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1) Explain the two electromagnetic phenomena that are present simultaneousl y in electrical machines and which are fundamental to the energy conversion proc ess? [2] 2) [2] Express the two electromagnetic phenomena mathematically.

3) Explain how the direction of the voltage induced across a conductor movi ng through a magnetic field, is determined by the right-hand screw rule. [2] 4) Explain how the direction of the force acting on a current carrying cond uctor placed in a magnetic field, is determined by the right-hand screw rule. [2] 5) [3] Outline the main structural features of a dc machine.

6) Draw airgap flux density in a DC machine and the actual voltage induced in a coil on the rotor of this machine, when it is rotating. [2] 7) Draw airgap flux density in a DC machine, the actual voltage induced in a coil on the rotor when it is rotating and the voltage induced in this coil as measured across the brushes of the machine. [2] 8) [2] Explain how torque is developed in a DC motor.

9) The armature winding of a DC machine has 256 turns in total. The winding is formed by connecting 4 coils in series, and each coil is accommodated in 2 s lots on the rotor of the machine. Determine the total number of conductors accom modated in a rotor slot of the machine. [3]

10) Draw the electrical equivalent coil representations of a Lap and Wave wi nding in a â pâ pole DC machine. Show the armature and coil currents on your diagrams. W ite expressions for the number of parallel paths, and the armature current in te rms of the coil current for each winding configurations. [5] 11) Derive an expression for the voltage induced in the armature winding of a DC machine. [5] 12) [5] 13) [5] Derive an expression for the torque developed by a DC machine. Draw the magnetic equivalent circuit of a DC machine.

14) With reference to the magnetic circuit of a DC machine, how will the flu x per pole change if the airgap length is increased, whilst the field excitation remains constant? Explain why. [2]

15) [3]

Plot flux-mmf characteristic of a DC machine and explain its shape.

16) Plot graphs of the induced armature voltage (Ea) vs. the field current ( If) for a DC machine operating at rated speed. Explain the shape of your graph. How would your graph change when the machine operates at Â½ of is rated speed? [4] 17) Draw four interconnections of the field and armature circuits of a DC ma chine to achieve different machine configurations. Name each of the configuratio ns. [12] 18) Draw the armature voltage vs. current characteristic of an ideal separat ely excited DC generator. (Ideal => neglect armature reaction). [2] 19) [2] 20) [5] What effect does armature reaction have on a DC generator?

Explain the armature reaction phenomenon present in DC machines.

21) Draw the power flow diagram of a shunt DC machine operating in generator mode. Label all the power components in your diagram. [5] 22) Draw the power flow diagram of a shunt DC machine operating in motor mod e. Label all the power components in your diagram. [5] 23) Derive an expression for the torque versus speed characteristic of a sep arately excited DC motor. [4] 24) Draw the torque versus speed characteristic of a separately excited DC m otor. What is the relevance of this characteristic to the load torque on the sha ft of the motor? [6] 25) Show how the torque versus speed characteristic of a separately excited DC motor changes with armature voltage. Label your diagram fully. [3] 26) Show how the torque versus speed characteristic of a separately excited DC motor changes with field excitation. Label your diagram fully. [3] 27) Show how the torque versus speed characteristic of a separately excited DC motor changes with armature resistance. Label your diagram fully. [3]

Problems set (PC-SEN) 4.1

4.2 4.16 4.27 4.35

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