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You are on page 1of 5

Chapters 3, 4

Measures of Location, Dispersion, Exploratory Data Analysis,

Measure of Relative Location, Weighted and Grouped Mean and

Variance, Association between Two Variables

Example:

to have an average life of 60 hours with a standard deviation of 4 hours.

(a) At least what percentage of batteries will have a life of 54 to 66 hours?

(b) At least what percentage of the batteries will have a life of 52 to 68

hours?

(c) Determine an interval for the batteries’ lives that will be true for at

least 80% of the batteries.

[solution:]

Denote

x 60, s 4

(a)

[54,66] 60 6 x 1.5s

Thus, by Chebyshev’s theorem, within 1.5 standard deviation, there is at

least

1

1 2 100% 55.55%

1.5

of batteries.

(b)

[52,68] 60 8 x 2 s

Thus, by Chebyshev’s theorem, within 1.5 standard deviation, there is at

least

1

1 2 100% 75%

2

of batteries.

(c)

1

1 1

1 2 100% 80% 1 2 0.8 k 5

k k

Thus, within 5 standard deviation, there is at least 80% of batteries.

Therefore,

x 5s 60 5 4 60 8.94 51.06,68.94 .

Chapter 5

Basic Relationships of Probability, Conditional Probability and

Bayes’ Theorem

Example:

The following are the data on the gender and marital status of 200

customers of a company.

Male Female

Single 20 30

Married 100 50

(b) What is the probability of finding a married male customer?

(c) If a customer is female, what is the probability that she is single?

(d) What percentage of customers is male?

(e) If a customer is male, what is the probability that he is married?

(f) Are gender and martial status mutually exclusive? Explain.

(g) Is martial status independent of gender? Explain.

[solution:]

A2: the customers are married

B1: the customers are male.

B2: the customers are female.

(a)

2

30

P A1 B2 0.15

200

(b)

100

P A2 B1 0.5

200

(c)

P A1 B2

P A1 | B2 .

P B2

Since

30 50 80

P B2 P A1 B2 P A2 B2 ,

200 200 200

30

P A1 B2 200 30

P A1 | B2 0.375 .

P B2 80 80

200

(d)

20 100 120

P B1 P A1 B1 P A2 B1 0.6

200 200 200

(e)

100

P A2 B1 200 100 5

P A2 | B1

P B1 120 120 6 .

200

(f)

Gender and martial status are not mutually exclusive since

P A1 B1 0

(f)

Gender and martial status are not independent since

30 50

P A1 | B2 P A1 .

80 200

Example:

the students attend class on Thursday. From past data it was noted that

98% of those who went to class on Thursday pass the course, while only

3

20% of those who did not go to class on Thursday passed the course.

(b) Given that a student passes the course, what is the probability that

he/she attended classes on Thursday.

[solution:]

A2: the students do not attend class on Thursday A1 A2

B1: the students pass the course

B2: the students do not pass the course

P A1 0.6, P A2 1 P A1 0.4, P B1 | A1 0.98, P B1 | A2 0.2

(a)

P B1 P B1 A1 P B1 A2

P A1 P B1 | A1 P A2 P B1 | A2

0.6 0.98 0.4 0.2

0.668

(b)

By Bayes’ theorem,

P A1 B1 P ( A1) P ( B1 | A1)

P ( A1 | B1 )

P B1 P ( A1) P ( B1 | A1) P ( A2) P ( B1 | A2)

0.6 0.98

0.6 0.98 0.4 0.2

0.854

Chapter 6

Probability Density

Example:

4

f ( x ) 2k , x 1

3k , x 3

4k , x 5

0, otherwise

(a) k. (b) P ( X 2)

[solution:]

(a)

f ( x)

x

f (1) f (3) f (5) 2k 3k 4k 9k 1

1

k .

9

(b)

P( X 2) P( X 3 or X 5) P( X 3) P( X 5)

1 7

f (3) f (5) 3k 4k 7k 7

.

9 9

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