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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

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TAGUIG CAMPUS

Gen. Santos Ave., Lower Bicutan, Taguig City

A Tracer Study of the Employment Status

of the Bachelor in Secondary Education Graduates of PUP-Taguig Batch 2011-2015

In Partial fulfillment of the Subject

Research 2 (SEED 4023)

Submitted by:

Maria Theresa V. Vicente

Junie Leonard B. Herrera

John Irmax B. Teus

Submitted to:

Prof. Margarita T. Sevilla

March 2017
Abstract
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Thesis Title: A Tracer Study of the Employment Status of the Bachelor in

Secondary Education Graduates of Pup Taguig Batch 2011-2015

Thesis Writers: Vicente, Maria Theresa V. Vicente

Herrera, Junie Leonard B.

Teus, John Irmax

Degree working for: Bachelor in Secondary Education major in English

Name of School: Polytechnic University of the Philippines

School Year: 2016-2017

Name of Adviser: Prof. Margarita T. Sevilla

Number of Pages:

A tracer study is a comprehensive, objective, and evaluative study that traces

the current employment status of their graduates and assesses their qualitative competencies

with the job at hand. This tracer study focused on the current status of Batch 2011-2015

graduates of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Taguig City Branch in line with

the intent to evaluate the performance of the BSED program and the kind of graduates it

create. This research is a descriptive study. Through a questionnaire from the Commission

on Higher Education (CHED) as the data gathering procedure and percentage and
distribution frequency as the statistical tool used, the researchers were able to gather the

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respondents’ general profile, employment data, evaluation with regards to the relevance of

competencies learned in the program. From the following information, we were able to

identify the implications of the findings in the study which can be taken into consideration

when enhancing the current BSED program. Results show that majority of the respondents

are Licensure Examination for Teachers(LET) passers, got their job within less than a month

after graduating and currently employed with salary ranging from P10,000.00 to less than

P15,000.00 per month. Facts present that the majority of the respondents are competent and

well-equipped in suiting the demands of the world employment market. From these findings,

the study recommends that the University should increase Practice Teaching hours in the

BSED program, and should conduct graduate tracer studies on a regular basis. The study

also recommends that the Mentors’ Society formulates intervention programs about financial

literacy, self-branding, interpersonal skills, and career development.


Acknowledgement
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First of all would like to thank almighty God for the all the blessings that we

received and for the wisdom and knowledge He had given us during our research. He is the

reason why we overcome some instances before, during and after research.

To our parents, for their never ending support, love, and motivation to us. For

making us feel that we can surpass the circumstances that we’re facing. We thank them

especially when it comes to financial matters.

We would also like to express our deepest gratitude to our professor, Ms. Margarita

T. Sevilla for her continuous support, for her patience, motivation, and immense knowledge

in making our research possible.

We would also like to thank our statistician, Mr. Jeffrey Estipular for helping us in

solving and interpreting our data.


Table of Contents
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Abstract

Acknowledgement

Chapter I: Problem and its Background

Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

Scope and Delimitation

Significance of the Study

Definition of terms

Chapter II: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Local Literature

Foreign Literature

Local Study

Foreign Study

Chapter III: Research Methodology

Research Method

Description of the Respondents

Sample and Sampling Technique

Instrumentation

Research Locale

Sources of Data

Data Gathering Procedures

Statistical Treatment
Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

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Chapter V: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of Findings

Conclusions

Recommendations

References

Appendices

Master list of BSED Batch 2011-2015

Questionnaires

CHAPTER 1
The Problem and its Background

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Introduction

Winston Churchill said, “True genius resides in the capacity for evaluation of

uncertain, hazardous, and conflicting information.” Throughout the existence of mankind, it

has never conformed itself into settling as to where his current state is. Humanity has dealt

himself in a way to further develop himself into maximizing the human resources potential.

Therefore, in that instinctive sense among society, the most essential aspect of any

progressing organization is that it must adhere itself to have a culture of self-evaluation.

Through evaluation, it can assess its strengths and weaknesses particularly the value and

quality of the products and service they provide. The goal of every evaluative process is to

optimize the organization’s daily functions, policies, and programs through identifying what

needs to be changed in order to be more effective and ideal.

This study focused on the evaluative process of educational institutions specifically

universities and colleges. The most direct way of evaluating a performance of an educational

institution is to assess the current standing and performance of their graduates in their

undertakings. In order to effectively evaluate the current status and employment profile of

their graduates, these educational institutions conduct tracer studies.

A tracer study is a comprehensive, objective, and evaluative study that traces the

current employment status of their graduates and assesses their qualitative competencies

with the job at hand. According to Zembere & Chinyama [CITATION Zem \n \t \l 1033 ], a

tracer study’s goal is to successfully comply with the following outcomes: it should shed

light on the employment status of the graduate over a five year period after graduation,
analyze the relationship between the higher education and work, identify and take into

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account all possible factors that are essential for professional success of graduates, and

evaluate the experience of the graduates towards the provision and efficiency of the service

of the central aspects of the university towards the graduate’s holistic development.

The outcomes of a university’s tracer study will reflect the effectiveness and

relevance of the policies, curriculums, and strategies imposed by evaluating institutions.

Through identifying the current status of their graduates, they will not only be able to

evaluate the university’s performance but also identify possible deficits in a given

educational program, the results of which will serve as a basis for future planning of

activities at both the institutional and national levels, such that academic programs might be

brought more closely in line with the needs of the economy (Tertiary Education

Commission, 2008).

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines is seen as one of the dedicated

institutions that puts excellence and quality into extreme consideration and prioritization. In

connection with their vision which states they would “clear the paths while laying new

foundations to transform the Polytechnic University of the Philippines into an epistemic

community”, Mercado & Rivas [CITATION Mer08 \n \t \l 1033 ] wrote that graduate tracer

studies hope to contribute in general to the advancement and upgrading of PUP’s academic

vision of providing quality education consistent with social demands, specifically to the

burgeoning demands of the labor market.

The main objective of this study, therefore, is to assess the current performance of its

Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education graduates in terms of their current employment


status. In line with that assessment, there are a lot of factors that need to be weighed out;

9 this study.
hence,

Background of the study

Pertinent to the mission of Polytechnic University of the Philippines to “commit

academic resources and manpower in the achievement of the goals of the country’s

leadership”, it is very important the university stay relevant in meeting the work force needs

of the country. Therefore, graduate tracer studies are essential in maintaining such relevance.

The University’s efforts in staying relevant should conform to the demands of the labor

market needs. In an article written by the Philippine Star [CITATION The16 \n \t \l 1033 ],

researchers of the Philippine Social Science Council state that, “DECS officials and

curriculum development planners and specialists have not seriously taken into account

findings, showing weak linkages between education and employment.” Studies have

revealed no strong correspondence between educational attainments, employment levels and

wage rates. There remains a continuing mismatch between the country’s graduates and labor

market needs.

According to Connolly [CITATION Con13 \n \t \l 1033 ], one of the major indicators of an

economy’s health status is the unemployment rate. In a survey performed by the Institute for

Labor Studies [CITATION Dep15 \n \t \l 1033 ], the Philippine youth composes half of the

unemployment population numbers (50.4%) or 1.35 million people with ages ranging from

15 to 24 years old. In addition to that, an alarming rate of 35.8% of the total unemployed

population, about 900,000, are those who have reached or graduated from college. In
response to the situation, former National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)

10 Director-General Emmanuel Esguerra said, “There is a need to improve the


Deputy

employability of worker applicants, particularly those with secondary and tertiary

education.”

Theoretical Framework

In terms of explaining the rationale of choices and decisions made by the graduates,

the key player here would have to be motivation. There are two distinguishable types of

motivations. There are intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation is the

individual’s desire to perform a task for his own sake [ CITATION Ben03 \l 1033 ].

Extrinsic motivation, as Benabou & Tirole [CITATION Ben03 \n \t \l 1033 ] also wrote, is

having the intention of performing a task only when a receivable reward is presented.

Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction

between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices

[CITATION Rya00 \t \l 1033 ]. Ryan and Deci [CITATION Ric85 \n \t \l 1033 ] also wrote

that human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated,

largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function.

Another theory to further support the importance of motivation in this study is the

expectancy-value theory proposes that motivation and effort are the combined result of

people’s expectations of success and the value they attach to that success [ CITATION Via05

\l 1033 ]. Based from the ideas of Atkinson [CITATION Joh57 \n \t \l 1033 ], the

expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation exerts its effort to explain the people’s

choice of achievement tasks, persistence on those tasks, vigor in carrying them out, and
performance on them. He also argued that an individual’s choice, persistence, and

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performance can be explained by their beliefs about how well they will do on the activity

and the extent to which they value the activity.

