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J. Env. Bio-Sci., 2015: Vol.

29 (2):311-313
(311) ISSN 0973-6913 (Print), ISSN 0976-3384 (On Line)


(L.) CV.VL - 365
Bhim Jyoti1, Arun Bhatt2 and Arvind Shukla2
Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Forestry, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand 249199, India.
Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, College of Forestry, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand 249199, India.
[Corresponding author]

Received: 06-07-2015 Accepted: 14-08-2015

In modern agriculture practices, fungicides are most commonly used for protection of seeds from various seed borne diseases.
A fungicide is a group of pesticide that controls fungal disease by either inhibiting or killing the fungus that causes the disease. In
this experiment, different concentration of commonly used fungicide, Carbendazim was used to show the effect on seed quality
parameters viz. germination percentage, seedling length (cm), vigor index, fresh weight, and seedling dry weight of wheat
cultivar VL-365. Result revealed that all concentrations of fungicide were effective for the enhancement of germination percentage,
seedling length, vigour index, fresh weight and decrease in dry weight. Maximum increase in germination percentage (22%)
and vigor index (58.36%) was observed at 2000mg/l concentration of fungicide, whereas, more increase of shoot length (48.68%)
was observed at 1500mg/l concentration of fungicide. Result also revealed that maximum root growth (30.67%) and fresh weight
(73.62%) at 2500mg/l concentration of Carbendazim, respectively. From this study it was suggested that 1500, 2000 and 2000mg/l
concentrations were more effective for growth of wheat. Therefore, by treating wheat seed before sowing crop does not attack by
seed borne fungi farmers and breeders would obtain satisfied yield.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important crop in suppressing their dynamic instability 5.Trade name of
the world. European Union (EU) is the largest wheat producer carbendazim is bavistin. It is broad spectrum fungicide therefore
country. China is the leading wheat producer followed by India is applied to control wide range of fungal diseases. Germination
and Russia. India's share in global wheat production is 13.1 of seed and early seedling growth are considered the most
percent in the year 2013-14. This crop provides 20% of the critical phases for establishment of any species of plant6.
energy in human food1-2.So to show the importance of wheat Germination test determine the planting value of seed. Seed
crop, it is essential to protect it from fungi that attack seedling yield of any crop can be improved by treating the seed with
growth resulting production of wheat was ultimately reduced fungicide before sowing.
every year.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different
Treatment of seeds with systemic fungicide is a concentration commonly used Carbendazim on first count of
conventional method used for the control of seed borne germination, percent germination, root length, shoot length,
infection in intensive wheat production. Seed treatment fresh weight, seedling dry weight and vigour index-I on wheat
with a proper formulation affects the initial development of cultivar-365.
plants which, in turn, will influence later stages of growth
and development and finally yield levels3-4.Seed treatment
is a biological, chemical, mechanical or physical process Wheat cultivar and fungicide were taken from Department of
designated to mitigate externally or internally seed or soil borne Genetic and Plant Breeding and Pathology, College of
microorganisms, resulting in the emergence of a healthy Forestry, Ranichauri. In present study, six different
seedling and subsequently a healthy plant. Seed treatment concentrations of carbendazim fungicide 500, 1000, 1500, 2000
promote seedling establishment that enhance yield, improve and 2500 and 3000 mg/l were used for the treatment of wheat
quality and to avoid further spread of pathogens. Fungicide cultivar. Before treatment, wheat seeds were surface sterilized
carbendazim is an active metabolite of benomyl and have with 0.1% HgCl2 for 5 min to remove dust that adhered on
properties similar to benomyl. This fungicide binds on β - surface, then these seeds were washed thoroughly with distill.
tubulin in microtubules inhibiting their proliferation and water. After that 50 seed in four replication were planted in
NAAS Rating (2016)-4.20

Table-1.Analysis of variance of different seed quality parameters of wheat cultivar VL-365.

