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Hydropower Energy Management for Nickel Smelter

(Study Case PT Vale Indonesia)


1st Nurkholis 2nd Aulia M. T. Nasution 3rd Bambang L. Widjiantoro
Master Student at Engineering Physics Senior Lecturer at Engineering Physics Senior Lecturer at Engineering Physics
Department Department Department
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
Surabaya, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia
line 5: email address
line 1: 6th
Abstract— Energy Is one I. INTRODUCTION forming a cascade. optimal energy to be
of impoertant thing beside Furthermore, reservoirs can produce nickel and build
raw of material to produce
Pt Vale Indonesia as
Global resource companies be classified according to maintenance planning of the
nickel In order to meet their function and one
are currently operating Unit hydropower generation
energy requirement to distinguishes single purpose
produce Nickel through the under very challenging and Smelter plant to
economic and regulatory and multi-purpose increase reliability and
process of smelting pyro reservoirs. Single purpose
metallurgy, PT. Vale conditions. In response to Nickel production. .
growing society concern reservoirs have a clear
Indonesia operates three
about the various impacts of function and water may be 1. Hydropower
hydroelectric power plants:
Larona, Balambano and the minerals industry, and used for power generation Technology
Karebbe. These plants the emergence of the supply and flood
generate 365 megawatts of concept of sustainable management. The operation In engineering, power is
power that supplies the development as the key of multi-purpose reservoirs the rate with respect to
electricity to operate smelter framework within which also involves various time of doing work. The
plant. The presence of these impacts are analyzed, interactions between these work may be in form of
hydroelectric plants reduce most organizations in the different functions that can mechanical, electrical,
the need for fuel-based sector are now reporting lead to conflicting interests. or hydraulic. In any
power plants, they are the
their performance in this [2] work process, forces are
main initiative energy
area using a range of involved on or by a
efficiency program, and system whereby a
significantly reduce sustainability indicators.
Among these, energy use system is defined as a
greenhouse gas emissions. quantity of matter that is
Hydroelectric using water and its impact on climate
change are priorities, with bounded. Hydropower
from Larona River which is the rate at which
had a relative high annual many company
sustainability reports hydraulic energy is
debit fluctuation and hence it
including total energy use extracted from a specific
was necessary to retain the
excessive water debit in the and associated greenhouse amount of falling water
rainy season to overcome the gas (GHG) emissions in as a result of its velocity
deficit of the water in the dry both absolute and relative or position or both. The
season by constructing three terms (i.e. normalized to a rate of change of
cascade reservoir in the per unit product) among angular momentum of
downstream of Towuti lake their key environmental falling water or its
for hydropower operation. A sustainability indicators. pressure or both on the
dam stores water in a Companies are setting turbine blade surfaces
reservoir, from which water
targets to achieve creates a differential
flows through penstock pipes
improvements in these Fig 1 Location of force on the turbine
to-generate electricity. The Hydroelectric Power runner thereby causing
quantity of electricity indicators[1]
Generation rotary motion. As a
produced is determined by Nickel production most working fluid, water in a
the volume of water flow and of depend on : 1. Energy, 2. Study case on this paper hydropower system is
the height from the top of the Raw of material, and 3. at PT Vale Indonesia not consumed, it is thus
turbines to the water surface Reliability. In this paper located at South Sulawesi. available for other uses
at the base of the dam. The The operation of multi
will be focused of the [6].
