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The operation of the reservoir was synergized with Hydropower energy demand. The study come with the idea to managing energy production and planning for maintenance Hydro plan unit and Smelterplant unit with dependable flow projection where is on September and october is the best time to shutdown the unit for maintenance.

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1st Nurkholis 2nd Aulia M. T. Nasution 3rd Bambang L. Widjiantoro

Master Student at Engineering Physics Senior Lecturer at Engineering Physics Senior Lecturer at Engineering Physics

Department Department Department

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Surabaya, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia

nurkholis@vale.com anasution@its.ac.id blelono@yahoo.com

line 5: email address

line 1: 6th

Abstract— Energy Is one I. INTRODUCTION forming a cascade. optimal energy to be

of impoertant thing beside Furthermore, reservoirs can produce nickel and build

raw of material to produce

Pt Vale Indonesia as

Global resource companies be classified according to maintenance planning of the

nickel In order to meet their function and one

are currently operating Unit hydropower generation

energy requirement to distinguishes single purpose

produce Nickel through the under very challenging and Smelter plant to

economic and regulatory and multi-purpose increase reliability and

process of smelting pyro reservoirs. Single purpose

metallurgy, PT. Vale conditions. In response to Nickel production. .

growing society concern reservoirs have a clear

Indonesia operates three

about the various impacts of function and water may be 1. Hydropower

hydroelectric power plants:

Larona, Balambano and the minerals industry, and used for power generation Technology

Karebbe. These plants the emergence of the supply and flood

generate 365 megawatts of concept of sustainable management. The operation In engineering, power is

power that supplies the development as the key of multi-purpose reservoirs the rate with respect to

electricity to operate smelter framework within which also involves various time of doing work. The

plant. The presence of these impacts are analyzed, interactions between these work may be in form of

hydroelectric plants reduce most organizations in the different functions that can mechanical, electrical,

the need for fuel-based sector are now reporting lead to conflicting interests. or hydraulic. In any

power plants, they are the

their performance in this [2] work process, forces are

main initiative energy

area using a range of involved on or by a

efficiency program, and system whereby a

significantly reduce sustainability indicators.

Among these, energy use system is defined as a

greenhouse gas emissions. quantity of matter that is

Hydroelectric using water and its impact on climate

change are priorities, with bounded. Hydropower

from Larona River which is the rate at which

had a relative high annual many company

sustainability reports hydraulic energy is

debit fluctuation and hence it

including total energy use extracted from a specific

was necessary to retain the

excessive water debit in the and associated greenhouse amount of falling water

rainy season to overcome the gas (GHG) emissions in as a result of its velocity

deficit of the water in the dry both absolute and relative or position or both. The

season by constructing three terms (i.e. normalized to a rate of change of

cascade reservoir in the per unit product) among angular momentum of

downstream of Towuti lake their key environmental falling water or its

for hydropower operation. A sustainability indicators. pressure or both on the

dam stores water in a Companies are setting turbine blade surfaces

reservoir, from which water

targets to achieve creates a differential

flows through penstock pipes

improvements in these Fig 1 Location of force on the turbine

to-generate electricity. The Hydroelectric Power runner thereby causing

quantity of electricity indicators[1]

Generation rotary motion. As a

produced is determined by Nickel production most working fluid, water in a

the volume of water flow and of depend on : 1. Energy, 2. Study case on this paper hydropower system is

the height from the top of the Raw of material, and 3. at PT Vale Indonesia not consumed, it is thus

turbines to the water surface Reliability. In this paper located at South Sulawesi. available for other uses

at the base of the dam. The The operation of multi

will be focused of the [6].

operation of the reservoir reservoir systems from

energy management which

was synergized with a. General overview

point 2 and Point 3 will be different points of view and

Hydropower energy demand. of hydropower

another study. with various objectives as

The study come with the idea schemes

to managing energy well as by different

Operational activity and organizers easily results in

production and planning for policy for water Hydropower can be

maintenance Hydro plan conflicts. For example, in generated wherever

management distribution for the Larona, balambano and

unit and Smelterplant unit several conditions are a flow of water

with dependable flow Karebbe Reservoirs, All descends from a

determining factors for both reservoirs using for

projection where is on

the water stored in and higher level to a

September and october is the generation of hydropower is lower level. The

best time to shutdown the released from reservoirs. the main issue and the main

The type of reservoir difference between

unit for maintenance rather objective is to maintain the two water

than still running to respon operation involves various head in order to produce

significant steps and surface elevations

demand 295 Mw with maximum power. The is referred to as

additional diesel power regulations in decision philosophy of this model is

making. head. Head can

generation which is most to make use of the water exist in nature, for

costly. The results show that balance in the reservoirs by

Based on the type of instance when a

the proposed technique is applying proportional/equal

capable of producing better system, there are single and stream runs down a

multi-reservoir systems. sharing of water that is steep hillside or

results.