To further elaborate, in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Maslow [CITATION Mas43 \n \t \l

1033 ] believed that individuals possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards or

unconscious desires. He further detailed that people are motivated to achieve certain needs,

and that some needs take precedence over others. The earliest and most widespread version

of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often

depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. This five stage model can be divided into

basic needs (e.g. physiological, safety) and growth needs (e.g. love, and esteem) which

relate to fulfilling human potential (self-actualization). The basic needs are said to motivate

people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the

longer the duration they are denied. Therefore, one must satisfy lower level deficit needs

before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. When a deficit need has been

satisfied it will go away. However growth needs continue to be felt and may even become

stronger once they have been engaged. Once these growths needs have been reasonably

satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization. Every person is

capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization.

Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs. This is very

important concept to understand because this makes us understand the behavior of human

motivation and how choices are made through personal needs and satisfaction. A major

choice that people make what career, vocation, or profession should they take is definitely

under the influence of the factors mentioned in Maslow’s theory.


Lastly, in order to connect the essential concepts of motivation to career decisions is

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Holland’s theory of career choice. Holland [CITATION Hol97 \n \t \l 1033 ] wrote that in

the society, most people are one of the six personality types namely: Realistic, Investigative,

Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional.


Conceptual Framework

13 INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


General Profile Distribution of The Current
Sex
Online Employment
Civil Status Status of BSED
Educational Attainment Questionnaire Students of PUP
Licensure Examination for (Google Forms) Taguig Branch
Teachers (LET) passed
Further studies of a Master's Facebook Batch
degree after college Messaging 2011 - 2015
Post-College Training Program(s)
Statistical
Reasons in taking the course Treatment of Data Enhanced BSED
and pursuing advanced studies Curriculum
Interpretation and
Field Study in
Employment Profile Analysis First Year 2nd
Current Employment Status Semester
Reason(s) for unemployment
Whether their current job is their
first job after college Intervention
Means of finding their first job Program for
after college Career
Length of pursuit before landing Development
on their first job
Initial grossed monthly earning in Career
their first job after college Development
Length of stay in their first job Seminar
after college
Reasons for staying on their first Financial
job after college Literacy
Reasons for changing their first Self-Branding
job after college
Present occupation's classification
Current occupation's nature of
business
Current occupation's job level
Relevance of curriculum to their
first job after college

Competencies learned in college


found useful in first job after
college

Implication of findings of the


study in curriculum
development
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework: A Tracer's Study of the BSED Graduates of PUP

14 Batch 2011-2015. The INPUT consists of the general profile, educational


Taguig

background profile, post-college programs and the employment data of the respondents. The

PROCESS consists of the data gathering tool to distribute the online Google Forms

questionnaire by Facebook Messaging. After the distribution is the statistical treatment of

data and the interpretation and analysis of the collected data. Finally for the OUTPUT is the

current employment status of the Bachelor of Secondary Education Graduates of the

Polytechnic University of the Philippines Taguig Branch Batch 2011 to 2015,

Statement of the Problem

In this study, the researchers determined the current employment status of the

Bachelor of Secondary Education graduates of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Taguig Branch of Batch 2011- 2015. Specifically, it answered the following questions:

1. What is the general profile of the respondents in terms of the following:


a. Sex
b. Civil Status
c. Educational attainment
d. Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) passed
e. Further studies of a Master’s degree after college
f. Post-College professional training program(s)
2. What are the reasons of the respondents in taking the course and in pursuing

advanced studies?
3. What is the employment profile of the respondents in terms of the following:
15 a. Current employment status
b. Reason(s) for unemployment (if unemployed)
c. Whether their current job is their first job after college
d. Means of finding their first job after college
e. Length of pursuit before landing on their first job
f. Initial grossed monthly earning in their first job after college
g. Length of stay in their first job after college (if current employment is not

their first job after college)


h. Reasons for staying on their first job after college (if current employment is

their first job after college)


i. Reasons for changing their first job after college (if current employment is not

their first job after college)


j. Present occupation’s classification
k. Current occupation’s nature of business
l. Current occupation’s job level
m. Relevance of curriculum to their first job after college
4. What competencies learned in college did the respondents find useful in their first

job?
5. What is the implication of the findings of the study in enhancing the curriculum of the

Bachelor of Secondary Education?

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of this study consists of determining the general profile, educational

background profile, and employment profile of the BSED Graduates of PUP Taguig Batch

2011-2015. The researchers limited the study in regards to the participant’s compliance to the

researchers. Specifically, the response rate of this study is 93.16% with 109 respondents out

of 273 total of population.

Significance of the Study


The researchers provided information of the employment status of the Bachelor in

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Secondary Education Graduates of PUP Taguig Batch 2011-2015. The study is believed to be

significant to the following persons, group of persons and sectors:

To the graduating batch, specifically those who are deciding their next career moves after

receiving their bachelor degree, this study will help them in analyzing the previous trends of

their alumni regarding their career decisions which will serve as a guide to them when

deciding for themselves.

To the parents, not only those with children enrolled in the University but also those who

are thinking about enrolling their child in PUP Taguig, this study will serve not only as a

reliable report of the employability status of the graduates of PUP Taguig but also as a source

of information in determining the influencing factors in career decisions. Information

received from the study will help them come up with parental advices for their child.

To the faculty, specifically the education professors who are one of the key influencing

persons to the students, this study will help them trace whether or not the university

graduates indeed pursued a career in Education or strayed off in different career paths. This

will help them in redesigning their teaching approaches with the objective in mind that the

students will be more inclined to the course that they have taken.

To the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Taguig, specifically to those who have the

authority to implement changes in the school policies and curriculum, this study will be a

significant source of information in determining the employability of their graduates. Also,


this study may be a reliable source of consultative information in regards to formulating

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policies, creating projects, and making changes in the curriculum.

And to the future researchers, this study will help them serve as a reference for future

studies. This may be used as basis for conducting an annual tracer studies not only for

Education graduates but also for other courses with the interest.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the study, the researchers will give several terms that will

be defined operationally.

Database. It refers to the data of the graduates categorized into the following: Family Name,

Given Name, Middle Name, Gender, Permanent Address, Present Employment Status,

Contact Numbers, Name of Company, and other valuable information.

General Profile. In this study, it refers to the graduate’s personal profile in terms of sex, civil

status, highest educational attainment, LET passed, post-college training program(s) taken,

and information on pursuit of further studies (such as a master’s degree).

Employed. One who presently works at a job including the part time workers. The

respondents who found a job related to their course or have a job.

Employment Profile. It considers personal qualities as important as academic background,

professional skills and previous employment experiences. In this study, it refers to the

information of the graduates to know whether they are presently employed or for the

researchers to know their current employment status.


Employment Status. It refers to the work upon which a person is engaged in, or occupation

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trade chosen by the graduates. In the study, it refers to whether the respondents are

employed, underemployed or unemployed.

Job. This is a work of a definite extent of a character, especially one done in the course of

one’s profession or occupation. In the study, a job refers to the work that the BSED Batch

2011-2015 graduates will have after having graduated in the university.

Motivation. This refers to the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular

way. This can also be defined as the general desire or willingness of someone to do

something.

Skills gained. It refers to the learning, ability or proficiencies of a graduate achieved in

college that can be a tool for them to be employed in their respective target working place.

Tracer Study. It refers to the study that traces graduates of higher education institutes.

Graduate Surveys, Alumni Researches, Graduate career tracking or follow-up Study are

other terms for it.


Chapter 2

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Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Literature

ILO Thesaurus (2005) defines a tracer study as an impact assessment tool where the

“impact on the target groups is traced back to specific elements of a project or program so

that effective and ineffective project components may be identified.” In educational research

the tracer study is sometimes referred to as a graduate or alumni survey since its target group

is former students. They provide quantitative- structural data on employment and career, the

character of work and related competencies, and information on the professional orientation

and experiences of their graduates. Biographical data on “Where are our graduates now?”

may supply information on income, job title, nature of employment, and years of

employment.

Mass Education has been directed, managed and controlled through politically

mandated policies and procedures for over a century [ CITATION Cra10 \l 1033 ]. These

mandates relate to such things as the nature and extent of professional preparation teachers

undertake, the age of compulsory schooling for children, student-teacher ratios in schools,

and the scope and sequence of year-level-based curricula. Not surprisingly, these broad

educational policies have a direct impact on early career teachers. For example, recruitment

and deployment policies and processes determine where graduate teachers are employed

(metropolitan, rural, remote and/or low SES schools), and under what terms and conditions
they are employed (relief, short-term contract, long-term contract, permanent employment).

20 in an Australian setting, Johnson, et al. [CITATION Joh14 \n \t \l 1033 ] wrote that


Written

the graduate teachers they were able to interview ranked uncertainties over continued

employment opportunities as one of the main stresses they face. They were clear that more

respectful, transparent, fairer, and responsive employment processes were needed to improve

the way they were treated in their early careers. In their study, some teachers welcomed

reforms in the area by applauding new policies and practices that clearly support early career

teachers through internships, induction programs and mentor schemes. They also mentioned

early career teachers with their descriptions of how they felt overwhelmed by teaching,

particularly its emotional demands and relational dimensions. Teachers' work today is

arguably more complex, challenging and difficult than at any other time. There are a plethora

of policies, guidelines and directives that contribute to the complexity of teachers' work. In

recent times, education systems have attempted to respond to the unique difficulties and

needs of early career teachers by putting in place professional learning opportunities and

support systems to assist them. However, such responses have often focused on the

individual early career teacher and ignored the broader structures, cultures and practices.

