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Review 2 2002.11.

Chapters 3, 4
Measures of Location, Dispersion, Exploratory Data Analysis,
Measure of Relative Location, Weighted and Grouped Mean and
Variance, Association between Two Variables

Example:

The flashlight batteries produced by one of the manufacturers are known


to have an average life of 60 hours with a standard deviation of 4 hours.
(a) At least what percentage of batteries will have a life of 54 to 66 hours?
(b) At least what percentage of the batteries will have a life of 52 to 68
hours?
(c) Determine an interval for the batteries’ lives that will be true for at
least 80% of the batteries.

[solution:]

Denote
x  60, s  4

(a)
[54,66]  60  6  x  1.5s
Thus, by Chebyshev’s theorem, within 1.5 standard deviation, there is at
least
 1 
1  2  100%  55.55%
 1.5 
of batteries.
(b)
[52,68]  60  8  x  2 s
Thus, by Chebyshev’s theorem, within 1.5 standard deviation, there is at
least
 1
1  2  100%  75%
 2 
of batteries.
(c)

1
 1 1
1  2  100%  80%  1  2  0.8  k  5
 k  k
Thus, within 5 standard deviation, there is at least 80% of batteries.
Therefore,
x 5s  60  5  4  60  8.94   51.06,68.94 .

Chapter 5
Basic Relationships of Probability, Conditional Probability and
Bayes’ Theorem

Example:

The following are the data on the gender and marital status of 200
customers of a company.

Male Female
Single 20 30
Married 100 50

(a) What is the probability of finding a single female customer?


(b) What is the probability of finding a married male customer?
(c) If a customer is female, what is the probability that she is single?
(d) What percentage of customers is male?
(e) If a customer is male, what is the probability that he is married?
(f) Are gender and martial status mutually exclusive? Explain.
(g) Is martial status independent of gender? Explain.

[solution:]

A1: the customers are single


A2: the customers are married
B1: the customers are male.
B2: the customers are female.

(a)

2
30
P A1  B2    0.15
200
(b)
100
P  A2  B1    0.5
200
(c)
P A1  B2 
P A1 | B2   .
P B2 

Since
30 50 80
P B2   P A1  B2   P A2  B2     ,
200 200 200

30
P A1  B2  200 30
P A1 | B2      0.375 .
P B2  80 80
200
(d)
20 100 120
P B1   P A1  B1   P A2  B1      0.6
200 200 200
(e)
100
P A2  B1  200 100 5
P A2 | B1     
P B1  120 120 6 .
200
(f)
Gender and martial status are not mutually exclusive since
P A1  B1   0
(f)
Gender and martial status are not independent since

30 50
P A1 | B2     P A1  .
80 200

Example:

In a recent survey in a Statistics class, it was determined that only 60% of


the students attend class on Thursday. From past data it was noted that
98% of those who went to class on Thursday pass the course, while only

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20% of those who did not go to class on Thursday passed the course.

(a) What percentage of students is expected to pass the course?


(b) Given that a student passes the course, what is the probability that
he/she attended classes on Thursday.

[solution:]

A1: the students attend class on Thursday


A2: the students do not attend class on Thursday  A1  A2  
B1: the students pass the course
B2: the students do not pass the course
P A1   0.6, P A2   1  P A1   0.4, P B1 | A1   0.98, P B1 | A2   0.2

(a)
P  B1   P  B1  A1   P  B1  A2 
 P  A1  P  B1 | A1   P A2  P  B1 | A2 
 0.6  0.98  0.4  0.2
 0.668
(b)
By Bayes’ theorem,
P  A1  B1  P ( A1) P ( B1 | A1)
P ( A1 | B1 )  
P  B1  P ( A1) P ( B1 | A1)  P ( A2) P ( B1 | A2)
0.6  0.98

0.6  0.98  0.4  0.2
 0.854

Chapter 6

1. Random Variables, Discrete Probability Function and Continuous


Probability Density

Example:

The probability distribution function for a discrete random variable X is

4
f ( x )  2k , x  1
3k , x  3
4k , x  5
0, otherwise

where k is some constant. Please find


(a) k. (b) P ( X  2)

[solution:]

(a)
 f ( x) 
x
f (1)  f (3)  f (5)  2k  3k  4k  9k  1

1
 k .
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(b)
P( X  2)  P( X  3 or X  5)  P( X  3)  P( X  5)
1 7
 f (3)  f (5)  3k  4k  7k  7  
.
9 9