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Darij Grinberg

version 18 March 2011

In this note we will solve two interconnected problems from the MathLinks discus-

sion

http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?t=67939

We start with a theorem:

be an integer, and let x2 , x3 , ..., xk be k − 1 complex numbers. Then, the

chain of equations

1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xk (1)

x1 x2 xk−1

assertion, i. e. as the assertion which is always true) holds if and only if

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., k} satisfies the equation xm = . Here,

sin (mϕ)

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

in the case when sin (mϕ) = 0, the equation xm = is to be

sin (mϕ)

understood as follows:

sin ((m + 1) ϕ) sin ((m + 1) ψ)

number has to be understood as lim .

sin (mϕ) ψ→ϕ sin (mψ)

• If ϕ is not an integer multiple of π and we have sin (mϕ) = 0, then sin ((m + 1) ϕ) 6=

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

0, and the equation xm = is considered wrong.

sin (mϕ)

Proof of Theorem 1. In our following proof, we will only consider the case when ϕ

is not an integer multiple of π, because we will not need the case when ϕ is a multiple

of π in our later applications of Theorem 1. Besides, our following proof can be easily

modified to work for the case of ϕ being a multiple of π as well (this modification is

left to the reader).

We will establish Theorem 1 by induction over k:

For k = 1, we have to prove that the zero assertion holds if and only if x1 =

sin ((1 + 1) ϕ)

. Well, since the zero assertion always holds, we have to prove that the

sin (1ϕ)

sin ((1 + 1) ϕ)

equation x1 = always holds. This is rather easy:

sin (1ϕ)

x1 = 2 cos ϕ = = = .

sin ϕ sin ϕ sin (1ϕ)

1

Thus, Theorem 1 is proven for k = 1.

Now we come to the induction step. Let n ≥ 1 be an integer. Assume that Theorem

1 holds for k = n. This means that:

(*) If x2 , x3 , ..., xn are n − 1 complex numbers, then the chain of equations

1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn (2)

x1 x2 xn−1

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

holds if and only if every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} satisfies the equation xm = .

sin (mϕ)

We have to prove that Theorem 1 also holds for k = n + 1. This means that we

have to prove that:

(**) If x2 , x3 , ..., xn , xn+1 are n complex numbers, then the chain of equations

1 1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn = + xn+1 (3)

x1 x2 xn−1 xn

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

holds if and only if every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies the equation xm = .

sin (mϕ)

So let’s prove (**). This requires verifying two assertions:

Assertion 1: If (3) holds, then every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies the equation

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

xm = .

sin (mϕ)

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

Assertion 2: If every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies the equation xm = ,

sin (mϕ)

then (3) holds.

Before we step to the proofs of these assertions, we show that

sin (nϕ) sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

x1 = + . (4)

sin ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

This is because

sin (nϕ) sin ((n + 2) ϕ) sin (nϕ) + sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

+ =

sin ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

sin ((n + 1) ϕ − ϕ) + sin ((n + 1) ϕ + ϕ)

=

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

(sin ((n + 1) ϕ) cos ϕ − cos ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ϕ) + (sin ((n + 1) ϕ) cos ϕ + cos ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ϕ)

=

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

since sin ((n + 1) ϕ − ϕ) = sin ((n + 1) ϕ) cos ϕ − cos ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ϕ

and sin ((n + 1) ϕ + ϕ) = sin ((n + 1) ϕ) cos ϕ + cos ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ϕ

by the addition formulas

2 sin ((n + 1) ϕ) cos ϕ

= = 2 cos ϕ = x1 .

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

Now, let’s prove Assertion 1: We assume that (3) holds. We have to prove that

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies xm = . In fact, since (3) yields

sin (mϕ)

(2), we can conclude from (*) that every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} satisfies the equation xm =

2

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

. It remains to prove this equation for m = n + 1; in other words, it

sin (mϕ)

sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

remains to prove that xn+1 = . In order to prove this, we note that the

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

equation xm = , which holds for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} , particularly

sin (mϕ)

sin ((n + 1) ϕ) 1 sin (nϕ) 1

yields xn = . Hence, = . Now, (3) yields x1 = +

sin (nϕ) xn sin ((n + 1) ϕ) xn

sin (nϕ)

xn+1 , so that x1 = + xn+1 . Comparing this with (4), we obtain xn+1 =

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

, qed.. Thus, Assertion 1 is proven.