Public school educators are required to have completed an approved teacher training

program that has a certain number of subject and education credits and have a certificate,

diploma or bachelor’s degree depending on the level of the institution [ CITATION Mag12 \l

1033 ]. Qualifications such as technology training and a certain grade point average are

requirements in some subjects. The most common type of certification is the early Childhood

Development (ECD) credential. To receive this credential, applicants must have a


combination of classroom training, experience working with children, and pass a general

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competency test. Teachers must have many other skills in addition to knowledge in their

subject to be successful teachers. They must have good report with their students and be able

to foster trust and confidence in them. The ability to communicate and understand their

students’ emotional and academic needs is critical. Teachers should have the flexibility to

apply different teaching strategies to cater to individual need and cultural differences to help

students achieve high standards. They need to be resourceful, tolerant, trustworthy, and

organized. Teachers need to work well with all people, not just their students but parents,

other faculty members, and people in the community as well. Teachers may be curriculum

consultants, school librarians, reading specialist, or guidance counselor with a little extra

training. Although there may be many applicants for few positions, teachers may advance to

become administrators or supervisors. Teachers with a lot of experience can become senior or

mentor teachers in some systems, earning higher salaries for the added duties. In addition to

their own teaching responsibilities they act as a mentor to guide and assist new or less

experienced teachers.

Local Literature

The Republic Act No. 7863, named as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act

1994, identifies the vital role of teachers in nation-building and development through having

a responsible and literate citizenry. Through this act, the State shall ensure and promote

quality education by proper supervision and regulation of the licensure examination and the

professionalization of the practice of the teaching profession. Under the said law, the Board

of Professional Teachers is also formed. The board is a collegial body under the general
supervision and administrative control of the Professional Regulation Commission. Because

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this, the Licensure Examination for Teachers is mandated by the act. The code of ethics of

a professional teacher is also promulgated under the Resolution No. 434 in response with the

professionalization of teachers. The code contains all needed knowledge on how a

professional teacher thinks, speak and act. In 2004, Former President Gloria Macapagal

Arroyo signed RA 9293 which amend certain sections of RA 7836. Summarized as follows

are the certain amendments on the said act:

1. Qualifications of requirement of an applicant where non-education graduates

shall have 18 units of Professional Education courses before taking up the

examination. (Sec. 1, Sec. 15,e,13);

2. Registration and exception where only professional teachers are allowed to

teach or given permanent teaching position in DepEd (SEC. 2, Sec. 2);

3. Professionals who have not practiced teaching shall have a 12 unit refresher

course;

4. Hiring Para-teachers (with rating not lower than 5% of the passing rate) with 2

years permit in ARMM (sec. 2, Sec. 26); and,

5. Transitory provisions with regards to issuing permits to para-teachers (Sec. 3,

Sec. 31).
CHED Memorandum Order No. 11 of 2009 further refined and update the content of

237836, where they required non-education graduates not only 18 units of Professional
RA

Education course but also an additional 12 units of Experiential Learning Courses (6 units of

Field Study Courses and units of Practice Teaching.)

Foreign Studies

The tracer study of Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) graduates has been one of the

important research activities in AIT. The first tracer study was done in 1971. The periodic

tracing of AIT alumni focuses on updating the alumni directory and gathering certain

information required for the improvement of AIT curriculum, teaching, research, extension,

and networking. Regmi [CITATION Tra09 \n \t \l 1033 ] wrote that alumni tracer studies are

the most important vehicle to build strong bonds between the Alma Mater and the ever-

increasing graduates. This is feasible through two perspectives. From one perspective, the

alumni are the rich source of feedback for improvements in the course curriculum, teaching,

research, extension, and networking. On the other, the tracer study helps to measure the

extent of professional and academic careers pursued by the graduates after gaining

knowledge and skill through academic institutions like AIT. Its objective include finding out

the effectiveness and relevance of AIT degree as a resource and credential for

employment/job placement upon graduation from AIT (employment opportunities for

graduates – for both men and women.), finding out the relevance of AIT courses/curricula

and research to the current job function and professional development in respective fields,

and furthering academic/scientific pursuits, finding out the professional status and ranks of
the AIT graduates in their respective employments, assessing the level of networking among

24 graduates and recommendations to strengthen the existing network among them,


AIT

assessing the gender awareness of AIT graduates in their respective professions, assessing the

contribution of AIT graduates in the development of their home countries and of the region;

including contribution to poverty alleviation and to fulfill AIT’s mission.

Shongwe and Ocholla [CITATION Sho09 \n \t \l 1033 ] defined a tracer study as a

graduate or alumni survey that attempts to trace the activities of the graduates or previous

students of an educational institution. Tracer studies enable the contextualization of graduates

of a particular university through a system that is dynamic and reliable in order to determine

their life path or movement. It also enables the evaluation of the results of the education and

training provided by a particular institution and examines and evaluates the current and

future career and employment opportunities/ prospects of graduates. Graduates’ job titles,

years of employment, nature of employment, income levels, and biographical data can be

revealed through tracer studies. The absence of such information denies valuable feedback

from graduates and their employers and makes it difficult to re-structure the curriculum for

current students in order for them to acquire the knowledge and skills required in the “real

world”.

Local Studies

In the current trend of education, many universities are using the employment of their

graduates to evaluate how their program performs in making their students productive in the

labor market [ CITATION The \l 1033 ]. There was a study on the Employment Status of AB-
Journalism graduates of Bicol University College of Arts and Letters (BUCAL) from the

25 2010-2012. It gave insights to AB Journalism students of Bicol University on what


batches

job they would get or on what companies or agencies they can apply in after they graduate.

This also served as a tracking tool to trace their status. This study tracked down the jobs of

the graduates in conjunction with the factors indicated in the statement of the problem such

as, the demographic and employment profile of the graduates, which verifies their status of

employment. Writing skill is the most preferred ability according to the 67 respondents. 39

of them use this skill in their professions and considered it as the most relevant. In another

tracer study by Cardona & Andres Jr. [CITATION The \n \t \l 1033 ], the employment status

and the retrospective evaluation of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) mathematics

graduates of PNU-North Luzon was determined. Results revealed that almost all of the

respondents are presently employed, had taken the Licensure Examination for Teachers

(LET) and passed in their first attempt, acquired a job within six months after graduation, and

are practicing their profession by teaching in all education levels across almost all subject

areas. The graduates also claimed that the competency skills provided by the University were

useful to a certain extent on their current work. They were also satisfied on the facilities,

learning environment and services offered. In another tracer study, Cañizares (2015)

attempted to trace the Science and Mathematics Education (SME) graduates of the University

of San Carlos, College of Education from AY 2009-2010 to AY 2011-2012 in order to

determine the relevance of its curricular programs in meeting the needed manpower and the

impending full implementation of the K-12 program. A total of 65 SME graduates were

identified within the specified period of time. Of these, 43 served as survey respondents with

a response rate of 66.2%. Data showed that the great majority of the respondents took and
passed the Licensure Exam for Teachers (LET) in their first take, with two topnotch

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examinees and were mostly employed as full-time permanent teachers. Their retrospective

evaluation of the curriculum indicated that its best aspect was the sequencing of the subjects.

Graduates’ perceived levels of professional efficacy showed that majority of the top rated

character traits essential in their work has something to do with working with others. This

study concluded that tracing the SME graduates revealed the institutional capability of the

Science and Mathematics Education Department (SMED) and the relevance of its curricular

programs.

Cardona & Andres Jr. [CITATION The \n \t \l 1033 ] emphasized that every Education

Institution holds a duty to commit to the challenge of formulating teacher education

programs that effectively produces qualified teachers. They added, in connection to the

aforementioned objective, that they should, in effect, equip students the necessary tools for

landing a decent employment after graduation. It is through quality education and proper

training that one may get a respectable job after graduation [ CITATION Boh12 \l 1033 ].

Cañizares [CITATION Cañ15 \n \t \l 1033 ] wrote that the launching of the K to 12 Basic

Education Program (RA 10533) is a major initiative of the government to overhaul the

educational landscape of the Philippines. This change is intended to expand and enhance the

basic education curriculum to improve its delivery and quality to meet international

standards. Moreover, competent teacher professionals are needed in schools to promote

positive student outcomes. Thus, the K to 12 educational reforms in basic education has

important policy and practical implications to higher education, particularly among teacher

education institutions (TEIs) in the pre-service and in-service training of teachers.


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Chapter 3

Research Methodology

In this chapter, the methods, procedures and instrument used in conducting this tracer

study of the employment status of PUP Taguig graduates batch 2011-2015 are presented.