Multi-reservoir systems can based on the effective when a sharp

Keywords— water saving, be organized and connected volume for each reservoir. change in elevation

smelter, energy, hydropower, both in series or as parallel The main objective of creates a waterfall

larona river units. In this paper, we in a river. However,

this study intended to build

focus on multi-reservoir head can also be

an operational model to

systems that are in series, created artificially

ease the decisions about the

by constructing a 2. Hedging rules for taken on x-axis and energy to be smelted

weir or dam; the hydropower reservoir 'release' is taken on y- [5]. Current in the

dam creates a operation axis. In other words, electrode produces a

barrier to water water demand to huge amount of heat to

From the above listed

flow, raising the domestic, industrial, or smelt the calcine in the

upstream water literature, it is evident irrigation water supply furnace. Figure 3 below

that hedging rules have

level to the desired reservoir is a fixed shown actual energy

elevation. As a been applied for value in a given period. consume by each

domestic, industrial,

result of elevation However, in the case of smelter

differences and irrigation water hydropower reservoir,

supplies. The benefit of

gravitational water demand is not

potential energy is these cases is a function constant; but, power

of water flowrate.

stored in the water; demand is constant.

this energy can be However, in the case of Hence, the rules with

hydropower generation,

exploited by 'storage available' on x-

installing turbines the benefitt is a axis and 'power

function of product of

and generators. production' on y-axis

Water flow moves head of water and are similar to the

flowrate. Hence, the Fig 4 Load of the Furnaces in

the turbine blades, operation rules applied PT. Vale Indonesia

thereby converting hedging rules used for for municipal water

other purposes cannot

water’s potential supply (Figure 3).

energy into kinetic be directly used for Hence, the operation Each smelter required

hydropower reservoir energy

energy. The turbine rules may be presented

rotation forces the operation.[4] in the graphical form a. Provide energy to

generator rotator to The power generation with 'power generation

complete reduction

spin around the (P) from hydropower possible' (based on

stator thereby releasing all the reactions.

reservoir is directly

converting kinetic available water or the b. Provide energy to

proportional to both

energy first to flowrate (Q) and turbine capacity melt matte and slag.

mechanical energy, available head (H) at whichever is less) on x- c. Provide energy to

and then to the turbine). The axis and 'power maintain bath at

electrical energy relationship between generation' (suggested specified

[6]. head and storage as per the rule) on y- temperature.

available in the axis. However, d. Provide vessel

reservoir is non-linear. providing the rule with volume with

If the water availability 'storage available' on x- sufficient capacity

in a reservoir is more, axis and 'release of for required

the head availability is water' on y-axis is more residence time.

also more. Hence, for a readable. e. Product: Matte ~

given quantity of power 1350 ºC; ~25 - 30%

generation, when the Ni.

water availability in a f. Disposal: Slag ~

reservoir is less, more 1540 ºC; ~ 55 - 60%

discharge is required. Fe

Thus, for a given power High voltage smelting

generation, water

of ferronickel or nickel

Fig 2 Typical of demand is a function of

available storage[16]. laterite ore requires

Hydroelectric Power

Generation However, water shielding of the arc

demand in the case of Fig 3 Typical Scheme of cavity below a deep

Power and Release vs calcine.

b. Classification and domestic, industrial, or Available Storage

types of irrigation water supply

hydropower is not dependent on 3. Energy Demand

schemes available water in the

reservoir. According to PT Vale Indonesia

As mentioned using 4 smelters, for

earlier, each the hedging rules

developed for the nickel reduction by

hydropower plant is carried out in furnace

site-specific, but operation of domestic,

industrial, or irrigation by using pyro-

plants can be metallurgy process. The

classified according water supply reservoir,

water release depends current is transferred

to the following through electrode

parameters: on available water

alone (since the water through the bath that

• Size or installed demand is taken as a function as impedance

capacity constant for a given (Z) in the system.