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

Now we will show Assertion 2. To this end, we assume that every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1}

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

satisfies the equation xm = , and we want to show that (3) holds.

sin (mϕ)

We have assumed that every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies the equation xm =

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

. Thus, in particular, every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} satisfies this equation.

sin (mϕ)

Hence, according to (*), the equation (2) must hold. Now, we are going to prove the

1

equation x1 = + xn+1 .

xn

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

Since xm = holds for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} , we have xn =

sin (mϕ)

sin ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

and xn+1 = . The former of these two equations yields

sin (nϕ) sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

1 sin (nϕ)

= . Thus, the equation (4) results in

xn sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

x1 = + = + xn+1 .

sin ((n + 1) ϕ) sin ((n + 1) ϕ) xn

| {z } | {z }

1 =xn+1

=

xn

1

Thus, the equation x1 = + xn+1 is proven. Combining this equation with (2), we

xn

get (3), and this completes the proof of Assertion 2.

As both Assertions 1 and 2 are now verified, the induction step is done, so that the

proof of Theorem 1 is complete.

The first consequence of Theorem 1 will be:

complex numbers such that

1 1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn = . (5)

x1 x2 xn−1 xn

jπ

Then, there exists some integer j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n + 1} such that x1 = 2 cos

n+2

3

jπ

sin (m + 1)

n+2

and xm = for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} .

jπ

sin m

n+2

Proof of Theorem 2. We need two auxiliary assertions:

Assertion 3: We have x1 6= 2.

Assertion 4: We have x1 6= −2.

Proof of Assertion 3. Assume the contrary. Then, x1 = 2. Now, we can prove

1

by induction over m that xm = 1 + for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} . (In fact: For

m

1

m = 1, we have to show that x1 = 1 + , what rewrites as x1 = 2 and this was our

1

1

assumption. Now, assume that xm = 1 + holds for some m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n − 1} . We

m

1

want to prove that xm+1 = 1 + holds as well. Well, the equation (5) yields

m+1

1 1 1

x1 = + xm+1 , so that xm+1 = x1 − . Since x1 = 2 and xm = 1 + , we thus have

xm xm m

1 m+2 1

xm+1 = 2 − = = 1+ . Hence, the induction proof is complete.)

1 m+1 m+1

1+

m

1

Now, since we have shown that xm = 1 + holds for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} , we have

m

1 1 1

xn = 1+ in particular. But (5) yields x1 = , so that 1 = x1 ·xn = 2· 1 + , what

n xn n

1

is obviously wrong since 2 · 1 + > 2 · 1 > 1. Hence, we obtain a contradiction, and

n

thus our assumption that Assertion 3 doesn’t hold was wrong. This proves Assertion

3.

The proof

of Assertion

4 is similar (this time we have to show that if x1 = −2, then

1

xm = − 1 + for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n}).

m

Now, since the function cos : C → C is surjective, there must exist a complex

x1 x1 x1

number ϕ such that = cos ϕ. Here, if is real and satisfies −1 ≤ ≤ 1,

2 2 2

then we take this ϕ such that ϕ is real and satisfies ϕ ∈ [0, π] (this is possible since

cos : [0, π] → [−1, 1] is surjective).

x1 x1

Assertions 3 and 4 state that x1 6= 2 and x1 6= −2. Hence, 6= 1 and 6= −1.

2 2

x1

Since = cos ϕ, this yields cos ϕ 6= 1 and cos ϕ 6= −1, and thus ϕ is not an integer

2

multiple of π.

Define another complex number xn+1 by xn+1 = 0. Then, (5) rewrites as

1 1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn = + xn+1 . (6)

x1 x2 xn−1 xn

x1

Since = cos ϕ, we have x1 = 2 cos ϕ, so that we can apply Theorem 1 to the n

2

complex numbers x2 , x3 , ..., xn+1 , and from the chain of equations (6) we conclude

sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

that every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n + 1} satisfies xm = .

sin (mϕ)

4

sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

Thus, in particular, xn+1 = . Since xn+1 = 0, we thus must have

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

sin ((n + 2) ϕ)

