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June 15-17, 2016

Practical Applications of Small Induction Heater

Hideo Tomita*, Akihiro Nomoto, Akihiro Ando, Daiki Miyamura, Rei Takasaka
School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University
Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0394 Japan

Abstract— Small induction heating technology is recent trend On the other hand, the TP-adhesive takes slightly weak
for home appliances and industry applications. This paper covers adhesion than TS-adhesive, it is consisted of various polymer
advanced practical applications of small induction heater, as the resin. The adhesive is a solid state in natural temperature, it
example bonding methods in building materials and mechanical will melt by heating with low temperature around 60ºC
parts, food cooking devices and superheated steamer.
quickly, and also called a hot melt adhesive. Thus TP-
Keywords— Induction heating, Interior construction, food adhesive is also convenient for treatment in natural
processing, Superheated steamer, Dismantlable adhesion, temperature, so in these days it is many applied than TS-
adhesive in among industries.
I. INTRODUCTION In scrap or separate of adhered products, it is very
effective for dismantlement of the products that is devised in
Nowadays, induction heating (IH for short in this paper) advance a dismantlable adhesion method. It is named normally
devices and their applications are progressing rapidly [1]. This as the dismantlable adhesion technology[4]. Our introducing
paper covers advanced applications of small induction heater IH technology with above mentioned adhesives is also one of
that is recent trending for home appliances and industry
the dismantlable adhesion methods.
applications. Then a specification of induction coil (IH-coil for
short) for IH is especially important. The IH-coil will be able to B. ALLOVER Method
classify roughly two types as follows. 1) IH-coil consists of a More than ten years ago, we have started the study about
hollow copper pipe which is chilled by coolant for heat the labor saving and material’s recycling in interior
blocking to the coil. Its IH-coil is applied to relative large IH
constructions. Our idea for interior works was unique
systems in smelting or hardening furnace. 2) IH-coil is
developed for small IH systems. Its IH-coil consists of a technique applying a TP-adhesive coated to steel stud or
twisted superfine copper wire which is called the litz wire [2] finishing materials like wall and floor boards. When the
cooled by a blower or natural wind. In this paper, some adhesive was laid between finishing board and metal plate, the
applications with latter IH-coil will be introduced. adhesive was melted by metal heating with IH from outside of
the board. And the board and metal were glued together.
Since that time, we have continued the research and
development of new IH devices and methods, and collaborated
A. Dismantlable Adhesion Method with major domestic companies of housing, construction and
building material. Consequently, the working method was
Recently, adhesives have been many applied in established by their industries, and was named as the
house/building constructions, electrical/mechanical parts, ALLOVER method [4]. The method was also effectiveness for
automobiles and many industrial processing. An adhesive is preventing from sick-house syndrome by interior construction,
also called a bond, is roughly classified into two groups, none organic solvent in adhesive [5],[6].
thermosetting adhesive and thermoplastic adhesive (TS-
Our mission is to develop of suitable IH devices for the
adhesive and TP-adhesive for short respectively) [3]. The
metal heating in various applications of construction, etc. Fig.
former takes strong adhesion typified an epoxy resin, it is
1 shows the principle of ALLOVER method. The method is
melting in natural temperature. But a modified epoxy resin
might be hardened by heating above 100ºC within few applicable to both structures of metal stud and wooden stud in
minutes, so it is convenient in a speed bonding process. interior construction. The procedure of the adhesion is shown
in Fig. 2 for a case of wooden stud, and accordingly
High frequenct power

Induction heating Magnetic flux


Finishing material like

gypsum-board etc.
Heating coil

Adhesive tape
hot-melt Adhesive tape

MK50WF laminated aluminium Hot-melt film

● 5 4 5


(a) for metal stud. (b) for wooden stud.


Substrates like Eddy current

Substrates like

plywood etc. Magnetic flux steel plate etc.
● ●

Fig. 1 Principle of the ALLOVER method. Fig. 2 Illustration of adhesion and dismantlement. Fig. 3 Hot-melt adhesive tapes (KONISHI Co.).