operation of the reservoir reservoir systems from
energy management which
was synergized with a. General overview
point 2 and Point 3 will be different points of view and
Hydropower energy demand. of hydropower
another study. with various objectives as
The study come with the idea schemes
to managing energy well as by different
Operational activity and organizers easily results in
production and planning for policy for water Hydropower can be
maintenance Hydro plan conflicts. For example, in generated wherever
management distribution for the Larona, balambano and
unit and Smelterplant unit several conditions are a flow of water
with dependable flow Karebbe Reservoirs, All descends from a
determining factors for both reservoirs using for
projection where is on
the water stored in and higher level to a
September and october is the generation of hydropower is lower level. The
best time to shutdown the released from reservoirs. the main issue and the main
The type of reservoir difference between
unit for maintenance rather objective is to maintain the two water
than still running to respon operation involves various head in order to produce
significant steps and surface elevations
demand 295 Mw with maximum power. The is referred to as
additional diesel power regulations in decision philosophy of this model is
making. head. Head can
generation which is most to make use of the water exist in nature, for
costly. The results show that balance in the reservoirs by
Based on the type of instance when a
the proposed technique is applying proportional/equal
capable of producing better system, there are single and stream runs down a
multi-reservoir systems. sharing of water that is steep hillside or
Multi-reservoir systems can based on the effective when a sharp
Keywords— water saving, be organized and connected volume for each reservoir. change in elevation
smelter, energy, hydropower, both in series or as parallel The main objective of creates a waterfall
larona river units. In this paper, we in a river. However,
this study intended to build
focus on multi-reservoir head can also be
an operational model to
systems that are in series, created artificially
ease the decisions about the
by constructing a 2. Hedging rules for taken on x-axis and energy to be smelted
weir or dam; the hydropower reservoir 'release' is taken on y- [5]. Current in the
dam creates a operation axis. In other words, electrode produces a
barrier to water water demand to huge amount of heat to
From the above listed
flow, raising the domestic, industrial, or smelt the calcine in the
upstream water literature, it is evident irrigation water supply furnace. Figure 3 below
that hedging rules have
level to the desired reservoir is a fixed shown actual energy
elevation. As a been applied for value in a given period. consume by each
domestic, industrial,
result of elevation However, in the case of smelter
differences and irrigation water hydropower reservoir,
supplies. The benefit of
gravitational water demand is not
potential energy is these cases is a function constant; but, power
of water flowrate.
stored in the water; demand is constant.
this energy can be However, in the case of Hence, the rules with
hydropower generation,
exploited by 'storage available' on x-
installing turbines the benefitt is a axis and 'power
function of product of
and generators. production' on y-axis
Water flow moves head of water and are similar to the
flowrate. Hence, the Fig 4 Load of the Furnaces in
the turbine blades, operation rules applied PT. Vale Indonesia
thereby converting hedging rules used for for municipal water
other purposes cannot
water’s potential supply (Figure 3).
energy into kinetic be directly used for Hence, the operation Each smelter required
hydropower reservoir energy
energy. The turbine rules may be presented
rotation forces the operation.[4] in the graphical form a. Provide energy to
generator rotator to The power generation with 'power generation
complete reduction
spin around the (P) from hydropower possible' (based on
stator thereby releasing all the reactions.
reservoir is directly
converting kinetic available water or the b. Provide energy to
proportional to both
energy first to flowrate (Q) and turbine capacity melt matte and slag.
mechanical energy, available head (H) at whichever is less) on x- c. Provide energy to
and then to the turbine). The axis and 'power maintain bath at
electrical energy relationship between generation' (suggested specified
[6]. head and storage as per the rule) on y- temperature.
available in the axis. However, d. Provide vessel
reservoir is non-linear. providing the rule with volume with
If the water availability 'storage available' on x- sufficient capacity
in a reservoir is more, axis and 'release of for required
the head availability is water' on y-axis is more residence time.
also more. Hence, for a readable. e. Product: Matte ~
given quantity of power 1350 ºC; ~25 - 30%
generation, when the Ni.
water availability in a f. Disposal: Slag ~
reservoir is less, more 1540 ºC; ~ 55 - 60%
discharge is required. Fe
Thus, for a given power High voltage smelting
generation, water
of ferronickel or nickel
Fig 2 Typical of demand is a function of
available storage[16]. laterite ore requires
Hydroelectric Power
Generation However, water shielding of the arc
demand in the case of Fig 3 Typical Scheme of cavity below a deep
Power and Release vs calcine.
b. Classification and domestic, industrial, or Available Storage
types of irrigation water supply
hydropower is not dependent on 3. Energy Demand
schemes available water in the
reservoir. According to PT Vale Indonesia
As mentioned using 4 smelters, for
earlier, each the hedging rules
developed for the nickel reduction by
hydropower plant is carried out in furnace
site-specific, but operation of domestic,
industrial, or irrigation by using pyro-
plants can be metallurgy process. The
classified according water supply reservoir,
water release depends current is transferred
to the following through electrode
parameters: on available water
alone (since the water through the bath that
• Size or installed demand is taken as a function as impedance
capacity constant for a given (Z) in the system.