Research Method

The study used the descriptive method of research in covering the employment

characteristics and the transition of the BSED Graduates of PUP-Taguig from graduation to

employment. The descriptive method is used when the research involves description,

recordings, analysis and interpretation of conditions that exist.

Description of Respondents

The primary sources of data are the 109 BSED graduates of Polytechnic University of

the Philippines – Taguig City Branch, from batch 2011 up to 2015. Their general profile,

educational attainment and employment status are primarily considered in the set of

questionnaires provided.

Year Graduated Frequency Percentage


2011 20 18.35%
2012 13 11.92%
28 2013 9 8.26%
2014 28 25.69%
2015 39 35.78%
TOTAL 109 100%

Table. shows the breakdown of the respondents per year level. Batch 2015 has 39

respondents, batch 2014 has 28 respondents, batch 2013, nine (9) respondents, batch 2012,

13 respondents, and batch 2011 has 20 respondents.

Sampling Procedure

The researchers have 273 BSED graduates as the total population count. Out of 273

graduates, there are 109 sample respondents that were chosen through the use of purposive

sampling. Purposive sampling is the method wherein respondents are chosen based on the

convenience of the researchers.

The researchers chose complete enumeration as the study’s sampling procedure

because it is the most cost-efficient and time-effective sampling method available and

appropriate for the study.

Instrumentation

The researchers used a survey questionnaire to gather the necessary data for this

study. The questionnaire used is from the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The

questionnaire is composed of four main parts: the general profile of the respondents, their
educational background, the post-college programs they received, and their employment

29
data.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers used social networking sites, specifically Facebook, in order to reach

out to the target respondents. The researchers also used electronic mail in distributing

questionnaires. After the survey, the researchers were able to interpret and analyze the

gathered data from the BSED graduates batch 2011-2015.

Sources of Data

As an initial part of preparation, the researchers first gathered relevant information from

the university library from which the researchers are able to cite some examples of tracer

studies, helping them to have a clear vision on what to expect in the said study. The

researchers also read about successful tracer studies from other universities published on the

Internet. This also helped them to orient themselves on the standard procedure. Upon

deciding that the Bachelor of Secondary Education Graduates from Batch 2011-2015 will be

the target population for the tracer study, the researchers then requested a detailed master list

of the said group. The BSED graduates, being the primary source of the data, received

questionnaires and answered them online from the researchers. In addition, the other sources

of information that the researchers used are books, unpublished materials and any other

reading sources that contain information related to the study. The researchers also made use

of the Internet as a source of information.

Research Locale
The study was conducted at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Taguig

30 Branch with their respective BSED alumni as the respondents.


City

Statistical Treatment

This study used percentile and frequency distribution method to analyze and interpret

the data.

Percentage

This was employed to determine the frequency counts and percentage distribution of

personal related variables of the respondents.

The Percentage Formula: = ( NF ) ×100


Wherein:

=the percentage

F=the frequency

N=Total number o f respondents

100=constant value

Chapter 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

31

This chapter includes the tables that were used to determine the employment status of

PUP-T Graduates Batch 2011-2015. This chapter also includes the presentation, analysis and

interpretation of data that are needed in each table.

Table 1.a Frequency distribution of the respondents’ gender/sex

SEX FREQUENCY (N=109) PERCENTAGE

Male 27 24.77%

Female 82 75.23%
TOTAL 109 100.00%

Table 1.a shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ gender. It illustrates

that there are more female respondents which are 82 or 75.23% than male which are 27 or

24.77%.

Table 1.b Frequency distribution of the respondents’ civil status


CIVIL STATUS FREQUENCY (N=109) PERCENTAGE
32 Single 101 92.66%

Married 6 5.50%

Single Parent 2 1.83%

TOTAL 109 100.00%

Table 1.b shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ civil status. Out of the

109 respondents, 101 or 92.66% of them are single while are six (6) or 5.50% of them are

married while two (2) or 1.83% of them are single parents.

Table 1.c Frequency distribution of the respondents’ educational attainment

EDUCATIONAL

ATTAINMENT FREQUENCY (N=109) PERCENTAGE


BSED English 87 79.82%
BSED Math 7 6.42%
BSED Social Studies 15 13.76%
TOTAL 109 100.00%

Figure 1.c Frequency Distribution of the Respondents’ Educational Attainment


Educational Attainment
33

13.76%

6.42% BSED English


BSED Math
BSED Social Studies

79.82%

Table 1.c and Figure 1.c show the frequency distribution of the respondents’

educational attainment. It shows that the BSED English has 87 or 79.82% respondents,

BSED Math has a 7 or 6.42% respondents and BSED-SS has 15 or 13.76% respondents.

Table 1.d.1 Frequency distribution of the respondents who had taken the Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)

HAD TAKEN THE LET FREQUENCY

EXAM (n=109) PERCENTAGE


Yes 103 94.50%
No 6 5.50%
TOTAL 109 100.00%

Figure 1.d.1 Frequency distribution of the respondents who have taken the Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)


Licensure Examination for Teachers
34
5.50%

Had taken the LET


Did not take the LET

94.50%

Table 1.d.1 and Figure 1.d.1 show the frequency distribution of the respondents who

have taken the LET. Six (6) or 5.50% of the 109 respondents have not yet taken the LET

while 103 or 94.50% of the total respondents have taken the LET.

Table 1.d.2 Frequency distribution of the respondents who have passed the Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)


HAVE TAKEN THE LET FREQUENCY

35 EXAM (n=103) PERCENTAGE


Yes 102 99.03%
No 1 0.97%
TOTAL 109 100.00%
Table 1.d.2 displays the frequency distribution of the respondents who have passed

the LET. 102 or 99.03% of the 103 takers passed the examination while only one (1) or

0.97% of the 103 takers failed.

Table 1.e Frequency distribution of the respondents’ pursuit for further studies of a

master’s degree

FREQUENCY

MASTER’S DEGREE (N=109) PERCENTAGE


With Master’s Degree 11 10.09%
Without Master’s Degree 98 89.91%
TOTAL 109 100%

Table 1.e shows the frequency distribution of the respondents who pursued a master’s

degree. From the 109 total respondents, 11 or 10.09% of them pursued a master’s degree

while on the other hand, 98 or 89.91% did not pursue the degree.

Table 1.f Frequency distribution of the respondents’ post-college professional training

program(s) received

TRAINING(S) RECEIVED FREQUENCY (N=109) PERCENTAGE


Yes 6 5.50%
No 103 94.50%
TOTAL 109 100.00%
36 Table 1.f shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ post-college

professional training program(s) received. From the 109 total respondents, only six (6) or

5.50% of the total respondents received post-college professional training program(s) while

103 or 94.50% of the total respondents did not receive anything.

Table 2.a Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons for pursuing training(s)

FREQUENCY

REASONS (N=6) PERCENTAGE


For promotion 1 16.67%
For professional development 6 100.00%

Table 2.a illustrates the frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons for

pursuing training(s). From the six (6) respondents who pursued post-college training

program(s) who were given the chance to select more than one answer, all six (6) of them

went to the training program(s) because of professional development. Only 1 or 12.5% of the

respondents had reasons of promotional purposes.

Table 2.b Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) for taking the course(s)

FREQUENCY
REASONS (n=109)
PERCENTAGE RANK
Availability of Course offering in chosen
60 55.05% 1
Institution
37
Affordable for the family 41 37.61% 2

Influence of parents or relatives 40 36.70% 3

Inspired by a role model 40 36.70% 3

Strong passion for the profession 33 30.28% 5


High grades in the course or subject areas(s) related
to the course 30 27.52% 6

Prospect for Immediate Employment 22 20.18% 7

Good grades in High School 21 19.27% 8

No particular choice or no better idea 16 14.68% 9

Status or prestige of the Profession 15 13.76% 10

Prospect of Career Advancement 14 12.84% 11

Peer Influence 11 10.09% 12

Opportunity for Employment Abroad 9 8.26% 13

Prospect of Attractive Compensation 3 2.75% 14

Others (No slot available) 2 1.83% 15

Figure 2.b Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) for taking the course(s)
Reason(s) for taking Course
38
Others 2 Reason(s) for taking Course
Prospect of Attractive Compensation 3
Opportunity for Employment Abroad 9
Peer Influence 11
Prospect of Career Advancement 14
Status or prestige of the Profession 15
No particular choice or no better idea 16
Good grades in High School 21
Prospect for Immediate Employment 22
High grades in the course or subject areas(s) related to the course 30
Strong Passion for the Profession 33
Inspired by a Role Model 40
Influence of Parents or Relatives 40
Affordable for the Family 41
Availability of Course Offering in chosen Institution 60

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Table 2.b and Figure 2.b show the frequency distribution of the respondents’

reason(s) for taking the course(s). From the 109 responses of all the respondents who were

given the chance to choose more than one reason, availability of course offering in the

chosen institution ranked first as one of the reasons why they pursued the course, with 60

responses from 55.05% of the total respondents. Affordability for the family ranks second

with 41 responses from 37.61% of the total respondents, and role models as an inspiration

together with influence of parents and relatives tied as the third most chosen reason, both

having 40 responses from 36.70% of the total respondents.