978-1-5090-1787-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE 044

TP-adhesive tape with aluminum foil in Fig. 3 is necessary. TABLE I SPECIFICATIONS OF IH DEVICES
The aluminum tape is heated by IH, and TP-adhesive is melted Trade name Allover Adhesion Equipment.
by heat of aluminum with few seconds. The melting Type
SEW-2110(200V), SEW-
temperature of the tape is about 180 ºC. After that the
AC200/100V, 50/60Hz,
finishing board is held firmly when adhesive is chilled. Input power
Therefore this work with the method is repeatable and Output power 1300W( High Freq.)
recyclable. Output frequency 20kHz
C. Bonding Device Power unit size 140(W)×200(D)×100(H)mm.
Power unit weight 2.5kg
Fig. 4 shows the developed practical portable inverter and
Applicator coil 90(W)×140(D)×120(H)mm.
IH-coil [4]. The specifications of devices are also shown in
Applicator weight 0.7kg
TABLE I. The inverter is used 50A IGBT in IPM (Intelligent
AC input cable 1.5m
Power Module) at 20kHz operation. The frequency will be
High freq. output cable 1.8m
harmless for worker’s health in a construction field. As shown
in Fig. 5, the weight and size of the power unit are sufficiently, Protection
over-load protector
( over-current limiter)
because the inverter unit is fitted to hip and the light applicator
of IH-coil can be hand-held. Fig. 6 shows the bonding work of Heating/Adhesion area Φ77mm (in case of circle coil)
cork floorboards pasted on reverse a thin steel plate as IH load.
The IH-coil and its load’s thermal distribution are shown in
Fig. 7. Certainly, the temperatures of center and edge are

going down, and the radial part of the circle becomes the
8 150℃

Heating time[sec]
highest. Fig. 8 shows the heating characteristics at the

maximum temperature point with the gap (meaning distance a


coil and load metal) parameters. At one’s gap that is thickness

2 50℃

of wall or floorboard, Fig. 8 is useful data to obtain the

suitable heating time which is reached to the adhesive’s
4 8 12 16 20

melting temperature. Fig. 8 Heating time of IH with gap parameter.


Power unit
(High frequency inverter)

(Spiral coil)

Fig. 4 Configuration of power unit and applicator. Fig. 9 Weld-Bonding method.


A. Weld-Bonding Process
Fig. 5 Work of adhesion to wall material. As another combination of IH and adhesive, a Weld-
Bonding process (WB for short) [7] in mechanical metal joint
using heat hardening of TS-adhesive is introduced [8]. WB is
frequently applied to mechanical assembly process of
automobile, train and airplane etc. In mechanical joint for two
metals with WB as shown in Fig. 9, a TS-adhesive is pasted
Fig. 6 Work of adhesion to floorboards. on the metal first. The TS-adhesive is still melting after that.
200 And the metals are welded by spot-welding machine at regular

spaces about 10cm for an example. But the complete metal

120 joint hasn’t been finished, because the adhesion between spot
and spot in welding is incomplete depending on wet adhesive.
To a complete bonding of adhesive, the melted adhesive must
be waited until hardened. In normal industrial process, a
a) Flat circle coil (b) Thermal distribution hardening time of adhesive is more than 2,3 hours, therefore
Fig. 7 IH-coil and thermal distribution in steel plate(0.115mm). the performance in process might be left, otherwise the