period) and, hence, in Impedance is actually

• Head availability identical as a load to the

the graphical form,

• Operation regime 'available water' is furnace that requires

power demand [10]. variety of constraints as

Fig 5 One line diagram Therefore, the evaluation follows:

electricity source

objective is to obtain the

difference between the 1) Demand constraints

(2) The total power generated

maximum power output

Figure 5 is shown from the cascade where, F (Psit ) is the must balance the power

energy mapping both total fuel cost, T is the demand plus losses, at each

hydropower complex and

hydro and thermal actual power output during number of time interval for time interval over the entire

generation using four scheduling horizon, Ns is scheduling period

the same period. The

smelter in nickel objective function can be the number of thermal

production, in 2011 described as below: plants and Psit is the power

energy from thermal generation by the i-th

production starting to thermal plants at time t.

(5)

decrease, in line Conventionally, the fuel

Karebbe hydro power (1) where Phjt is the power

cost curve for any unit can

plant cascade from where T is time horizon; be represented by segments generation of jth hydro

Balambano was N is the total number of of quadratic functions of the generating unit at time t, PDt

Installed with capacity hydropower plants in the active power output of the is power demand at time t

cascade plants; i is index for generator and can be and , PLt is total

design 2 × 65 MW.

the number of plants; Δt is expressed as transmission loss at the

time interval (hours); t is the corresponding time.

index for the current period; The hydropower

Pi,t is power output generation is a function of

(3) water discharge rate and

during the tth period

(kW); ηi,t is the hydropower where, asi, bsi, csi, fuel reservoir storage volume,

generation efficiency of the cost coefficients of the i-th which can be described by

ith plant during the period; thermal unit. (5) as follow:

Qi,t is the discharge through For more practical and

the plant turbines of the ith accurate modeling of fuel

plant during the tth period cost function, the above

Fig 6 Energy Mapping in PT. (m3/s); Hi,t is the difference expression needs to be

between reservoir water (6)

Vale Indonesia modified suitably. Modern

level and tail-race water thermal power plants Where C1j, C2j C3j, C4j,

level for the ith plant during comprise of generating C5j, C6j, are power

the tth period (m). units having multi-valve generation coefficients of j

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

Study emphasized the steam turbines in order to th hydro generating unit,

A. Objective Functions maximization of economic incorporate flexible Vhjt is the storage volume of

benefits focused on the operational facilities. The j-th reservoir at time t and

and Constraints

development of techniques generating units with multi- Qhjt is water discharge rate

The principal scope of valve turbines have very of j-th reservoir at time t.

this paper is to discover or the establishment of

management rules and different cost curve

how the hydropower compared with that defined B. Typical Hydro Plant

reservoirs system could applying them to water

resources management and by (3). The effect of valve- Discharge Constraints

produce more power point effect loading may be

generation as a clean planning, After specifying the

considered by adding a release in time interval, the

energy. Therefore, Economic generation sinusoidal function [9] to

maximizing the total power scheduling of hydrothermal quantity of releases (Rt)

the quadratic cost function must be checked to be in a

generation throughout the systems involves the described above. Hence, the

horizontal time (2011-2017) optimization of a problem permissible limit.[5]

function described by (3) is

was taken as an objective with nonlinear objective revised as follows:

whenever different physical function subject to a

and operational limits are mixture of linear, non-linear

considered. Hence, the constraints. As the fuel cost (7)

objective function can be of hydroelectric plants is

affirmed as a nonlinear where, Qmin and Qmax

insignificant in comparison

optimization problem, are the minimum and

with that of thermal power (4)

which is accompany with maximum water discharge

plants, the objective is to

constrained [5]. Where fu (Psit) is the rate of the j-th reservoir

minimize the fuel cost of

fuel cost function of thermal respectively.

Potential Hydropower thermal power plants, while

making use of the units including the valve

Output is defined as the point loading effect and esi, C. Water Balance

difference between actual availability of hydro-

resources as much as fsi are fuel cost coefficients Equation

power output and of the i-th thermal

theoretical power output. possible. The objective After specifying release,

function and associated generating unit. storage at the beginning of

All hydropower plants are

under conditions such that constraints are described as The above objective the next time could be

they satisfy the required follows: function described by (4) is determined by using water

water demand and initial to be minimized subject to a balance equation

Minimize

on optimization using MS

excel 2016 as shown in the

IV. RESUL T AND table I below.

(8)

DISCUSSION

Where, St is storage at time (11)