Table 2.c Frequency Distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) for pursuing their

39 master’s degree

PERCENTAG
REASONS FREQUENCY RANK
E (n=11)
Strong Passion for the Profession 8 72.73 1
Prospect for Immediate Employment 5 45.45 2
High grades in the course or subject
2 18.18 3
areas(s) related to the course
Inspired by a Role Model 2 18.18 3
Availability of Course Offering in
2 18.18 3
chosen Institution
No particular choice or no better idea 2 18.18 3
Good grades in High School 1 9.09 8
Influence of Parents or Relatives 1 9.09 8
Peer Influence 1 9.09 8
Status or prestige of the Profession 1 9.09 8
Affordable for the Family 1 9.09 8
Prospect of Attractive Compensation 1 9.09 8
Opportunity for Employment Abroad 1 9.09 8

Figure 2.c. Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons for taking their master’s

degree
Reason(s) for Taking Master's Degree
40
Opportunity for Employment Abroad 1
Prospect of Attractive Compensation 1
Affordable for the Family 1
Status or prestige of the Profession 1
Peer Influence 1
Influence of Parents or Relatives 1
Good grades in High School 1
No particular choice or no better idea 2
Availability of Course Offering in chosen Institution 2
Inspired by a Role Model 2
High grades in the course or subject areas(s) related to the course 2
Prospect of Career Advancement 5
Strong Passion for the Profession 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Table 2.c and Figure 2.c show the frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons

for taking the master’s degree. Based from the 11 respondents who pursued a master’s

degree, given the chance to select more than one answer, strong passion for the profession

ranked first, having eight (8) responses or 72.73% of the respondents. This is followed by

prospect for career advancement, having five (5) responses or 45.45% of the respondents.

Table 3.a Frequency distribution of the respondents’ current employment status


EMPLOYMENT STATUS FREQUENCY (N=109) PERCENTAGE
Employed 104 95.41%
41
Unemployed 5 4.59%
TOTAL 109 100.00%

Table 3.a shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ current employment

status. From the 109 total respondents, 104 or 95.41% of the respondents are presently

employed, while only five (5) or 4.59% of them are not presently employed.

Table 3.b Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) why they are currently

not employed

Frequency
Reason (n=5) Percentage
Advance or further study 1 20.00%
Family concern and decided not to find a
job 2 40.00%
Health-related reason(s) 1 20.00%
Lack of work experience 1 20.00%
Waiting of the RQA in the division office 1 20.00%

Table 3.b illustrates the frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) why they

are not employed. From the five (5) respondents who are currently unemployed and were

given the chance to select more than one (1) reason, two (2) responses corresponded to

family concern. Meanwhile, one (1) response corresponded to each of the following reasons:

advance or further study, health-related reasons, lack of work experience, and awaiting the

RQA in the Division Office.


Table 3.c Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding whether their current

42 job is their first job after college

FIRST JOB AFTER COLLEGE FREQUENCY (N=104) PERCENTAGE


Yes 37 35.58%
No 67 64.42%
TOTAL 104 100.00%

Table 3.c shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ response on whether

their current job is their first job after college. Out of the 104 employed respondents, 67 or

64.42% of them are not in their first job anymore. Meanwhile, 37 or 35.58% of the employed

respondents answered that their current jobs are still their first jobs after graduating from

college.

Table 3.d Frequency distribution of the respondents’ means of finding their first job

FREQUENCY PERCENTA

MEANS (N=104) GE
Response to an advertisement 4 3.85%
As a walk-in applicant 49 47.12%
Recommended by someone 30 28.85%
Information from friends 22 21.15%
Others 2 1.92%
TOTAL 104 100.00%

Figure 3.d Frequency distribution of the respondents’ means of finding their first job
Means of finding their first job
43
Others 2

Response to an advertisement 4

information from friends 22

recommended by someone 30

as a walk-in applicant 49

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Table 3.d and Figure 3.d show the frequency distribution of the respondents’ means

of finding their first job. From the 104 employed respondents, 49 or 72.12% of them said that

they found their first jobs as walk-in applicants. 30 or 28.85% of the employed respondents

got their first jobs from someone’s recommendation. 22 or 21.15% of them got their jobs

from information from their friends. 2 or 1.92% of the employed respondents had other

reasons besides those already mentioned.

Table 3.e Frequency distribution of the respondents’ length of pursuit before landing on

their first jobs


Period Frequency (n=104) Percentage
Less than a month 57 54.81%
144
- 6 months 23 22.12%
7 - 11 months 11 10.58%
1 year – less than 2 years 8 7.69%
2 years – less than 3 years 5 4.81%

Figure 3.e Frequency distribution of the respondents’ length of pursuit before landing

on their first jobs

Length of pursuit before landing on first job


57
60
50
40 23
30 11
20 8 5
10 How long did it take you to land
0
your first job?

Table 3.e and Figure 3.e show the frequency distribution of the respondents’ length of

pursuit before landing on their first jobs. Out of the 104 respondents who are currently

employed, 57 or 54.81% of the respondents landed on their jobs in less than a month. For 23

or 22.12% of the respondents, it took between 1 to 6 months to land on their jobs. 11 or

10.58% of the respondents landed on their jobs between 7 to 11 months. Eight (8) or 7.69%

of the respondents spent a year to less than two years before they landed on their jobs. Five

(5) or 4.81% of the respondents spent between 2 years to less than 3 three months before

landing on the job.


Table 3.f Frequency distribution of the respondents’ initial monthly gross earnings in

45 their first jobs after college

Gross Frequency (n=104) Percentage


P5,000.00 – less than

P10,000.00 38 36.54%
P10,000.00 – less than

P15,000.00 47 45.19%
P15,000.00 – less than

P20,000.00 16 15.38%
P20,000.00 – less than

P25,000.00 2 1.92%
Not specified 1 0.96%

Figure 3.f Frequency Distribution of the respondents’ initial monthly gross earnings in

their first jobs after college


Initial Monthly Gross After College
46 50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Table 3.f and Figure 3.f show the frequency distribution of the respondents’ initial

monthly gross of their first jobs after college. Out of the 104 respondents who are/have been

employed, 47 or 45.19% of them earn/earned an amount between P10,000.00 to less than

P15,000.00. Meanwhile, 38 or 36.54% of them grossed between P5,000.00 to less than

P10,000.00. On the other hand,16 or 15.38% of them earn/earned an amount between

P15,000.00 to less than P20,000.00. Only 2 or 1.92% of them earn/earned an amount

between P20,000.00 to less than P25,000.00. However, 1 or 1.96% of them did not specify

their initial monthly gross earnings.

Table 3.g Frequency distribution of the respondents’ length of stay in their first job

after college

LENGTH OF STAY FREQUENCY (n=67) PERCENTAGE


1 - 6 months 13 19.40%
7 - 11 months 18 26.87%
1 year – less than 2 years 21 31.34%
2 years – less than 3 years 7 10.45%
3 years – less than 4 years 5 7.46%
Others 1 1.49%
TOTAL 67 100%
47
Figure 3.g Frequency distribution of the respondents’ length of stay in their first job

after college

How long did you stay on your first job?


25
20
15
10
5
0

Table 3.g and Figure 3.g shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ length

of stay in their first jobs after college. Out of the 67 respondents whose current employment

is not their first job after college, 21 or 31.34% of the 67 respondents stayed for 2 years to

less than 3 years. 18 or 26.87% of the respondents stayed from between 7 months to 11

months. 13 or 19.40% of the respondents stayed for 1 to 6 months. Seven (7) or 10.45% of

the respondents stayed from between 2 years to less than 3 years. Five (5) or 7.46% of the

respondents stayed from between 3 years to less than 4 years. One (1) respondent had a

different response than the choices provided.

Table 3.h Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) for staying on their first

job

REASONS FREQUENCY (N=37) PERCENTAGE


Salaries and Benefits 29 78.38%
Career challenge 20 54.05%
Related to Special Skills 15 40.54%
Proximity to residence 15 40.54%
Others
48 4 10.81%

Table 3.h shows the frequency distribution of the respondents’ reason(s) for staying

on their first job. Given the 37 respondents who are currently employed at their first job after

college the chance to give more than one response, 29 or 78.38% of the 37 respondents

responded with salaries and benefits as their reason for staying on their first job. 20 or

54.05% of the 37 respondents had career challenge as their reason. 15 responses, which are

from 40.54% of the 37 respondents, correspond to being related to special skills and their

jobs being in close proximity to their residence. Four (4) respondents, or 10.81% of the 37

respondents, had other responses.