Table-2. Mean value of first count, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight
and seed vigour index-I of wheat cultivar VL-365 at different concentration of carbendzim.

petriplates. At the start of the experiment 4 ml of respective First count germination percentage in control was 64% and at
concentration was added to moisten filter paper in each 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000mg/l concentration of
petri plates and then every day 5ml of respective fungicide were 65.50, 71.75, 82.00, 84.00, 76.50 and 72.50%,
concentration was added for consecutive 6 days. Three sets respectively. Highest increase in germination percentage
in each concentration were maintained along with the control (20.0%) was observed at 2000 mg/l concentration of fungicide.
for comparison. On 4th day of germination first count was taken
Germination percentage in control was 64% and at 500, 1000,
to determine the speed of germination.
1500, 2000, 2500, 3000mg/l concentration of fungicide were
Germination percentage was estimated by using given 71.50, 82.00, 86.00, 84.00, 79.50 and 72.50%, respectively.
formula7. Seedling fresh and dry weight, 10 randomly selected Highest increase in germination percentage was observed at
seedling were weighed with the help of electronic balance, 1500 mg/l (22.0%) concentration of fungicide. Fungicide
then these seeds were kept in an oven at 100 0C for 24 hour carbendazim highly influenced all the studied growth
for estimation of seedling dry weight, Vigour index was parameters of wheat variety. Germination percentage of
calculated using the prescribed formula8. fungicide treated seed gets increased with increase in
concentration of fungicide germination was stimulated by
thiamethoxam in soybean, pea and corn9-10.
Analysis of variance showed significant differences for seed
Root length of untreated wheat cultivar was 12.26cm, whereas,
quality parameters viz first count, standard germination,
at 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 2500 and 3000mg/l were 12.28 12.41,
seedling length, seedling dry weight and seed vigour index-I
13.22, 14.18, 16.02 and 13.75 cm respectively. Maximum percent
(Table-1). The mean value of first day count, germination %,
increase root length (30.67%) was observed at 2500mg/l
root length, shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry
concentration of fungicide over the control. Results were in
weight and vigour index-I of wheat cultivar showed variation for
agreement with the work done by earlier workers11-12.
different concentration of carbendazim fungicide (Table-2)

Shoot length of untreated wheat cultivar was observed 9.02 should be treated with 1500, 2000, and 2500mg/l concentration
cm and range of shoot length at 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and of carbendzium which will prevent the attack of fungi
2500, 3000mg/l concentrations of fungicide was 10.21 to responsible for the damage of crop growth and ultimately
13.41cm. The highest increase of shoot length was 48.68% at reduces the seed yield.
1500 mg/l concentration of fungicide.
Vigour index of untreated wheat cultivar was 1446.54. Vigour
1. Ahmadi A., B.Yazdi-Samadi, and J. Zargar-Nataj (2004). Agr.
index at 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg/l concentrations
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concentration, highest % increase in vigour index i.e. 58.36% 4. Schoeny, A., Jeuffroy, M. and Lucas, P. (2001). Phytopatho.,91:
was observed at 2000 mg/l concentration of fungicide. 694.
Seedlings treated with thiamethoxam had a particular 5. Koo, B.S., Park, H. and Kalme, S. (2009). App. Microbio. and
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Due to presence of fungicide water retention capacity of biology 31(5): 721.
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which increases seed yield17. Nutrition 21: 277.
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Fresh weight of untreated wheat cultivar was 0.91gm. Fresh
9. Cataneo, A.C., Ferreira,L.C., Carvalho,J.C., Andréo-Souza,Y.
weight at 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 2500 and 3000 mg/l were
Corniani,N., Mischan,M. M., Nunes,J.C. (2010). Seed Sci. and
0.98, 1.18, 1.23, 1.58, and 0.94gms, respectively. The highest %
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increase in fresh weight was 73.62%, followed by 2500 mg/l of 10. Horii A., McCue,P. and Shetty, K. (2007). Bioresour. Techno.,
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the findings of some earlier workers18-19. 11. Bensoltan, S., Youbi, M., Djebar, H. and Djebar, M.R.
(2006).Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci., 71(3):1041.
In control, dry weight was observed 0.13gms. Dry weight at
12. Sarkar, S.K. and Saxena, S.C. (2005).Seed Res., 33(1): 100.
500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 and 3000 mg/l concentration
13. Agarwal, G.P., Awashty ,S. and Thakuro, M.K. (1981). Acad.
of fungicide were 0.12, 0.12, 0.11, 0.08, 0.08, and 0.12gms, Sci. Lett.4: 115.
respectively. The highest percent decrease of dry weight 14. Doyle, P., Stypa M., Schneidersmann F. and Ramachandran R.
(~38.57%) at 2000 and 2500 mg/l concentration of fungicide (2001). In: British crop protct.council Symp. proceed.
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that enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat were

1500, 2000 and 2500 mg/l. So from this study it can be
suggested to farmers that before seed sowing, seeds of wheat