hardening of adhesive must be waited until a hot painting and
drying process as the arrow-A in Fig. 9. So that in an assembly
process line of automobile for example, a shortening of
hardening time of adhesive is important for complete bonding
of metals, because next operations in line process at once is
impossible for incomplete bonding.
The normal structural adhesives for mechanical bonding are
used epoxy resin or its modification. A solution for shortening Fig. 10 Thermosetting adhesive with epoxy resin.
the hardening time is adding a heat hardening agent to epoxy
resin. And we try a heat supplying to metals with small IH for
hardening of adhesives as the arrow-B in Fig. 9. Viscosity 130Pa/s
Specific gravity 1.43
B. Thermosetting Adhesive and IH-coil for WB
120 ºC /20min
As an example, Fig. 10 and TABLE II show a prepared Optimum harden
150 ºC /3min
adhesive that is one component of modified epoxy resin in our conditions
180 ºC /1min
WB experiments. In Fig. 10, (a) shows the adhesive in normal Glassy transition
temperature condition, (b) and (c) show the pasted condition temperature
147 ºC
of adhesive on steel plate and the hardened condition in after
heating. The applied adhesives are necessary to evaluate a
bonding strength test under the JIS (Japan Industrial Standard)
number K 6850.
IH-coil for WB would be manipulated by industrial multi-
joint robot with spot welder. Therefore the IH-coil should be
smaller and lighter that is consisted of litz wire as former
chapter. By the way, the pasted area of adhesive in WB as
Fig. 9 is small, narrow, long and might be curve. Thereupon
we propose the IH-coil wound to U-shape ferrite core (U-core Fig. 11 U-shape ferrite core with winding of 39turns.
for abbrev.) as Fig. 11. This coil is also suitable for concentric
heating to narrow and long steel stud in interior constructions.
C. Heating Characteristics at Coil Moving
An actual performance of IH-coil would be manipulated
by controlling of multi-joint robot arms along the WB line.
Therefore the heating characteristics in moving IH-coil should
be inspected. So at a first step, we observe a heat movement
in target metal under the moving IH-coil. The heating target Fig. 12 Heated steel plate.
metal is selected the flat steel width: 84mm, length: 300mm,
thickness: 0.6mm, that is applied to actual automobile body
with hut shaped structure steel as shown in Fig. 12. And the
gap between IH-coil and heated metal is decided as 1mm by
glass epoxy board.
Fig. 13 shows a measurement system of thermal
distribution under moving IH-coil. The IH-coil is moved by
motor cart with constant speed. The heating positions along
steel plate with moving IH-coil are located two lines that are
Fig. 13 Measurement system in experiment.
center or edge of steel assuming bonding line. The moving
speeds of IH-coil are changed from 25, 40, 55, 72, 83mm/sec
respectively. Fig. 14 shows the examples of moving scenes of
thermal distribution in the center and edge of steel plate at
55mm/sec of moving IH-coil. From the figure, the sufficient
temperature rising and thermal distribution in center are (a) Center line heating of steel plate at coil moving 55mm/sec.
observed, but not on the in edge. As the consideration, the
moving speed of IH-coil is slow yet, it should be over
100mm/sec for practical performance. And the partly weak
heating along edge of steel plate is observed. It is problem
that the measure of IH-coil in this experiment might be large (b) Edge line heating of steel plate at coil moving 55mm/sec.
rather than the margin of edge in bonding line.
Fig. 14 Examples of thermal distribution at coil moving.

IV. APPLICATIONS FOR FOOD COOKER each section are varied as Fig. 18 and there are settled by
feedback control. The temperature control in each section of
A. Large Pot Heating
pot was satisfied. And the consumed full power at the initial
Nowadays cooking equipment using IH is increasing for condition was about 429Wh, but the control power for
safety, high power and efficiency. In this section a thermal warming in 60ºC was about 208Wh. Thus developed warmer
control of large pot is introduced [9]. This pot is called was realized a sufficient temperature control and saving power.
“ODEN warmer” as Fig. 15 for Japanese popular food which
is mixed and pasted the fish ingredients. B. Iron Hot Cooking Plate Heating
Fig. 15 shows a filled condition with soup and ingredients As one of Japanese popular foods, it is called
in pot. Normally the ODEN pot is heated by one spiral flat YAKINIKU that is grilled a meat on an iron hot plate. In
IH-coil or electric sheathed heater in whole the bottom. this section, a power saving of hot plate with IH is introduced
However in the ODEN business, the various ingredients are [10]. Fig. 19 shows grilled noodle and meat on the plate.
unsold at one time. But the pot is heated with uniform The cooking temperature on the iron plate is about 200ºC,
temperature in anytime. The aim of this study is development and the measurement of the plate is thickness: 4.5mm,
of system for uniform temperature control in any parts of material: SS400 in JIS as Fig. 20(a), and it would be applied
bottom. Fortunately the pot is partitioned into six sections, but in YAKINIKU restaurant or so on. The aims of development
its partition is incomplete which is able to mix soup. So we are division of heating area into four sections and thermal
propose the set of six small IH-coils with temperature control control of the plate in each area. In general, a normal spiral
in each section, as shown in Fig. 16. flat coil without ferrite core will be applied as mentioned
The power control scheme is also unique for energy saving. before section. But the flat coil might be burnt by radiant
The system isn’t applied a normal automatic control, and is heat from overheated iron plate. So we adopted the solid
employed a classical time sequence control with power on/off. type IH-coil using E-type ferrite core as Fig. 20(b), which is
In this experiment, the electric power in the each IH-coil is able to make a wide space around the coil for cooling with
added every one second with sequence. When a setting wind fan as Fig. 21. Then cooling the coils is succeeded as
temperature of one’s section is over, the input power will be shown in Fig. 22. Finally the uniform heating in each area is
skipped. As an extreme condition, the three ice blocks as Fig. realized, and the thermal distributions at heating in all areas
17 are dropped in section of coil number 1. Then are shown in Fig. 23. Thus this development achieved the
temperatures in goal mostly.

