + K 0 C̅A CB′ − ̅̅̅
= (−Q CX Q′
dt

equation 18

12
Taking Laplace transform for equation (18)

## 𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅

𝑠𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) = −𝑄̅ 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) + (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅ 𝐶𝑏̅̅)𝐶𝐵 ′(𝑠) − 𝐶𝑥 𝑄̅ ′ (𝑠)

equation 19

## (𝑠 + 𝑄̅ )𝐶𝑥′ (𝑠) = (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅

𝐶𝐵 )𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝑎)𝐶𝐵 ′ − ̅̅̅
𝐶𝑥 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)

𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 ̅̅̅̅
𝐶𝑥
𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) = 𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵 ′ − 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
(𝑠 + 𝑄̅ ) (𝑠 + 𝑄̅ ) (𝑠 + 𝑄̅ )

𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵
̅
𝑄 (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 )/𝑄̅ ̅𝐶𝑥
̅̅̅/𝑄̅
𝐶𝑠 ′(𝑠) = 𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵 ′(𝑠) − 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
1 1 1
( ̅ 𝑠 + 1) ( ̅ 𝑠 + 1) ( ̅ 𝑠 + 1)
𝑄 𝑄 𝑄

Let

1
𝜏3 = 𝑄̅ 𝑘7 = (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐵 )/𝑄̅

𝑘8 = (𝐾𝑂 ̅̅̅
𝐶𝐴 )/𝑄̅ ̅̅̅̅ /𝑄̅
𝑘9 = −𝐶𝑥

𝑘7 𝑘8 𝑘9
𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) = 𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵 ′(𝑠) + 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1) (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)

equation 20

## Substitute value from Table 1 into equation (20)

6.5 6.05 1
𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) = 𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) + 𝐶𝐵 ′(𝑠) − 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
𝑠+1 𝑠+1 𝑠+1

equation 21

13
4.4 Transfer Function

To form transfer function by relating the output variable with input variable, CA ′(s) and CB ′(s)

have to be in term of CAo ′(s) and CBo ′(s). Therefore, equation (10) and (15) are solved

simultaneously.

𝑘1 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘4 𝑘2 𝑘6 𝑘2
∴ 𝐶𝐴 ′(𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶 ′(𝑠)
(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 𝐵𝑜

𝑘3 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′(𝑠)
(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 𝐴𝑜

Equation 22

𝑘4 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘1 𝑘5 𝑘3 𝑘5
∴ 𝐶𝐵 ′(𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠) + 𝐶 ′(𝑠)
(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 𝐴𝑜

𝑘6 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘2 𝑘5 𝐵𝑜

Equation 23

14
Substitute equation (22) and (23) into equation (20)

𝑘7 𝑘1 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘7 𝑘4 𝑘2
𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) = 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

𝑘2 𝑘6 𝑘7
+ 𝐶 ′(𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐵𝑜

𝑘7 𝑘3 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐴𝑜

𝑘8 𝑘4 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘8 𝑘5 𝑘1
+ 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

𝑘3 𝑘5 𝑘8
+ 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐴𝑜

𝑘8 𝑘6 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐵𝑜

## 𝑘9 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘9 (𝑘2 𝑘5 )

+ 𝑄 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

Simply it into

𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠)

## 𝑘7 𝑘1 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘7 𝑘4 𝑘2 + 𝑘8 𝑘4 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘8 𝑘5 𝑘1 + 𝑘9 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘9 (𝑘2 𝑘5 ) ′

= 𝑄 (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

𝑘2 𝑘6 𝑘7 + 𝑘8 𝑘6 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′(𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐵𝑜

𝑘3 𝑘5 𝑘8 + 𝑘7 𝑘3 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)
+ 𝐶 ′ (𝑠)
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 ) 𝐴𝑜

𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠)
𝑄 ′ (𝑠)

## 𝑘7 𝑘1 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘7 𝑘4 𝑘2 + 𝑘8 𝑘4 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) + 𝑘8 𝑘5 𝑘1 + 𝑘9 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − 𝑘9 (𝑘2 𝑘5 )

=
(𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

15
Control variable with disturbance variables:

𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 𝑘2 𝑘6 𝑘7 + 𝑘8 𝑘6 (𝜏1 𝑠 + 1)
=
𝐶𝐵𝑜 ′(𝑠) (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 𝑘3 𝑘5 𝑘8 + 𝑘7 𝑘3 (𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)
=
𝐶𝐴𝑜 ′(𝑠) (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏2 𝑠 + 1)(𝜏1 𝑠 + 1) − (𝜏3 𝑠 + 1)(𝑘2 𝑘5 )

From equation 11, 16 and 21, the steady state gain and time constant is obtained and shown as

below.