= 0. This yields sin ((n + 2) ϕ) = 0. Thus, (n + 2) ϕ is an integer

sin ((n + 1) ϕ)

jπ

multiple of π. Let j ∈ Z be such that (n + 2) ϕ = jπ. Then, ϕ = . Thus,

n+2

jπ sin ((m + 1) ϕ)

x1 = 2 cos ϕ becomes x1 = 2 cos , and xm = becomes xm =

n+2 sin (mϕ)

jπ

sin (m + 1)

n+2

. It remains to show that j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n + 1} .

jπ

sin m

n+2

x1 jπ x1

Now, = cos ϕ = cos must be real and satisfy −1 ≤ ≤ 1 (since cosines of

2 n+2 2

real angles are real and lie between −1 and 1). Therefore, according to the definition

of ϕ, we have ϕ ∈ [0, π] . Since ϕ is not a multiple of π, this becomes ϕ ∈ ]0, π[ .

jπ

Since ϕ = , this yields j ∈ ]0, n + 2[ . Since j is an integer, this results in j ∈

n+2

{1, 2, ..., n + 1} . Hence, Theorem 2 is proven.

The first problem from the MathLinks thread asks us to show:

real numbers such that

1 1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn = .

x1 x2 xn−1 xn

π

sin (m + 1)

π n+2

Then, x1 = 2 cos and xm = for every m ∈

n+2 π

sin m

n+2

{1, 2, ..., n} .

j ∈

jπ

sin (m + 1)

jπ n+2

{1, 2, ..., n + 1} such that x1 = 2 cos and xm = for every

n+2 jπ

sin m

n+2

m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} . For every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} , we thus have

m−1

jπ Q jπ

m−1

Y Y sin (s + 1) n + 2

m−1

s=1

sin (s + 1)

n+2

xs = = m−1

jπ Q jπ

s=1 s=1 sin s sin s

n+2 s=1 n+2

m

Q jπ jπ jπ

sin s sin m sin m

s=2 n+2 n+2 n+2

= m−1 = = .

jπ

jπ jπ

sin

Q

sin s sin 1

s=1 n+2 n+2 n+2

5

m−1

Q

Since the reals x1 , x2 , ..., xm−1 are all positive, their product xs is positive, and this

s=1

jπ jπ

sin m m−1

sin m

n+2 Q n+2

yields that is positive (since xs = ). But since j ∈

jπ s=1 jπ

sin sin

n+2 n+2

jπ jπ

{1, 2, ..., n + 1} , the number sin is positive (since 0 < < π), and thus it fol-

n+2 n+2

jπ

lows that sin m is positive. Since this holds for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} ,

n+2

jπ

this means that the numbers sin m are positive for all m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} .

n+2

1 jπ

Since j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n + 1} , this yields j = 1 . Hence, x1 = 2 cos becomes

n+2

jπ π

sin (m + 1) sin (m + 1)

π n+2 n+2

x1 = 2 cos , and xm = becomes xm = .

n+2 jπ π

sin m sin m

n+2 n+2

This proves Theorem 3.

A converse of Theorem 3 is:

π

sin (m + 1)

n+2

xm = for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} . Then, the reals x1 ,

π

sin m

n+2

π

x2 , ..., xn are positive. Besides, x1 = 2 cos , and the reals x1 , x2 , ...,

n+2

1

Proof. Assume the contrary - that is, assume that j ≥ 2.

jπ jπ jπ

Then, the smallest of the angles m for m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} is 1 = < π (since

n+2 n+2 n+2

j < n + 2), and the largest one is

jπ 2π

(n + 1) ≥ (n + 1) (since j ≥ 2)

n+2 n+2

2 (n + 1) n

= π=π+ π ≥ π.

n+2 n+2

jπ

Thus, some but not all of the numbers m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfy m ≥ π. Let µ be the

n+2

jπ jπ jπ

smallest m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfying m ≥ π. Then, µ ≥ π, but (µ − 1) < π.

n+2 n+2 n+2

Hence,

jπ jπ jπ (n + 2) π jπ

µ = + (µ − 1) < +π (since j < n + 2 and (µ − 1) < π)

n+2 n+2 n+2 n+2 n+2

= 2π,

jπ jπ jπ

what, together with µ ≥ π, yields π ≤ µ < 2π. Thus, sin µ ≤ 0. But this

n+2 n+2 n+2

jπ

contradicts to the fact that sin m is positive for all m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} . Hence, we get a

n+2

contradiction, so that our assumption that j ≥ 2 was wrong. Hence, j must be 1.