period) and, hence, in Impedance is actually
• Head availability identical as a load to the
the graphical form,
• Operation regime 'available water' is furnace that requires
power demand [10]. variety of constraints as
Fig 5 One line diagram Therefore, the evaluation follows:
electricity source
objective is to obtain the
difference between the 1) Demand constraints
(2) The total power generated
maximum power output
Figure 5 is shown from the cascade where, F (Psit ) is the must balance the power
energy mapping both total fuel cost, T is the demand plus losses, at each
hydropower complex and
hydro and thermal actual power output during number of time interval for time interval over the entire
generation using four scheduling horizon, Ns is scheduling period
the same period. The
smelter in nickel objective function can be the number of thermal
production, in 2011 described as below: plants and Psit is the power
energy from thermal generation by the i-th
production starting to thermal plants at time t.
decrease, in line Conventionally, the fuel
Karebbe hydro power (1) where Phjt is the power
cost curve for any unit can
plant cascade from where T is time horizon; be represented by segments generation of jth hydro
Balambano was N is the total number of of quadratic functions of the generating unit at time t, PDt
Installed with capacity hydropower plants in the active power output of the is power demand at time t
cascade plants; i is index for generator and can be and , PLt is total
design 2 × 65 MW.
the number of plants; Δt is expressed as transmission loss at the
time interval (hours); t is the corresponding time.
index for the current period; The hydropower
Pi,t is power output generation is a function of
(3) water discharge rate and
during the tth period
(kW); ηi,t is the hydropower where, asi, bsi, csi, fuel reservoir storage volume,
generation efficiency of the cost coefficients of the i-th which can be described by
ith plant during the period; thermal unit. (5) as follow:
Qi,t is the discharge through For more practical and
the plant turbines of the ith accurate modeling of fuel
plant during the tth period cost function, the above
Fig 6 Energy Mapping in PT. (m3/s); Hi,t is the difference expression needs to be
between reservoir water (6)
Vale Indonesia modified suitably. Modern
level and tail-race water thermal power plants Where C1j, C2j C3j, C4j,
level for the ith plant during comprise of generating C5j, C6j, are power
the tth period (m). units having multi-valve generation coefficients of j
Study emphasized the steam turbines in order to th hydro generating unit,
A. Objective Functions maximization of economic incorporate flexible Vhjt is the storage volume of
benefits focused on the operational facilities. The j-th reservoir at time t and
and Constraints
development of techniques generating units with multi- Qhjt is water discharge rate
The principal scope of valve turbines have very of j-th reservoir at time t.
this paper is to discover or the establishment of
management rules and different cost curve
how the hydropower compared with that defined B. Typical Hydro Plant
reservoirs system could applying them to water
resources management and by (3). The effect of valve- Discharge Constraints
produce more power point effect loading may be
generation as a clean planning, After specifying the
considered by adding a release in time interval, the
energy. Therefore, Economic generation sinusoidal function [9] to
maximizing the total power scheduling of hydrothermal quantity of releases (Rt)
the quadratic cost function must be checked to be in a
generation throughout the systems involves the described above. Hence, the
horizontal time (2011-2017) optimization of a problem permissible limit.[5]
function described by (3) is
was taken as an objective with nonlinear objective revised as follows:
whenever different physical function subject to a
and operational limits are mixture of linear, non-linear
considered. Hence, the constraints. As the fuel cost (7)
objective function can be of hydroelectric plants is
affirmed as a nonlinear where, Qmin and Qmax
insignificant in comparison
optimization problem, are the minimum and
with that of thermal power (4)
which is accompany with maximum water discharge
plants, the objective is to
constrained [5]. Where fu (Psit) is the rate of the j-th reservoir
minimize the fuel cost of
fuel cost function of thermal respectively.