Table 3.i Frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons for changing their first job

Reasons Frequency (n=67) Percentage


Salaries and Benefits 59 88.06%
Career challenge 43 64.18%
Related to special skills 29 43.28%
Proximity to residence 30 44.78%
Others 2 2.98%

Table 3.i shows frequency distribution of the respondents’ reasons for changing their

first job. The respondents were allowed to choose more than one reason. From the 67

respondents who are currently employed and not in their first jobs after college, 59 or
88.06% of the 67 respondents answered salaries and benefits as their reason for changing

49 43 or 64.18% of the 67 respondents had career challenge as their reason. 29 or 43.28%


jobs.

of the 67 respondents had reasons related to special skills. 30 or 44.78% of the respondents

cited their jobs’ close proximity to their residences as their reason. Two (2) respondents, or

2.98% of the 67 respondents, had other reasons for changing jobs.

Table 3.j Frequency distribution of the respondents’ present occupation’s classification

Frequency
Occupation Percentage
(n=104)
Professionals 97 93.27%

Special Occupation 3 2.88%

Clerks 2 1.92%

Technicians and Associate Professionals 1 0.96%

Trade and Related Workers 1 0.96%

TOTAL 104 100%

The Table 3.j illustrates the frequency distribution of the respondents’ present

occupation using the Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC) of 1992. Out

of the 104 employed respondents, 97 or 93.27% of them are Professionals. Three (3) or

2.88% of the employed respondents classified their current occupation as Special


Occupation. Two (2) or 1.92% of the respondents are Clerks, while both Technicians and

50
Associate Professionals and Trade and Related Workers each had one (1) response in

classifying their current occupation.

Table 3.k Frequency distribution of the respondents’ current occupation’s nature of

business

FREQUENCY
NATURE OF BUSINESS PERCENTAGE
(N=104)
Education 59 56.73%

Transport Storage and Communication 19 18.27%


Other Community, Social, and Personal
11 10.58%
Service Activities
Real Estate, Renting, and Business
4 3.85%
Activities
Manufacturing 2 1.92%
Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of

motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal 2 1.92%

household goods
Extra-territorial Organizations and Bodies 2 1.92%

Hotels and Restaurants 1 0.96%


Public Administration and Defense;
1 0.96%
Compulsory Social Security
Health and Social Work 1 0.96%
51
Construction 1 0.96%

Private Households with Employed Persons 1 0.96%

TOTAL 104 100.00%


The Table 3.k illustrates the frequency distribution of the respondents’ current

employment’s nature of business. Out of the 104 employed respondents, ranking first is 59 or

56.73% of the respondents with Education as their employment’s nature of business.

Transport Storage and Communication business ranks in at second, with 9 or 18.27% of the

employed respondents working in said industry. Meanwhile, Other Community, Social, and

Personal Service Activities ranks third, with 11 responses from 10.58% of the total

respondents.

Table 3.l Frequency distribution of the respondents’ current or present job’s job level

JOB LEVEL FREQUENCY (n=104) PERCENTAGE


Rank or Clerical 38 36.54%
Professional, Technical, or

Supervisory 55 52.88%
Managerial or Executive 8 7.69%
Self-employed 3 2.88%
TOTAL 104 100.00%

Table 3.l displays the frequency distribution of the respondents’ current or present

job’s level. Out of the 104 respondents who are employed, 55 or 52.88% of them are

Professional, Technical, or Supervisory. 38 or 36.54% of them are Rank or Clerical. Eight (8)

or 7.69% of them are Managerial or Executive, while three (3) or 2.88% of them are self-

employed.
Table 3.m Frequency Distribution of the Respondents’ response in the relevance of their

52 curriculum to their first job after college

Response Frequency (n=104) Percentage


Yes 66 63.46%
No 38 36.53%
Total 104 100%

Table 3.m presents the frequency distribution of the respondents' response in the

relevance of their curriculum to their first jobs after college. Out of 104 respondents who

have been employed, 66 or 63.46% of them responded that their curriculum was relevant to

their first jobs after college, while 38 or 36.53% of them responded that it was not relevant.

Table 4. Frequency distribution of the respondents’ competencies learned in college that

the respondents found useful in their first job after college

Reasons Frequency (n=66) Percentage


Communication skills 50 75.76%
Human relation skills 31 46.97%
Entrepreneurial skills 2 3.03%
Problem-solving skills 21 31.82%
Critical Thinking skills 20 30.30%
TOTAL 66

Table 4 shows the frequency distribution of the competencies the respondents have

learned in college and that they have found useful in their first job after college. Out of the 66

respondents, 50 or 75.76% perceived communication skills as useful. Meanwhile, 31 or

46.97% of them perceived human relation skills as useful, and 21 or 31.82% of them
answered problem-solving skills. 20 or 30.30% of them answered critical thinking skills,

53 only two (2) or 3.03% of them answered entrepreneurial skills.


while

Chapter 5

Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations


54 This chapter presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the

data analyzed and interpreted. The presentation of results are patterned with the statement of

the problem presented earlier in chapter one and reproduced here.

Summary of Findings

Based on the result of the study, these were the notable findings that strengthen the

objective of this research work. The following are some of the findings:

1. In terms of the general of the general profile of the respondents:


a. There are 82 female respondents or 75.23% of the total respondents and 27

male respondents or 24.77% of the total respondents.


b. The number of respondents who are currently single is 92.66%. Nearly 1/10 of

the respondents are either married or a single parent with six (6) or 5.50% of

them being married and two (2) or 1.83% of them being single parents.
c. With regards to the frequency distribution of the respondents’ educational

attainment, BSED English has 87 or 79.82% respondents, BSED Math has a 7

or 6.42% respondents and BSED-SS has 15 or 13.76% respondents.


d. The findings regarding the Licensure Examination for Teachers, the study

found that from the 109 respondents, six (6) or 5.50% of the 109 respondents

did not take the LET while 103 or 94.50% of the total respondents had taken

the LET. Out of the 103 respondents who had taken the LET, only one (1)

respondent failed the licensure examination.


e. From the 109 total respondents, only 11 or 10.09% of them pursued a master’s

degree.
f. In terms of the respondents’ post-college training programs received, the study

found that only six (6) or 5.50% from the 109 total respondents had received
post-college professional training programs. All six (6) of them went to the

55 training program(s) because of professional development. Only 1 or 12.5% of

the respondents had reasons of promotional purposes.


2. As regards with the reasons of the respondents for taking the course and in pursuing

further studies:
a. Among the reasons of the respondents in taking their course, when ranked,

availability of course offering in the chosen institution ranked first among the

reasons why they pursued the course; it gathered 60 responses from 55.05% of

the total respondents. Affordability for the family ranks second with 41

responses from 37.61% of the total respondents, and role models as an

inspiration together with influence of parents and relatives tied as the third

most chosen reason, both having 40 responses from 36.70% of the total

respondents.
b. When reasons for taking master’s degrees are ranked, the reason that ranked

first is their strong passion, having eight (8) responses or 72.73% of the

respondents. This is followed by prospect for career advancement having five

(5) responses or 45.45% of the respondents.


3. In regards of the employment profile of the respondents:
a. In terms of the respondents’ employment status, the study found out that from

the 109 total respondents, 104 or 95.41% of the respondents are presently

employed while only five (5) or 4.59% of them are not presently employed.
b. From the five (5) respondents who are currently unemployed and were given

the chance to select more than one (1) reason, two (2) responses corresponded

to family concern. Meanwhile, one (1) response corresponded to each of the

following reasons: advance or further study, health-related reasons, lack of

work experience, and awaiting the RQA in the Division Office.


c. In terms of the respondents’ information about their first job after college, out

56 of the 105 employed respondents, 67 or 61.47% of them are not in their first

jobs anymore. 37 or 33.94% of the respondents answered that their current

jobs are still their first jobs after graduating from college. With regards to the

length of pursuit of the respondents before landing on a job, 57 or 54.81% of

the respondents landed on their respective jobs in less than a month. 23 or

22.12% of the respondents took between 1 to 6 months to land on the job. 11

or 10.58% of the respondents landed on the job from between 7 to 11 months.