Larona River basin is TABLE I CALCULATION

t, St-1 is storage at time t-1, Where, P is probability located in Southeast DATA INFLOW OF LARONA

It is inflow at time t, Et is plotting (%), X is random Sulawesi at approximately RIVER

evaporation at time t, Rt is variable, x is probability 2° 40' latitude south and

release at time t, SPt is spill distribution associated with 121° 20' east.. The reservoir

at time t. the rank m. was built for the main

purpose of hydropower

D. Reservoir Storage m Ranking position, n

generation. The reservoir

Capacity number of years. The

has a storage capacity of

analysis procedure is as

The reservoir storage 2057,05 million m3 at a full

follows:

capacity or water available reservoir level of 319.6 m

in time interval must be 1. The frequency or and its capacity at minimum

located in permissible number of maximum to draw down level of 316.70

limits. minimum occurrence m m is 390,83 million m3.

in the n years of 365 There are 8 turbines with a

daily discharge data has maximum total power

been selected. The daily generation capacity of 380

(9) inflow, diversion, an MW with proportional

overflow data has been operation. Smelter consume

Where, Smin is selected as well up to 295 MW, Auxiliary From data calculation

reservoir storage at 50-60 MW and 3% losses for 32 year period found

minimum water level, and 2. The 80% of failure through transmission line. trend inflow with affecting

Smax is reservoir storage at probability of the data level of reservoir during a

maximum operating level. has been analyzing to Thirty-two years of year, defendable flow for

determine the minimum inflow into the reservoir is 20, 50 and 80 % probability

E. Hydro Power Plant discharge. The used in this study. Monthly there are shown in August

Constraints percentage of period is used and, hence, September and October the

probability of 50% can for the 32 years, the total target energy cannot be

The power generation in be considered as the number of periods is 365. respond of the power

time interval must be mean discharge. The evaporation loss is demand if smelter demand

located in acceptable limits calculated by multiplying set at 295MWH due to low

as: water spread area and rate water availability.

III. METHODOLOGY

of evaporation. In a

The methodology of this monthly step, the average From data simulation

experiment as follow. storage ((beginning storage using Q50 inflow with

(10) + end storage)/2) is worked maintenance and production

and the corresponding planning shut down during

Where, Gmin: minimum a year, which is current

energy generation (KWh), water.

planning to shutdown 3

and Gmax: maximum generator Hydro larona for

power generation (KWh). 70 day starting on february,

The above-mentioned during shut down in

parameters are specified february-April as shown on

according to turbines the table II need to run

capacity. diesel power generation to

F. Hydrology Inflow supply energy 69,744

MWH, also on september

By using the Weibull and october water

formula, historical supply availability tend to low if

data of several years were the production still set at

analyzed independently. 295MWH The diesel

This formula enables to generator will run to supply

provide a reasonably Fig 7 The Hydropower energy 28,800 MWH to

accurate forecast based on Energy Management for compensate power demand.

small samples, as well as Nickel Smelter Fig 8 Correlation between

simple and useful plot. In Flow Vs Rainfall

the Weibull for the n value From data evaluation

(number of years) are assume raw of material Projection Water

distributed uniform between enough and actual data availability was calculated

0-100 percent probability, availability of the smelter from 32 years’ data using

so there must be n plus 1 90%, all data collected and Weibull as equation 11, and

interval, n – 1 between the calculated to find best result found data which reflecting

data point 1 and 2 at the of planning and managing condition in dry (less

end.[8] energy inflow), Normal and Wet

(more inflow) season based

TABLE II ENERGY DEMMAND Reservoir with no Efficiency Across Mineral inter-basin water transfer-

FOR DAM RIVER FLOW spilling Processing and Smelting supply systems. Water

Operations – A New Resources Management

2. During September water Approach 2015; 29(10): 3787-806.

availability tend to low [2] Azmery, “An Optimization [14] Zhao T, Cai X, Yang D.

and to respond energy to Multi-Reservoir Operation Effect of streamflow forecast

Based on Integrated Water uncertainty on real-time

demand around 295 Resources Management” reservoir operation. Adv

MWH. thermal power [3] K. Sasirekaa;_ and T.R. Water Resour 2011; 34(4):

plant needed to fulfill Neelakantanb,1 495-504.

energy “Optimization of hedging [15] Tospornsampan J, Kita I,

rules for hydropower Ishii M, Kitamura Y.

