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The ex  process basca s connuous shapng a f u po er hrough
he orfce of a suab e oo (de), and subsequen so dfyng  no a produc (exrudae
of consan cross secon). In he case of hermop ascs, he feed maera , n powder or
pe e form, s mos common y heaed o a f ud sae and pumped no he de, hrough a
screw exruder  s hen so dfed by coo ng afer exng from he de. Exruson
producs are ofen subd ded no groups ha nc ude f amens of crcu ar cross-secon,
prof es of rregu ar cross secon, axs symmerc ubes and ppes, and f a producs such
as f ms or shees.

Fgure 1. Exruson des can have comp ex shapes o (a) compensae for de swe , (b) dsrbue
maera across he wdh of a shee, or (c) coa a wre. 1

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The f m b owng process basca y consss of a exrudng a ube of mo en
hermop asc and connuous y nf ang  o severa mes na dameer, o form a hn
ubu ar produc ha can be used drec y, or s  o form a f a f m. F ms produced by he
f m b owng process are wde y used for agrcu ura , consrucon, and ndusra
app caons, nc udng covers for s age, greenhouses, chemca 'so ar ponds, f a cars,
ec., or for a varey of packng app caons, wh nc ude wrap, can nng, fabrcaed
bags such as garbage bags, gusseed (V-ucks, W-fo ds) fashon bags, and T-shr bags
(sacks) for groceres.

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ÊInroducon o Manufacurng Processes, John A. Schey, 2nd Ed., McGraw H , 1987.Ê
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Shee hermoformng, or smp y hermoformng, nvo ves he heang of a f a
hermop asc shee o a sofened sae (above he g ass ranson emperaure Tg for non-
crysa  ng hermop ascs or near he me ng emperaure Tm for crysa  ng ones),
fo owed by he deformaon (formng) of he sofened shee no a desred shape by
pneumac or mechanca means, and fna y s so dfcaon no hs shape by coo ng.

Fgure 3. (1) A f a p asc shee s sofened by heang (2) he sofened shee s p aced over a concave mo d
cavy (3) a vacuum draws he shee no he cavy and (4) he p asc hardens on conac wh he co d
mo d surface, and he par s removed and subsequen y rmmed from he web.

Producs made by shee hermoformng nc ude skn and b ser packs, ndvdua
conaners for e y or cream, va s, cups, ubs, rays and ds. As many as m ons of pars
per day can be produced wh a oo feaurng severa hundred caves. Larger producs
are genera y made from cu shees a much shower raes he heang sage ofen she
mng facor. Transparen producs, such as conoured wndows, sky ghs and cockp
canopes, are ofen made by hs mehod.
c    
The basc prncp e of he b ow mo dng process s o nf ae a sofened
hermop asc ho ow perform agans he coo ed surface of a c osed mo d, where he
maera so dfes no a ho ow produc.

Fgure 4. (1) Inecon mo dng of parson, (2) srechng, and (3) b owng.

Packng s he maor area of app caon of sma omedum-s e dsposab e b ow


mo ded producs. Lqud foodsuffs are ncreasng y packaged n narrow neck p asc PET
bo es. ^ ow mo ded conaners are a so used for cosmecs, o eres, pharmaceuca
and medca packagng and a varey of househo d producs.

c    
The compresson mo dng process s used for emperaure acvaed hermoseng
po ymers. -ompresson mo dng basca y nvo ves he pressng of a deformab e maera
charge beween he wo ha ves of a heaed mo d, and s ransformaon no a so d
produc under he effec of he e evaed mo d emperaure. -ompresson mo dng
emperaures are ofen n he range 140-200 0- mo d pressures can vary from 35 am o
700 am. Maera charges are ofen pre-heaed o speed up he na sofenng sage.
-ompresson mo dng s characer ed by he show and moderae f ow of he very vscous
maera charge o f he cavy, and  s no norma y suab e for makng comp caed
pars, or pars feaurng frag e nsers.
Fgure 5. (1) -harge s oaded, (2) and (3) charge s compressed and cured, and (4) par s eeced and
removed.

c    
Transfer mo dng s ofen assocaed wh compresson mo dng, because  s used
wh he same wo c asses of maera s, emperaure-acvaed hermo ses, and
vu can ab e rubbers. In ransfer mo dng a sofened emperaure-acvaed maera s
ransferred hrough a narrow gae no he c osed cavy of a heaed mo d, where  cures
o a so d sae. Transfer mo dng s norma y used wh maera s ha have far y hgh
pre-curng f udy, fac ang he f ow from he oadng area o caves. Ths a so
perms he mo dng of comp ex pars, pars feaurng frag e nsers.

c   

Fgure 6. (a) $ecprocang p unger and (b) recprocang roang screw.


The necon mo dng process nvo ves he rapd pressure f ng of a specfc
mo d cavy wh a f ud maera , fo owed by he so dfcaon of he maera no a
produc. The process s used for hermop ascs, hermoseng resns, and rubbers.

The necon mo dng of hermop ascs can be subdvded no a severa sages.
A he p ascy sage, he feed un operaes prey much as an exruder, me ng and
homogen ng he maera n he screw'barre sysem. The screw however s a owed o
rerac, o make room for he mo en maera reservor. A he necon sae, he screw s
used as a ram for he rapd ransfer of he mo en maera from he reservor o he cavy
beween he wo ha ves of he c osed mo d. Snce he mo d s kep a a emperaure be ow
he so dfcaon emperaure of he maera ,  s essena o nec he mo en maera
rapd y ensure comp ee f ng of he cavy. A hgh ho dng packng pressure s norma y
exered, o para y compensae for he herma conracon of he maera upon coo ng.
Afer he coo ng sage, he mo d can be opened and he so d produc removed.

Fgure 7. Typca cavy pressure varaons over he enre necon mo dng cyc e are shown here.

The cavy pressure rses rapd y durng he f ng sage, whch s fo owed by he
ho dng or he packng sage. Once he gae freezes off, he cavy pressure decays wh
me  he par s eeced. A hgh pressures, a po ymer me  s compressb e a owng
addona maera o be packed n he mo d cavy afer mo d f ng s comp ee. Ths s
necessary o reduce non-unform par shrnkage, whch eads o par warp age. Excessve
packng resu s n a hgh y sressed par and may cause eecon prob ems whereas
nsuffcen packng causes poor surface, snk marks, we ds and non-unform shrnkage.

A hermop ascs are, n prncp e, suab e for necon mo dng, bu snce fas
f ow raes are needed, grades wh good f udy are norma y preferab e. Sgnfcan
dfferences n ease of mo dng, and he resu ng srucure and properes of producs are
found beween amorphous and crysa zng hermop ascs hey concern prob ems such
as shrnkage, warp age, snk marks, f ashng, and shor shos.

Fgure 8. Pressure hsory vares wh poson.

The pressure dsrbuon nsde he mo d cavy changes wh dsance from he
n e gae. The fgure 8 shows a smp e par geomery wh pressure varaons among he
pons one, wo and hree respecve y. Furher away from he gae, pressure rses s ow y
and  decays qucker han a he pons c oser o he gae. The pressure n he mo d cavy
shou d be more unform o mnmze par war page.

A maor dsadvanage of necon mo ded producs s he ncorporaon of fne


dea s such as bosses, ocang pns, mounng ho es, rbs, f anges, ec., whch norma y
e mnaes assemb y and fnshng operaons.
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