2 1
𝜏1 = 𝜏2 = 𝜏3 = 1
15 7.05

49 121 2
𝑘1 = 𝑘2 = − 𝑘3 =
150 150 15
68 130 20
𝑘4 = 𝑘5 = − 𝑘6 =
141 141 141

𝑘1 = 6.5 𝑘2 = 6.05 𝑘9 = −1

## 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) −0.019𝑠 2 + 0.415𝑠 + 0.434

=
𝑄 ′ (𝑠) 0.019𝑠 3 + 0.294𝑠 2 + 0.531𝑠 + 0.256

Equation 23

## 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 0.114𝑠 + 0.114

=
𝐶𝐵𝑜 ′(𝑠) 0.019𝑠 3 + 0.294𝑠 2 + 0.531𝑠 + 0.256

Equation 24

## 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 0.123𝑠 + 0.123

=
𝐶𝐴𝑜 ′(𝑠) 0.019𝑠 3 + 0.294𝑠 2 + 0.531𝑠 + 0.256

Equation 25

16
Divide the equation (23), equation (24) and equation (25) by 0.019

## 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) −𝑠 2 + 21.84𝑠 + 22.84

=
𝑄 ′ (𝑠) 𝑠 3 + 15.47𝑠 2 + 27.95𝑠 + 13.47

Equation 26

𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 6𝑠 + 6
= 3
𝐶𝐵𝑜 ′(𝑠) 𝑠 + 15.47𝑠 2 + 27.95𝑠 + 13.47

Equation 27

## 𝐶𝑥 ′(𝑠) 6.47𝑠 + 6.47

= 3
𝐶𝐵𝑜 ′(𝑠) 𝑠 + 15.47𝑠 2 + 27.95𝑠 + 13.47

Equation 28

17
5.0 Dynamic Behavior

Simulink in Matlab is used to study the dynamic behavior of the graph. There are 3 common

types of input changes, which are step input change, ramp input change and sinusoidal input

change. These 3 types of input changes models are stimulated by Simulink so that the

respective response curve can be generated. In the dynamic behavior graph that shown below,

yellow line represents transfer function of manipulated variable, red line represent transfer

function of disturbance variable-CBo and blue line represent transfer function of disturbance

variable-CAo).

## 5.1 Unit Step Input

Step input is used when the process that subjected to sudden and sustained input changes. For

example, a reactor feedstock is suddenly switched form one supply to another, causing sudden

## Figure 2: Simulink Block Diagram when Unit Step Input

18
Figure 3: Dynamic Behavior of Output when Unit Step Input

From the graphs above, the process started at t = 0 (initial state), while the simulation stopped

at t = 100 minutes. Since the step input was set as 10s, therefore, a sudden increase occurred

after t = 10 minutes. The sudden increase proved that the increase of input which is flow rate

## and concentration of benzaldehyde and acetophenone will increase the concentration of

chalcone that produced. All the output achieved steady state around 15 minutes. The maximum

amplitude that shown by yellow line is roughly around 1.7. This maximum amplitude showed

that with sudden change of 1 litre per minute of flow rate, the concentration of chalcone will

increase 1.7 mol per litre. The calculation is shown as below. The graph also showed that the

flow rate has higher influence toward the concentration of chalcone that produced.

𝐶𝑥 ′ = 𝐶𝑥 − ̅̅̅
𝐶𝑥

𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐶𝑥 ′ = 1.7
𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒

𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐶𝑥 = (1.7 + 1)
𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒

𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐶𝑥 = 2.7
𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒

19
5.2 Ramp Input

Ramp input change is used when the process subjected which consists of gradually upward or

downward change for some period of time with a roughly constant slope. For example, set

point are sometimes ramped from one value to another rather than making a step change.

## Figure 5: Dynamic Behavior of Output when Ramp Input

From the graphs above, the process started at t =10 minutes (initial state), while the simulation

stops at t = 100 minutes. The graph showed that the increase the flow rate or concentration of

benzaldehyde and acetophenone will cause the product increase as well. The graph showed that

the ramp input gives the unbounded output. It will go to infinity if the duration of ramp input

is not limited.

20
5.3 Sinusoidal Input

Sinusoidal input is for the process subjected to inputs that vary periodically. For example, the

drift in cooling water temperature can often be closely tied to diurnal fluctuations in ambient

conditions.

## Figure 7: Dynamic Behavior of Output when Sinusoidal Input

The graph show output response of process from sinusoidal input change. Transfer function for

equation 26 show the highest amplitude compare to another two. The graph showed that

maximum output amplitude for the process is 1.25 for manipulated variable. While 0.33 and

## 0.30 for disturbance variable CAo and CBo respectively.

21
5.4 Comparison of Different Input for Transfer Function of Manipulated Variable

## Figure 9: Dynamic Behavior of Output when Different Input

Process started at t =1s (initial state), while the simulation stops at t = 10s. When unit step input,

the output will be bounded. While the ramp input and sinusoidal input gave unbounded output.

Different process required different input. If the process required to scale up the amount of

product, step input will be the suitable input. It is because the unit step input gave a bounded

output. On the other hand, the output reached steady state at short time as well which shown at

Figure 3. Ramp input is useful during the start-up of a continuous process for the unit operation

to warm up. It is because the magnitude of input is increasing slowly with time. This action

will protect the unit operation being damaged and it should limit the duration of ramp input.

22
5.5 Overall Transfer Function

## Figure 11: Dynamic Behavior of Output

Through previous section 5.4, it is found that step input is most suitable input when process

required to scale up the amount of product. Therefore, this section will discuss how step input

affect the concentration of chalcone produced through dynamic behaviour of overall transfer

function. Assumption that have been made in this section is when volumetric flow rate increase

by 1 litre per minute, the initial concentration of Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone increase 1

mol per litre as well. From Figure 11, it is found that the amplitude of output is roughly 2.5.

Hence it showed that to scale up the amount of product, the best way is to make sure when

increase the amount of flow rate and initial concentration of reactant simultaneously.

23
6.0 Conclusion

In a nutshell, to develop transfer function, there are few steps have to follow. Firstly, develop

mathematical model. Next, checking the degree of freedom for the mathematical model. Then,

identify all the input variable and categories it into manipulated variable and disturbance

## Laplace transform to form the transfer function.

Simulink in Matlab is used to study the dynamic behaviour of the transfer. To conclude the

dynamic behaviour that obtained in this team assignment, it is found that the different input is

need for different process. Based on our case study, step input is suitable to increase the amount

of product. Ramp input is suitable for during the start-up of a continuous process.

24
7.0 Reference

1. Dale E. Seborg, Thomas F. Edgar, Duncan A. Mellichamp, Francis J.Doyle III. Process

## Dynamics and Control. 3rd edition. Wiley, 2011. (Page 15-93)

2. Pao C. Chau. Process Control: A First Course with MATLAB. Cambridge University Press,

## 2002. (Page 226-243)

3. Signh,A. and Sharma, V. (2013). Concentration Control of CSTR Through Fractional Order

25
Appendix

Date 24/9/2018

Time 9am-10am

## Agenda 1) Discuss and compare the journal

that we found.
2) Determine the number of
variables that involved in our
case study.
3) Discuss about degree of freedom
for the best article that we
selected.
4) Divide the job for milestone 2

Date 3/10/2018

Time 9pm-10pm

## Agenda 1. Doing the linearization together.

2. Develop the transfer function by
using Laplace transform.
3. Type the linearization equation
and Laplace transform into
Microsoft word

26
Venue Café lembaran

Date 16/10/2018

Time 9pm-10pm

## Agenda 1) Run the Simulink

to study the
dynamic behavior
of our transfer
function
2) Do the milestone
4 together
3) Divide the job for
our report.

27