3. Inflow At Q50 During reservoir operation Optimization of a multiple

September and October, [4] Tayebiyan A, Ali TA, Ghazali reservoir system operation

Diesel generation will AH, Malek M. Optimization using a combination of

of exclusive release policies genetic algorithm and

be running around discrete differential dynamic

for hydropower reservoir

28,800 MWH. to operation by using genetic programming: a case study

respond power demand algorithm. Water Resources in Mae Klong system,

Base on current hydro Thailand. Paddy and Water

Management 2016: 30(3):

powerplant shutdown 4. Operational Planning 1203-16. Environment 2005; 3(1): 29-

planning compare with both from hydropower 38.

[5] J. Cheung*, I. Khan, B.

study in this paper shown Plant and Smelter plant Lueger, R. Rand, M. [16] Hossain MS, El-Shafie A.

on February inflow tend to can be use water inflow Sedighy, D. Shen, T. Ma. M. Intelligent systems in

increase at highest 230 m/s3 optimizing reservoir

table to panning major Rifai, R. Saleh, W. Sauri, D.

operation policy: a review.

to the batubessi reservoir shutdown maintenance Setianto “World’s first power

demand stabilization system Water Resources

where is water will be during September and for a 3-electrode electric arc Management 2013; 27(9):

release through spill October. furnace for Shielded arc 3387-407.

without energy generation Nickel Smelting” [17] Fallah-Mehdipour E, Haddad

and there is cost USD$ 10 5. Operation Cost Potential Mississauga, Ontario, OB, Mariño M. Real-time

Million to run diesel to be reduce approx. Canada L5K 1B1 operation of reservoir system

generator USD $4.5 Million a year [6] International Finace by genetic programming.

if shutdown move to corporation “Hydroelectric Water Resources

Power A Guide for Management 2012; 26(14):

September-November 4091-103.

develovers and Investor”

[7] Kharagpur “Module 4 [18] Neboh N, Adeyemo J, Enitan

Hydraulic Structures for A, Olugbara O. A Review on

Flow Diversion and Storage” Applications of Evolutionary

Version 2 CE IIT, Lesson 5 Algorithms to Reservoir

Acknowledgements Planning Of Water Storage Operation for Hydropower

This study is part of the Reservoirs Production. International

Journal of Environmental,

Megister research which [8] Standard nasional Indonesia Chemical, Ecological,

was done in Institut “ Perhitungan debit andalan Geological and Geophysical

Sungai dengan kurva durasi

Teknologi Sepuluh debit” SNI 6738: 2015

Engineering 2015; 9(9):

1115-21.

Nopember, Surabaya, [9] L. Lakshminarasimman and [19] Neelakantan T, Sasireka K.

Indonesia S. Subramanian, “A Hydropower reservoir

. Modified Hybrid Differential operation using standard

Fig 9 energy cost during Evolution for Short-Term operating and standard

ayear Scheduling of Hydrothermal

Authors’ contributions hedging policies. Int J Eng

Power Systems with Techn 2013; 5(2): 1191-6..

All authors Cascaded Reservoirs,”

Compare between study participated in the Energy Conversion &

Management, Vol. 49, No.

result and current design of the study, 10, 2008, pp. 2513-2521.

maintenance planning there performed the doi:org/10.1016/j.enconman.

is potential saving of energy literature search and 2008.05.021 [Citation

if schedule shutdown move Time(s):3]

wrote the manuscript,

to the September – October data acquisition, [10] Teasley, R.L.; McKinney,

approx. USD $4.5 Million D.C. Calculating the benefits

analysis, and of transboundary river basin

as shown on the figure 9 interpretation. All cooperation:

authors critically [11] Syr Darya Basin. J. Water

V. CONCLUSIONS reviewed, refined, and Resour. Plan. Manag. 2011,

6, 481–490.

The reservoir management approved the [12] Zhang R, Zhou J, Zhang H,

it is very important to manuscript Liao X, Wang X. Optimal

generated power PT Vale operation of large-scale

cascaded hydropower

Indonesia to produce nickel systems in the upper reaches

at optimum and low cost of the Yangtze River, China.

energy. Journal of Water Resources

1. Optimum operation Planning and Management

2012; 140(4): 480-95.

energy management by

using strategy REFERENCES [13] Peng Y, Chu J, Peng A, Zhou

H. Optimization operation

proportional operation [1] C L Evans, B L Coulter, E

model coupled with

between 3 cascade Wightman and A S Burrows

improving water-transfer

“Improving Energy

rules and hedging rules for

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