(a) (b)

Fig. 15 ODEN warmer (a) and measurement (b).

Fig. 18 Temperature control at disturbance in section1

(a) (b)
Fig. 16 Arrangement of induction coil
Fig. 19 Hot plate heater(a) and cooking view(b).

(a) (b) (a) (b)

Fig. 17 Dropped ice blocks (a) in section1(b). Fig. 20 Coil arrangement under iron plate (a) and
proposed solenoid type IH-coil per section (b).

Fig. 21 Cooling for coils with wind fan.

Fig. 24 Two processes in SH- steamer. Fig. 25 Schematic diagram.


Fig. 22 Measured points(a) and coil temperatures(b).
(a) (b)
Fig. 26 Trial boiler (a) and structure (b).

Fig. 23 Thermal distributions with full face heating.


A. Process of Steamer and Problems
(a) (b)
In these days, a superheated steam (SHS for short) Fig. 27 IH-coil in SHS generator (a) and heated metal in quartz grass (b).
exceeding a 100ºC in standard atmosphere has been applied to
heating, sterilization, drying and other purposes [11]-[13].
Especially, the superheated steamer (SH-steamer for short)
using IH is now adopted commonly for food processing, dry
processing in painting and disposal system in organic matter
with high temperatures in industries.
Normally for a practical SH-steamer, two processes are
necessary as shown in Fig. 24. The primary process makes a
100ºC steam from natural water. Then, as a secondary process,
the 100ºC steam is additionally heated by IH etc. to make SHS Fig. 28 Structure of SHS generator. Fig. 29 SH-steamer in Lab.
over 100ºC. We developed a novel water boiler and improved
the original SHS generator [14],[15]. Consequently the novel
SH-steamer was realized with downsizing and power-saving.
B. Structure and Work of Steamer
Fig. 25 shows a schematic diagram of SH-steamer. Our
water boiler can be smaller with a daring conception, and
combined with SHS generator.
At first, natural water from water tank or waterworks is
supplied to a steamer. The natural water is send to the cooling
Fig. 30 Rising temperature of SHS.
hose in the SHS generator for protection of overheated IH-coil,

TABLE III EFFICIENCIES OF TRIAL STEAMER. deduced as TABLE III from comparison of theoretical steam
power and experimental electric power. From Table III the
efficiency of SHS generator was very low, so improvement of
the low efficiency should be considered.

by control of small pump according to fixed water flow rate. VI CONCLUSION

The water passed cooling hose is send to the input of boiler,
and filled water is heated by IH until bubble to 100ºC steam. We have introduced the some applications of developed
Its boiled steam flows to the quartz glass tube of SHS induction heater. Especially the superheated steamer with IH
generator. The inside of the tube is enclosed a heated metal by is anticipating technique for a food processing and others.
IH. The IH-coil is wound to an outside of the tube with The history of induction heating is old, but recent applications
cooling hose. The boiled steam will be in contact to high of small induction heater make exciting progress in industries
temperature metal, and the steam temperature rises gradually and home appliances. Many industry applications in particular
toward the exit of the tube. Thus the temperature and volume would be appeared in a stream.
of required SHS can be obtained by control with IH power.
C. Prototype Steamer and Experiment
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