6

xn satisfy the equation (5).

Proof of Theorem 4. At first, it is clear that the reals x1 , x2 , ...,

xn are pos-

π

itive, because, for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} , we have sin (m + 1) > 0 and

n + 2

π π π

sin m > 0 (since 0 < (m + 1) < π and 0 < m < π) and thus

n+ 2 n+2 n+2

π

sin (m + 1)

n+2

xm = > 0.

π

sin m

n+2

π

The equation x1 = 2 cos is pretty obvious:

n+2

π π π π

sin (1 + 1) sin 2 2 sin cos

x1 =

n+2

=

n+2

= n+2 n + 2 = 2 cos π .

π

π π n+2

sin 1 sin sin

n+2 n + 2 n + 2

Remains to prove the equation (5). In order to do this, define a real xn+1 = 0.

Then,

π

sin (n + 2)

0 sin π n+2

xn+1 = 0 = = = .

π π π

sin (n + 1) sin (n + 1) sin (n + 1)

n+2 n+2 n+2

π

sin (m + 1)

n+2

Hence, the equation xm = holds not only for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} ,

π

sin m

n+2

but also for m = n + 1. Thus, altogether, it holds for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} .

So

we have proved that every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n, n + 1} satisfies the equation xm =

π

sin (m + 1)

n+2 π

. Consequently, according to Theorem 1 (for ϕ = and

π n+2

sin m

n+2

k = n + 1), we have

1 1 1 1

x1 = + x2 = + x3 = ... = + xn = + xn+1 .

x1 x2 xn−1 xn

Using xn+1 = 0, this simplifies to (5). Thus, Theorem 4 is proven.

Now we are ready to solve the second MathLinks problem:

Theorem 5. Let n ≥ 1 be an integer, and let y1 , y2 , ..., yn be n positive

reals. Then,

1 1 1 1 π

min y1 , + y2 , + y3 , ..., + yn , ≤ 2 cos . (7)

y1 y2 yn−1 yn n+2

7

Proof of Theorem 5. We will prove Theorem 5 by contradiction: Assume that (7)

is not valid. Then,

1 1 1 1 π

min y1 , + y2 , + y3 , ..., + yn , > 2 cos . (8)

y1 y2 yn−1 yn n+2

π

sin (m + 1)

n+2

Define n reals x1 , x2 , ..., xn by xm = for every m ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} .

π

sin m

n+2

Then, according to Theorem 4, the reals x1 , x2 , ..., xn are positive. Besides, x1 =

π

2 cos , and the reals x1 , x2 , ..., xn satisfy the equation (5).

n+2

Now we will prove that yj > xj for every j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} . This we will prove

by induction over j: For j = 1, we have to show that y1 > x1 . This, in view of

π π

x1 = 2 cos , becomes y1 > 2 cos , what follows from (8). Thus, yj > xj is

n+2 n+2

proven for j = 1.

Now, for the induction step, we assume that yj > xj is proven for some j ∈

{1, 2, ..., n − 1} . We want to show that we also have yj+1 > xj+1 .

1 π

In fact, according to (5), we have x1 = +xj+1 , what, because of x1 = 2 cos ,

xj n+2

π 1 1 1

comes down to 2 cos = + xj+1 . Since yj > xj , we have > , so this yields

n+2 xj xj yj

π 1 1 π

2 cos > + xj+1 . On the other hand, (8) yields + yj+1 > 2 cos . Thus,

n+2 yj yj n+2

1 1

+ yj+1 > + xj+1 , and thus yj+1 > xj+1 is proven. This completes the induction

yj yj

proof of yj > xj for every j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} .

1 1

This, in particular, yields yn > xn , so that > . On the other hand, after (8),

xn yn

1 π π 1

we have > 2 cos . But 2 cos = x1 , and (5) yields x1 = . Thus, we get

yn n+2 n+2 xn

the following chain of inequalities:

1 1 π 1

> > 2 cos = x1 = .

xn yn n+2 xn

This chain is impossible to hold. Therefore we get a contradiction, so that our assump-

tion was wrong, and Theorem 5 is proven.

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