Potential Hydropower thermal power plants, while
making use of the units including the valve
Output is defined as the point loading effect and esi, C. Water Balance
difference between actual availability of hydro-
resources as much as fsi are fuel cost coefficients Equation
power output and of the i-th thermal
theoretical power output. possible. The objective After specifying release,
function and associated generating unit. storage at the beginning of
All hydropower plants are
under conditions such that constraints are described as The above objective the next time could be
they satisfy the required follows: function described by (4) is determined by using water
water demand and initial to be minimized subject to a balance equation
on optimization using MS
excel 2016 as shown in the
IV. RESUL T AND table I below.
Where, St is storage at time (11)
Larona River basin is TABLE I CALCULATION
t, St-1 is storage at time t-1, Where, P is probability located in Southeast DATA INFLOW OF LARONA
It is inflow at time t, Et is plotting (%), X is random Sulawesi at approximately RIVER
evaporation at time t, Rt is variable, x is probability 2° 40' latitude south and
release at time t, SPt is spill distribution associated with 121° 20' east.. The reservoir
at time t. the rank m. was built for the main
purpose of hydropower
D. Reservoir Storage m Ranking position, n
generation. The reservoir
Capacity number of years. The
has a storage capacity of
analysis procedure is as
The reservoir storage 2057,05 million m3 at a full
capacity or water available reservoir level of 319.6 m
in time interval must be 1. The frequency or and its capacity at minimum
located in permissible number of maximum to draw down level of 316.70
limits. minimum occurrence m m is 390,83 million m3.
in the n years of 365 There are 8 turbines with a
daily discharge data has maximum total power
been selected. The daily generation capacity of 380
(9) inflow, diversion, an MW with proportional
overflow data has been operation. Smelter consume
Where, Smin is selected as well up to 295 MW, Auxiliary From data calculation
reservoir storage at 50-60 MW and 3% losses for 32 year period found
minimum water level, and 2. The 80% of failure through transmission line. trend inflow with affecting
Smax is reservoir storage at probability of the data level of reservoir during a
maximum operating level. has been analyzing to Thirty-two years of year, defendable flow for
determine the minimum inflow into the reservoir is 20, 50 and 80 % probability
E. Hydro Power Plant discharge. The used in this study. Monthly there are shown in August
Constraints percentage of period is used and, hence, September and October the
probability of 50% can for the 32 years, the total target energy cannot be
The power generation in be considered as the number of periods is 365. respond of the power
time interval must be mean discharge. The evaporation loss is demand if smelter demand
located in acceptable limits calculated by multiplying set at 295MWH due to low
as: water spread area and rate water availability.
of evaporation. In a
The methodology of this monthly step, the average From data simulation
experiment as follow. storage ((beginning storage using Q50 inflow with
(10) + end storage)/2) is worked maintenance and production
and the corresponding planning shut down during
Where, Gmin: minimum a year, which is current
energy generation (KWh), water.
planning to shutdown 3
and Gmax: maximum generator Hydro larona for
power generation (KWh). 70 day starting on february,
The above-mentioned during shut down in
parameters are specified february-April as shown on
according to turbines the table II need to run
capacity. diesel power generation to
F. Hydrology Inflow supply energy 69,744
MWH, also on september
By using the Weibull and october water
formula, historical supply availability tend to low if
data of several years were the production still set at
analyzed independently. 295MWH The diesel
This formula enables to generator will run to supply
provide a reasonably Fig 7 The Hydropower energy 28,800 MWH to
accurate forecast based on Energy Management for compensate power demand.
small samples, as well as Nickel Smelter Fig 8 Correlation between
simple and useful plot. In Flow Vs Rainfall
the Weibull for the n value From data evaluation
(number of years) are assume raw of material Projection Water
distributed uniform between enough and actual data availability was calculated
0-100 percent probability, availability of the smelter from 32 years’ data using
so there must be n plus 1 90%, all data collected and Weibull as equation 11, and
interval, n – 1 between the calculated to find best result found data which reflecting
data point 1 and 2 at the of planning and managing condition in dry (less
end.[8] energy inflow), Normal and Wet
(more inflow) season based
TABLE II ENERGY DEMMAND Reservoir with no Efficiency Across Mineral inter-basin water transfer-
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