COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information).[1] Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and a receiver. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, and writing. asdssads

Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. A portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form. Other communication channels such as telegraphy fit into this category, whereby signals travel from person to person by an alternative means. These signals can in themselves be representative of words, objects or merely be state projections. Trials ave shown that

Symbolic. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. A smile. Physical Contact. For example. This is the personal type of communication. the 21-gun salute. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories: Physical. Dynamic Features Facial Expressions. voice tonality or words. holding. sense of touch. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious. Posture. or even back-to-back. People may present themselves in various ways: face-toface. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures. Signs.humans can communicate directly in this way[5] without body language. embracing. status. Orientation. sense of smell. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. Obviously one can be lying down. and body motions. This is the mechanical type of communication. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange. or standing. which includes the use of signal flags. and sirens. It includes facial expressions. or ego-building symbols. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction. and sneer all convey information. horns. tone of voice. frown. side-to-side. while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange. yawn. raised eyebrow. Categories and Features G. pushing. . cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another. Static Features Distance. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction. Shaking hands. W. touching. seated. or patting on the back all convey messages.

It can convey emotion. A major feature of social communication is eye contact.Gestures. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. . Looking. One of the most frequently observed.. or aversion. signal when to talk or finish. cues is a hand movement. a clenched fist) have universal meanings. most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.g. While some gestures (e. but least understood.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful