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Acute intoxication
Intoxication is a condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances
in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgement, affect, or behaviour, or other
psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects
of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue
damage or other complications have arisen. The term is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use: its
equivalent in everyday speech is "drunkenness". Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial
flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, volubility, disorderly conduct, slowed
reactions, impaired judgement and motor incoordination, insensibility, or stupefaction.
Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual's level of
tolerance and other factors. Frequently, a drug is taken in order to achieve a desired degree of intoxication. The
behavioural expression of a given level of intoxication is strongly influenced by cultural and personal
expectations about the effects of the drug.
Acute intoxication is the term in ICD-I0 for intoxication of clinical significance. Complications may include
trauma, inhalation of vomitus, delirium, coma, and convulsions, depending on the substance and method of
ICD-10 Clinical description
A transient condition following the administration of alcohol or other psychoactive substance, resulting in
disturbances in level of consciousness, cognition, perception, affect or behaviour, or other psychophysiological
functions and responses.
This should be a main diagnosis only in cases where intoxication occurs without more persistent alcohol- or
drug-related problems being concomitantly present. Where there are such problems, precedence should be given
to diagnoses of harmful use, dependence syndrome, or psychotic disorder.
ICD-10 Diagnostic criteria for research
Acute intoxication is usually closely related to dose levels. Exceptions to this may occur in individuals with
certain underlying organic conditions (e.g. renal or hepatic insufficiency) in whom small doses of a substance
may produce a disproportionately severe intoxicating effect. Disinhibition due to social context should also be
taken into account (e.g. behavioural disinhibition at parties or carnivals). Acute intoxication is a transient
phenomenon. Intensity of intoxication lessens with time, and effects eventually disappear in the absence of
further use of the substance. Recovery is therefore complete except where tissue damage or another complication
has arisen.
Symptoms of intoxication need not always reflect primary actions of the substance: for instance, depressant
drugs may lead to symptoms of agitation or hyperactivity, and stimulant drugs may lead to socially withdrawn
and introverted behaviour. Effects of substances such as cannabis and hallucinogens may be particularly
unpredictable. Moreover, many psychoactive substances are capable of producing different types of effect at
different levels. For example, alcohol may have apparently stimulant effects on behaviour at lower dose levels,
lead to agitation and aggression with increasing dose levels, and produce clear sedation at very high levels.