Eight (8) or 7.69% of the respondents landed on the job after a year to less

than 2 years. Five (5) or 4.81% of the respondents took a length between 2

years to less than 3 three months before landing on their jobs.


d. From the 104 employed respondents, 49 or 72.12% of them said that they

found their first jobs as walk-in applicants. 30 or 28.85% of the employed

respondents got their first jobs from someone’s recommendation. 22 or

21.15% of them got their jobs from information from their friends. 2 or 1.92%

of the employed respondents had other reasons besides those already

mentioned.
e. Out of the 104 respondents who are currently employed, 57 or 54.81% of the

respondents landed on their jobs in less than a month. For 23 or 22.12% of the

respondents, it took between 1 to 6 months to land on their jobs. 11 or 10.58%

of the respondents landed on their jobs between 7 to 11 months. Eight (8) or

7.69% of the respondents spent a year to less than two years before they

landed on their jobs. Five (5) or 4.81% of the respondents spent between 2

years to less than 3 three months before landing on the job.


f. In terms of the respondents’ information about their initial monthly gross in

57 their first jobs after college, the study found that 47 or 45.19% out of the 104

employed respondents earned an amount between P10,000.00 to less than

P15,000.00. 38 or 36.54% of them grossed between P5,000.00 to less than

P10,000.00, while 16 or 15.38% of them earned an amount between

P15,000.00 to less than P20,000.00. 2 or 1.92% of them earned an amount

between P20,000.00 to less than P25,000.00, while 1 or 1.96% of them did not

specify their initial monthly gross.

g. Out of the 67 respondents whose current employment is not their first job after

college, 21 or 31.34% of the 67 respondents stayed for 2 years to less than 3

years. 18 or 26.87% of the respondents stayed from between 7 months to 11

months. 13 or 19.40% of the respondents stayed for 1 to 6 months. Seven (7)

or 10.45% of the respondents stayed from between 2 years to less than 3

years. Five (5) or 7.46% of the respondents stayed from between 3 years to

less than 4 years. One (1) respondent had a different response than the choices

provided.

h. Given the 37 respondents who are currently employed at their first job after

college the chance to give more than one response, 29 or 78.38% of the 37

respondents responded with salaries and benefits as their reason for staying on

their first job. 20 or 54.05% of the 37 respondents had career challenge as

their reason. 15 responses, which are from 40.54% of the 37 respondents,

correspond to being related to special skills and their jobs being in close
proximity to their residence. Four (4) respondents, or 10.81% of the 37

58 respondents, had other responses.

i. From the 67 respondents who are currently employed and not in their first

jobs after college, 59 or 88.06% of the 67 respondents answered salaries and

benefits as their reason for changing jobs. 43 or 64.18% of the 67 respondents

had career challenge as their reason. 29 or 43.28% of the 67 respondents had

reasons related to special skills. 30 or 44.78% of the respondents cited their

jobs’ close proximity to their residences as their reason. Two (2) respondents,

or 2.98% of the 67 respondents, had other reasons for changing jobs.

j. Out of the 104 employed respondents, 97 or 93.27% of them are

Professionals. Three (3) or 2.88% of the employed respondents classified their

current occupation as Special Occupation. Two (2) or 1.92% of the

respondents are Clerks, while both Technicians and Associate Professionals

and Trade and Related Workers each had one (1) response in classifying their

current occupation.
k. Out of the 104 employed respondents, ranking first is 59 or 56.73% of the

respondents with Education as their employment’s nature of business.

Transport Storage and Communication business ranks in at second, with 9 or

18.27% of the employed respondents working in said industry. Meanwhile,

Other Community, Social, and Personal Service Activities ranks third, with 11

responses from 10.58% of the total respondents.


l. Out of the 104 respondents who are employed, 55 or 52.88% of them are

Professional, Technical, or Supervisory. 38 or 36.54% of them are Rank or


Clerical. Eight (8) or 7.69% of them are Managerial or Executive, while three

59 (3) or 2.88% of them are self-employed.


m. Out of 104 respondents who have been employed, 66 or 63.46% of them

responded that their curriculum was relevant to their first jobs after college,

while 38 or 36.53% of them responded that it was not relevant.


4. In regards to the competencies the respondents have learned in college that they have

found useful in their first job after college, out of the 66 respondents who believed

their curriculum was relevant to their first job after college, 50 or 75.76% of the

respondents responded with communication skills. Meanwhile, 31 or 46.97% of them

responded human relation skills, and 21 or 31.82% of them answered problem-

solving skills. 20 or 30.30% of them answered critical thinking skills, while only two

(2) or 3.03% of them answered entrepreneurial skills.


5. The general implication of the findings of this study indicates that not all graduates

pursue a career in Education, financial aspects are taken into consideration in career

advancement, and that interpersonal skills play a significant advantage in seeking

better opportunities.

Conclusions

Based on the result of the study, these were the notable conclusions that the study has

made.

1. With regards to the data collected from the general profile of the respondents:
a. The majority of the respondents who chose Bachelor of Secondary Education

as their course are female.


b. The majority of the respondents whose current employment’s nature is

Education are single. The majority of them are also female.


c. All of the respondents of this study, with a major of specialization that is not

60 English, are currently working in an employment of which the nature of

business is Education. All of them also believed that their curriculum was

relevant to their first jobs after college.


d. The BSED graduates of PUP Taguig are competent and well-equipped for the

Licensure Examination for Teachers. On the contrary, based from the findings

of this research, it can also be concluded that after a graduate has passed the

Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), it does not guarantee that he/she

will be pursuing employment in the field of Education.


e. Only a few of the respondents pursued further studies for a master’s degree.
f. Also, only a small number of the respondents received post-college training

programs. Professional development was the given reason for all respondents

who took post-college training programs. This shows that not all BSED

graduates are inclined to pursuing further education.


2. With regards to the data collected from the employment profile of the respondents:
a. Based from the findings of this research, the BSED graduates, has a high

employment rate.
b. Only a small number from the respondents are unemployed.
c. More than half of the employed respondents are now in a different

employment from their first one. Therefore, this shows that graduates are

more inclined to taking better job opportunities.


d. Half of the employed respondents found their first job as a walk-in applicant.

1/3 of the employed respondents found their first job through recommendation

from linkages. Therefore, BSED graduates will be better at securing jobs if

interpersonal skills and professional networking skills are developed.


e. More than half of the employed respondents landed in their first job in less

61 than a month. This can conclude that BSED graduates are determined to find a

job immediately after graduation.


f. Only two (2) of the employed respondents in this study has a monthly earning

of an amount between P20,000.00 and P25,000.00. The other respondents

have monthly earnings with brackets less than the aforementioned.


g. Less than half of the employed respondents whose current job is not their first

job in college took more than one (1) year before moving to another job. This

means that the other majority of the respondents tend to seek better job

opportunities.
h. The majority of the employed respondents stayed in their first job after college

because of salaries and their benefits. This implies that financial stability is

important in career decisions.


i. The majority of the employed respondents’ reason for changing their first job

is also because of salaries and their benefits. Like the previous statement,

financial stability is taken into consideration.


j. A huge majority of the employed respondents’ present occupation

classification are Professionals. This concludes that graduates tend to seek job

opportunities with a professional-recognized setting.


k. Only half of the employed respondents work in the field of Education. This

concludes that not all BSED graduates pursue a career in Education.


l. All employed respondents work in the white collar industry. This proves that

the graduates produced seek job opportunities in offices.


m. Of the respondents who answered that the curriculum they took is not relevant

to their first job after college, all of them did not pursue an employment of

which the nature’s business is Education. This shows that the relevance of the

curriculum has an influence in career decisions.


3. Salaries and benefits were the most chosen reasons when respondents were asked

62 why they switched from their first job after college. These were also the most chosen

reasons when the respondents, who are still currently employed in their first jobs after

college, were asked why they are still on their current jobs. From this information, it

can be concluded that the main influence of career movement decisions is with

regards to financial advancement.

Recommendations
Below are the recommendations, wherein the findings and the conclusions presented in

63study are used as basis, which the researchers strongly believe will help the stakeholders
this

of the University. The following are:

1. The University must consistently commit itself to conducting regular tracer studies on

the employment status of the BSED graduates of Batch 2015, as well as to further

batches and graduates. This will serve as the evaluating factor in the programs

implemented by the University, specifically in the BSED program. The effectiveness

of this recommendation will only be observed if the response is required to all the

BSED graduates. An effective method for implementing this is requiring an alumnus

to fill out a tracer form before he/she makes any transaction with any of the university

offices.
2. The Mentors’ Society, the only student organization that provides services, programs,

and projects for the BSED students of PUP Taguig, should have intervention

programs dedicated to informing them about “decision making in career

advancement”. Specifically, they should be well informed about teacher rankings

through points, compensation benefits as a public school teacher, and career

opportunities in the education sector. The researchers strongly believe that the

students of the BSED program, being well-informed about what they can achieve in

developing themselves for a pursuit of a career in the educational field, will make

them more inclined into pursuing a career in education.


3. With financial opportunities as the driving factor into making career decisions, the

Mentors’ Society should also focus on providing financial literacy seminars that are

suitable for a “public school teacher’s compensation” setting. Specifically, the


program should educate about “multiple streams of income” and how it may help

64 their financial growth. Stock market investment, entrepreneurship, and franchising,

are what a financially-driven educator might do on the sidelines.


