You are on page 1of 2
KINDS OF IMPELLERS ‘A rotating impeller in a fluid imparts flow and shear to it, the shear resulting from the low of one portion of the fluid past another. Limiting cases of flow are in the axial or radial directions so that impellers are classified conveniently according to which of these flows is dominant. By reason of reflections from vessel surfaces and ‘obstruction by baffles end other internals, however, flow patterns in ‘most eases are mixed, When a close approach to axial flow is particularly desirable, as for suspension of the solids of a slurry, the impeller may be housed in a draft tube; and when radial flow is needed, a shrouded turbine consisting of a rotor and a stator may bbe employed. Because the performance of a particular shape of impeller ‘usually cannot be predicted quantitatively, impeller design is largely ‘an exercise of judgment so a considerable variety has been put forth by various manufacturers. A few common types are illustrated on Figure 10.2 and are described as follows: ' The three-bladed mixing propeller is modelled on the marine propeller but has a pitch sctected for maximum turbulence. They are used at relatively high speeds (up to 1800rpm) with low viscosity fluids, up to about 4000¢P, Many versions are avail- able: with cutout or perforated blades for shredding and breaking ‘up lumps, with sawtooth edges as on Figure 10.2(g) for cutting and tearing action, and with other than three blades. The stabilizing ring shown in the illustration sometimes is included to minimize shaft futter and vibration pasticularly at low liguid levels. b. The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is suited to the vast majority of mixing duties up to 100,000cP or so at high pumping capacity. The simple geometry of this design fand of the turbines of Figures 10.2(c) and (4) has inspired ‘extensive testing so that prediction of their performance is on a ce rational basis than that of any other kind of impeller. . The horizontal plate to which the impeller blades of this turbine ‘are attached has a stabilizing effect. Backward curved blades ‘may be used for the same reason as for type e. Turbine with blades are inclined 45° (usually). Constructions ‘with two {0 eight blades are used, six being most common. ‘Combined axial and radial flow are achieved. Especially effective for heat exchange with vessel walls or intemal coil. fe. Curved blade turbines effectively disperse fibrous materials ‘without fouling. The swept back blades have a lower starting torque than straight ones, which is important when starting up settled sluries. f Shrouded turbines consisting of @ rotor and a stator ensure a high degree of radial flow and shearing action, and are well adapted to emulsification and dispersion Flat plate impellers with sawtooth edges are suited 10 emul sification and dispersion, Since the shearing action is localized, bales are not required. Propellers and turbines alsoare sometimes provided with sawtooth edges to improve shear. 'h. Cage beaters impart a cutting and beating action. Usually they are mounted on the same shaft with a standard propeller. More violent action may be obtained with spined blades. Anchor paddles it the contour of the container, prevent ticking of pasty materials, and promote good heat transfer with the wal, J. Gatepaddlesare usedin wide, shallowtanksand formaterialsot high viscosity when low shear is zdequate. Shaft speeds are low. Some ‘designs include hinged scrapers to clean the sides and bottom of the tank. , Hollow shaft and hollow impeller assemblies are operated at high ip speeds for recirculating gases. The gas enters the shaft above the liquid level and isexpelied centrifugal at the impeller. Circulation ratesare relatively ow, but satisfactory for some hydrogenations for instance, 1. This arrangement of a shrouded screw impeller and heat exchange coil for viscous liquidsis perhaps representative of the many designs that serve special applications in chemical processing,