4. The BSED program must provide more opportunities in giving the BSED students the

chance to apply their acquired theories and concepts in teaching. What this study

strongly recommends is the following scheme for field study and practicing teaching

occurrence:
a. First Year 2nd Semester – Field Study 1, Field Study 2
b. Second Year 1st Semester – Field Study 3
c. Second Year 2nd Semester – Field Study 4
d. Third Year 1st Semester – Field Study 5
e. Third Year 2nd Semester – Field Study 6
f. Fourth Year (whole Academic Year) – Practice Teaching
This is in line with the recommendations made by the respondents saying the BSED

program must provide more opportunities for students to practice their teaching skills.
5. The Mentors’ Society should also provide workshops for the improvement of self-

branding, self-marketing, and interpersonal skills dedicated specifically for career

advancement solutions. In detail, it should focus on how to stand out compared to the

rest of the candidates. This is to address the success rate of applying jobs as a walk-in

applicant.

Republic of the Philippines

Office of the President

COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

Caraga Administrative Region


Institution Code _______________ Control Code _______________

65

Dear Graduate:

Good day! Please complete this GTS questionnaire as accurately & frankly as possible by

checking (/) the box corresponding to your response. Your answer will be used for research

purposes in order to assess graduate employability and eventually, improve course offerings

to your alma mater & other universities/colleges in the Philippines. Your answers to this

survey will be treated with strictest confidentiality.

GRADUATE TRACER SURVEY (GTS)

A. GENERAL INFORMATION

1. Name _________________________________________________________
2. Permanent Address ______________________________________________
3. E-mail Address __________________________________________________
4. Telephone or Contact Number (s) ___________________________________
5. Mobile Number __________________________________________________
6. Civil Status
( ) Single ( ) Separated/Divorced ( ) Single Parent
( ) Married ( ) Married but not living born a child but not married)
with spouse ( ) Widow or Widower
7. Sex ( ) Male ( ) Female
8. Birthday / / / / / / / / /
Month Day Year
9. Region of Origin
( ) Region I ( ) Region 5 ( ) Region 9 ( ) NCR
( ) Region 2 ( ) Region 6 ( ) Region 10 ( ) CAR
( ) Region 3 ( ) Region 7 ( ) Region 11 ( ) ARMM
( ) Region 4 ( ) Region 8 ( ) Region 12 ( ) CARAGA
10. Province _________________________________________________
11. Location of Residence
( ) City ( ) Municipality
B. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
6612. Educational Attainment ( Baccalaureate Degree Only)

Degree (s) & College or University Year Graduated Honor (s) Award (s)
Specialization Received
_______________________ ______________________ ____________ _________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________ _________________
_______________________ _______________________ _____________ _________________
_______________________ ________________________ _____________ __________________
_______________________ ________________________ ______________ __________________
 Degree means Program of Study or Program of Discipline, example BS in Teacher

Education.
 Specialization means major field of study, example Mathematics.
 Honors or Awards means academic awards received in college or while earning

the degree.
13. Professional examination (s) Passed

Name of Examination Date Taken Rating

___________________________________ ________________ _____________

___________________________________ _________________ _____________

___________________________________ _________________ _____________

14. Reason (s) for taking the course (s) or pursuing degree (s). You may check (/) more

than one answer.


Undergraduate/AB/BS Graduate/MS/MA/Ph.D.

High Grades in the course or subject


area (s) related to the course ( ) ( )

67
Good grades in high school ( ) ( )

Influence of parents or relatives ( ) ( )

Peer Influence ( ) ( )

Inspired by a role model ( ) ( )

Strong passion for the profession ( ) ( )

Prospect for immediate employment( ) ( )

Status or prestige of the profession ( ) ( )

Availability of course offering in

chosen institution ( ) ( )

Prospect of career advancement ( ) ( )

Affordable for the family ( ) ( )

Prospect of attractive compensation ( ) ( )

Opportunity for employment abroad ( ) ( )

No particular choice or no better idea ( ) ( )

Others, please specify _______________________________________________


68
C. TRAINING (S) ADVNCE STUDIES ATTENDED AFTER COLLEGE
15a. Please list down all professional or work-related training program (s) including

advance studies you have attended after college. You may use extra sheet if needed

Title of Training or Advance Study Duration & Credits Earned Name of Training Institution/

College/University

___________________________ __________________________ ______________________

___________________________ __________________________ _______________________

___________________________ __________________________ _______________________

15b. What made you pursue advance studies?

( ) For promotion

( ) For professional development

( ) Others, please specify ____________________________________________________

D. EMPLOYMENT DATA

(Employment here means any type of work performed or services rendered in

exchanged for compensation under a contact of hire which create the employer and

employee relations)
16. Are you presently employed?

69
( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) Never Employed

If NO or NEVER BEEN EMPLOYED, proceed to Questions 17.

If YES, proceed to Questions 18 to 22.

17. Please state reason (s) why you are not yet employed. You may check (/) more than

one answer.

( ) Advance or further study

( ) Family concern and decided not to find a job

( ) Health-related reason (s)

( ) Lack of work experience

( ) No job opportunity

( ) Did not look for a job

( ) Other reason (s), please specify

18. Present Employment Status

( ) Regular or Permanent ( ) Contractual


( ) Temporary ( ) Self- employed

70
( ) Casual

19. Present occupation ________________________________________

( Use the following Phil. Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC), 1992 classification)

 Officials of Government and Special-Interest Organizations, Corporate Executives,

Managers, Managing Proprietors and Supervisors.


 Professionals
 Technicians and Associate Professionals
 Clerks
 Service workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers
 Farmers, Forestry Workers and Fishermen
 Trades and Related Workers
 Plant and machine Operators and Assemblers
 Laborers and Unskilled Workers
 Special Occupation

20a. Name of Company or Organization including address

20b. Major line of business of the company you are presently employed in. Please check

one only.

(Please attached description)

( ) Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry


( ) Fishing

71
( ) Mining and Quarrying

( ) Manufacturing

( ) Electricity, Gas and Water Supply

( ) Construction

( ) Wholesale and Retail Trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and

household goods

( ) Hotels and Restaurants

( ) Transport Storage and Communication

( ) Financial Intermediation

( ) Real State, Renting and Business Activities

( ) Public Administration and Defense; Compulsory Social Security.

( ) Education

( ) Health and Social Work

( ) Other community, Social and Personal Service Activities

( ) Private Households with Employed Persons


( ) Extra-territorial Organizations and Bodies

72
21. Place of Work ( ) Local ( ) Abroad
22. Is this your first job after college ( ) Yes ( ) No

If NO, proceed to Questions 26 and 27.

23. What are the reason (s) for staying on the job? You may check (/) more than one

answer.
( ) Salaries and benefits
( ) Career challenge
( ) Related to special skill
( ) Related to course or program of study
( ) Proximity to residence
( ) Peer influence
( ) Family influence
( ) Other reason (s), please specify _______________________________________
Please proceed to Question 24.
24. Is your first job related to the course you took up in college?
( ) Yes ( ) No
If NO, proceed to Question 26.
25. What were your reasons for accepting the job? You may check (/) more than one

answer.
( ) Salaries and benefits
( ) Career challenge
( ) Related to special skills
( ) Proximity to residence
( ) Other reason (s), please specify ____________________________________
26. What were your reason (s) for changing job? You may check (/) more than one

answer.
( ) Salaries and benefits
( ) Career challenge
( ) Related to special skills
( ) Proximity to residence
( ) Other reason (s), please specify ____________________________________
27. How long did you stay in your first job?
( ) Less than a month ( ) 1 year to less than 2 years
( ) 1 to 6 months ( ) 2 years to less than 3 years
( ) 7 to 11 months ( ) 3 years to less than 4 years
73

( ) Others, please specify

28. How did you find your first job?


( ) Response to an advertisement
( ) As walk-in applicant
( ) Recommended by someone
( ) Information from friends
( ) Arranged by school’s job placement officer
( ) Family business
( ) Job Fair or Public Employment Service Office (PESO)
( ) Others, please specify______________________________________________
29. How long did it take you to land your first job?

( ) Less than a month ( ) 1 year to less than 2 years


( ) 1 to 6 months ( ) 2 years to less than 3 years
( ) 7 to 11 months ( ) 3 years to less than 4 years
( ) Others, please specify _______________________________________
30. Job Level Position

Job Level 30.1. First Job 30.2. Current or Present Job

Rank or Clerical ( ) ( )

Professional, Technical or Supervisory ( ) ( )

Managerial or Executive ( ) ( )

Self-employed ( ) ( )

31. What is your initial gross monthly earning in your first job after college?
( ) Below P 5,000.00 ( ) P 15,000.00 to less than P 20,000.00
( ) P 5,000.00 to less than P 10,000.00 ( ) P 20,000.00 to less than P 25,000.00
( ) P 10,000.00 to less than P 15,000.00 ( ) P 25,000.00 and above
32. Was the curriculum you had in college relevant to your first job?
( ) Yes ( ) No
33. If YES, what competencies learned in college did you find very useful in your first
74
job? You may check (/) more than one answer.
( ) Communication skills
( ) Human Relations skills
( ) Entrepreneurial skills
( ) Problem-solving skills
( ) Critical Thinking skills
( ) Other skills, please specify _________________________________________

34. List down suggestions to further improve your course curriculum

Thank you for taking time out to fill out this questionnaire.
75

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